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An oligopeptide just called peptide, consists of two to twenty amino acids and can include dipeptides, tripeptides and pentapeptides. Some of the major classes of occurring oligopeptides include aeruginosins, microcystins, microginins and cyclamides. Microcystins are best studied, because of their potential toxicity impact in drinking water. A review of some oligopeptides found that the largest class are the cyanopeptolins, followed by microcystins. Oligopeptide classes are produced by nonribosomal peptides synthases, except cyclamides and microviridins are synthesized through ribosomic pathways. Examples of oligopeptides include: Amanitins - Cyclic peptides taken from carpophores of several different mushroom species, they are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, the prevent the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanita phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.

Antipain - An oligopeptide produced by various bacteria which acts as a protease inhibitor. Ceruletide - A specific decapeptide found in the skin of Hyla caerulea, the Australian green tree frog. Ceruletide has much in common with regards to action and composition to cholecystokinin, it stimulates gastric and pancreatic secretion. It is used to induce pancreatitis in experimental animal models. Glutathione - A tripeptide with many roles in cells, it conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides. Leupeptins - A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors, they have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, kallikreins and the cathepsins. Netropsin - A basic oligopeptide isolated from Streptomyces netropsis, it is cytotoxic and its strong, specific binding to A-T areas of DNA is useful to genetics research. Pepstatins - N-acylated oligopeptides isolated from culture filtrates of Actinomycetes, which act to inhibit acid proteases such as pepsin and renin.

Peptide T - N- L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120, it may be useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor. Phalloidin - A toxic polypeptide isolated from Amanita phalloides or death cap. Teprotide - A man made nonapeptide, the same as the peptide from the venom of the snake, Bothrops jararaca, it has been proposed as an antihypertensive agent. Tuftsin - N--L-arginine. A tetrapeptide manufactured in the spleen by enzymatic cleavage of a leukophilic gamma-globulin, it stimulates the phagocytic activity of blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes and neutrophils in particular. The peptide is located in the Fd fragment of the gamma-globulin molecule. Micropeptide Oligoester Oligomer Oligopeptidase Peptide synthesis Protease Structural Biochemistry/Proteins/Amino Acids

Typhoon Elsie (1989)

Typhoon Elsie, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Tasing, was one of the most intense known tropical cyclones to make landfall in the Philippines. A powerful Category 5 super typhoon, Elsie formed out of a tropical disturbance on October 13, 1989, moved slowly in an area of weak steering currents. On October 15, the storm underwent a period of rapid intensification, attaining an intensity that corresponds to a Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. After taking a due west track towards the northern Philippines, the storm intensified further, becoming a Category 5 super typhoon hours before making landfall in Luzon. After moving inland, the typhoon weakened to a tropical storm. Once back over water in the South China Sea, wind shear prevented re-intensifcation. Elsie made landfall in Vietnam on October 22 and dissipated the following day over Laos. In the Philippines, Elsie worsened the situation left in the wakes of typhoons Angela and Dan. Although it was stronger than the previous two, Elsie caused far less damage due to the sparse population in the area of landfall.

During the storm's passage, 47 people were killed and another 363 were injured. Damages throughout the country amounted to $35.4 million and 332,000 people were left homeless. Super Typhoon Elsie, the third typhoon to impact the Philippines within a 12-day span during 1989, originated from a Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough over the western Pacific Ocean in mid-October. By October 13, a tropical disturbance developed out of the system 1,240 kilometres east-northeast of Manila, Philippines. At this time, the Japan Meteorological Agency began to monitor the system as a tropical depression. Located between two other TUTT cells, the disturbance's outflow was enhanced, allowing it to intensify; the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert late on October 13. Early the following day, the disturbance was designated as Tropical Depression 30W as it began to stall in an area of weak steering currents between two subtropical highs. Shortly after being declared a depression, the JTWC upgraded the system to a tropical storm, giving it the name Elsie.

At the same time, the JMA upgraded the depression to a tropical storm. By October 15, Elsie intensified; that day, a short-wave trough passed to the north of the storm, again enhancing its outflow. This led to a period of rapid intensification, during which Elsie intensified from a tropical storm to the equivalent of a high-end Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale in a 24-hour span; the JMA upgraded Elsie to a typhoon, though they reported a much more gradual rate of intensification. After strengthening further to Category 4 intensity, maximum winds leveled out for most of October 17. On October 18, another period of intensification took place as the storm neared the northern Philippines. Early in the day, Elsie was upgraded to a storm with winds of at least 240 km/h. Hours before making landfall in Luzon, the storm attained its peak intensity as a Category 5 super typhoon with winds of 260 km/h and a barometric pressure of 898 hPa; the peak intensity of Elsie was assessed by the JMA at the same time.

They reported that the typhoon attained a minimum pressure of 915 hPa. The center of Elsie crossed the Philippine coastline at around 0300 UTC on October 19. Rapid weakening took place as the storm moved over the mountainous terrain of northern Luzon. Nine hours after crossing the coastline, Elsie was downgraded to a tropical storm; the weakened storm continued its westward track as it entered the South China Sea along a monsoonal surge. This surge helped to keep Elsie as a tropical storm due to increased wind shear over the northern portion of the cyclone; the JMA, unlike the JTWC, did not downgrade Elsie to a tropical storm until October 21. Failing to re-intensify, Elsie made landfall in central Vietnam on October 22 and degenerated into a remnant-low pressure system early the following day; the remnants of Elsie were monitored by the JTWC on satellite imagery for a short time until the former typhoon dissipated over Laos. During the storm 50,500 people sought refuge in shelters set up across the country.

Throughout the Philippines, 47 people were killed by the typhoon from drowning. Sixteen of these fatalities occurred in Isabela Province. Heavy rains triggered several landslides across mountainous areas of the country. High winds created deadly air-borne debris, including roofing and tree limbs. Downed power lines across the northern provinces left most of Luzon without power. Officials stated that about 61,300 homes were either damaged or destroyed by Elsie in the Philippines. In the wake of the typhoon 332,000 people were left homeless. Damages sustained by agriculture amounted to 105 million PHP. In all, Typhoon Elsie killed 47 people and injured 363 others in the Philippines, left $35.4 million in damages. Although Elsie brushed Hainan Island in China and made landfall in northern Vietnam, little damage was reported in these regions. In addition to damages caused by Brian and Dan ¥1.9 billion was left in damages. Following the storm, the Red Cross and World Food Council set up shelters and began assisting residents in need of food and shelter.

Several thousand residents were provided food and shelter across the country in mass-feeding shelters. The UNDRO contributed $461,000 in funds to the Philippines. Another $46,000 was provided by the Government of Norway and the Cathol


Kinzau-Mvuete is a town in the Kongo Central province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, about 70 kilometres north of Matadi. It had an estimated population of 18,676 as of 2012; the city of Kinzau-Mvuete is in the Bundi sector of Seke-Banza Territory. It is at a crossroads, is a center of trade for the territory with large urban centers such as Muanda, Boma and Kinshasa. In June 2007 it was reported that the 22 kilometres road running north from Kinzao to Seke-Banza was in an advanced state of deterioration following torrential rains; the authorities were planning to raise money to fill the potholes through tolls. The area around the town has been illegally deforested, with the wood used to make charcoal or as lumber for construction. In 2009 it was reported that poaching was widespread in the nearby Mayumbe forest, with villagers killing any animal they could catch and smoking the meat for sale; some species such as wild boar and porcupine were at risk of being wiped out in the region.

The Higher Institute of Rural Development in Kinzau Mvuete was founded in 1993 and opened in February 1994. It provides training in practical agricultural techniques; as of February 2009 there were recurrent shortages of drinking water due to lack of supply pumps. Education on family planning is lacking, sexual violence is common. According to the health center, 75 adolescent girls aged 13 to 17 became pregnant in 2009

The Shah (book)

The Shah is a 2011 book by Abbas Milani, published by Macmillan. It is a biography of the final Shah of Iran. Susanne Pari of the San Francisco Chronicle stated that the biography was even-handed, lacking bias, that it was "a fair and insightful account of a psychologically complex man, ill-suited for a hard job, yet unable to give up or give in." Stanley Meisler, in a Los Angeles Times article stated that the book had a neutral tone though Pahlavi's government had persecuted Milani. Milani, a political scientist, is in charge of Stanford University's Iranian Studies program, he had immigrated to the United States but took a position in Iran as a teacher. He had been imprisoned by the Pahlavi government. Milani returned to Iran after the overthrow of the shah, but left again in 1986 when he had a conflict with the new rulers. Christian Caryl of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty stated that the persecution from both Pahlavi and Ayatollah forces influenced Milani's impartiality, he read diplomatic reports and other classified information from Iran, the United Kingdom, the United States as part of his research.

He conducted several interviews. Pari stated that Pahlavi appears "distrustful and paranoid", based on failed assassination attempts and other actions against him, that the author's research validates this portrait. Milani had described Pahlavi as "in the classical sense of the word, a tragic figure — a hare pretending to roar like a lion." The book uses lines from King Richard II at the start of each chapter. The final portion of the book chronicles the overthrow of Pahlavi. Joshua Muravchik, a research fellow of the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies stated in a Wall Street Journal article that the book was "even-handed and fair-minded" and that it is "a finely wrought, enlightening biography". David C. Acheson of the Washington Times stated that The Shah had "impressive" scholarship though the book may find an amount of detail that would be "formidably dense". Acheson concluded that the book will "likely to be the definitive biography of his subject, judging from the plethora of sources, notes and correspondence."Meisler stated that the book is "a thoughtful and colorful biography without rancor."

Meisler compared the overthrow of Pahlavi with the overthrow of former President of Egypt Hosni Mubarak, which occurred as part of the Arab Spring at the time of Meisler's review. Caryl stated that due to the high level of controversy and polarization surrounding the Shah in Iranian communities across the world, "Milani’s impartiality is vital". Publishers Weekly stated that the book is a "good source" about Pahlavi's life, but that it was "good enough to pique the reader's frustration that it isn't great." Publishers Weekly stated that some facts lacked context and therefore a reader would not know how to interpret them. Kirkus Reviews stated it was "an incisive portrait" of Pahlavi and "A stimulating biography and a thorough examination of the makeup of" Iran; the Shah - Macmillan Publishers

The Landing (album)

The Landing is the seventh full-length album by the German power metal band Iron Savior, released on 18 November 2011. It was recorded and mastered at Powerhouse Studio in Hamburg from June - September 2011 with the drums being recorded at Rekorder Studio in August 2011, it is the first album to feature returning bassist Jan-Sören Eckert since the 2002 album Condition Red. All music is composed by Piet Sielck. In an interview given by Sarkophag Rocks, Piet Sielck was asked why it took so long to release a follow-up to the previous album Megatropolis: "One reason is my former band, SAVAGE CIRCUS, which demanded a lot of my time. Once again, I had to write all of the songs and the whole production on my own, a hard job; the second reason is the downfall of Dockyard. After rather bad mismanagement, the company went bankrupt in 2009. Being left alone by my former partners, I faced this hell and cleaned up the mess they've left behind for two years. I lost a lot of money and for a certain time my belief in music.

I was able to sell the remains and pay off most of the debts. Anyhow, in late 2010, I saw some light at the end of the tunnel and my passion for music returned. So I started writing'The Landing'." Piet Sielck – Lead Vocals, Guitar Joachim Küstner – guitar, Backing Vocals Jan S. Eckert – Bass, Backing Vocals Thomas Nack – Drums and Miscellaneous Percussion

The Canongate

The Canongate is a street and associated district in central Edinburgh, the capital city of Scotland. The street forms the main eastern length of the Royal Mile while the district is the main eastern section of Edinburgh's Old Town, it began when David I of Scotland, by the Great Charter of Holyrood Abbey c.1143, authorised the Abbey to found a burgh separate from Edinburgh between the Abbey and Edinburgh. The burgh of Canongate that developed was controlled by the Abbey until the Scottish Reformation when it came under secular control. In 1636 the adjacent city of Edinburgh bought the feudal superiority of the Canongate but it remained a semi-autonomous burgh under its own administration of bailies chosen by Edinburgh magistrates, until its formal incorporation into the city in 1856; the burgh gained its name from the route that the canons of Holyrood Abbey took to Edinburgh - the canons' way or the canons' gait, from the Scots word gait meaning "way". In more modern times, the eastern end is sometimes referred to as part of the Holyrood area of the city.

The Canongate contains several historic buildings including Queensberry House, now incorporated in the Scottish Parliament Building complex, Huntly House, the Canongate Tolbooth and the Canongate Kirk, opened in 1691 replacing Holyrood Abbey as the parish church of the Canongate. The church is still used for Sunday services as well as weekday concerts; the Canongate owes its existence to the establishment of Holyrood Abbey in 1128. King David I, who established the Abbey, gave the surrounding area to the Augustinian canons resident at Edinburgh Castle in the form of a regality; the King gave leave to the canons to establish a burgh between the abbey and Edinburgh, as it was the only burgh within the regality it was given the status of burgh of regality of Canongate. The area controlled by the abbey included the lands of Broughton, areas around the Pleasance and North Leith, giving the canons access to a port. Holyrood Palace was developed from the 14th century onwards as successive monarchs made increasing use of the Abbey for political events such as parliaments and royal councils.

The word "Pallais" appears in a reference to the royal lodgings in the reign of James IV, but they were first converted to palace buildings by James V in 1525. The burgh of Canongate had a sometimes turbulent relationship with Edinburgh; the main reason for this was the continual battle over their exact boundaries up until their unification in 1856, an event which proved unpopular with the former's townsfolk. King James VI of Scotland's accession to the throne of England in 1603 began the long and slow decline of the Canongate; the loss of the royal court from the Holyrood Palace affected the wealth of the surrounding area. This was compounded by the union of the parliaments in 1707, as up until Edinburgh had been the location of the Parliament of Scotland with the Canongate providing a fashionable suburb for the dwellings of the political class; the North Bridge opened in 1772, provided a new and more convenient route from Edinburgh to the port of Leith bypassing the Canongate which had until been the main route from Edinburgh to Leith via Easter Road causing more neglect to the residential area, taken over by industrial premises including breweries and a large gasworks.

The Canongate was an important district during the Scottish Enlightenment because of the presence of the Canongate Theatre, of which one of the proprietors was Lord Monboddo. The philosopher David Hume performed in a play staged there. Writing in 1824, Robert Chambers said of the Canongate, "As the main avenue from the palace into the city, it has borne upon its pavements the burden of all, beautiful, all, gallant, all that has become interesting in Scotland for the last six or seven hundred years". Sir Walter Scott writing in 1827 stated; such is the ancient motto attached to the armorial bearings of the Canongate, and, inscribed, with greater or less propriety, upon all the public buildings, from the church to the pillory, in the ancient quarter of Edinburgh which bears, or rather once bore, the same relation to the Good Town that Westminster does to London". The area has seen various attempts at improvements and slum clearance, including various schemes by Ebenezer James MacRae in the 1930s and Sir Robert Hurd in the 1950s in traditional style replicating original facades.

Another scheme, completed in 1969, by the Basil Spence practice was in modern style but in proportion to surrounding buildings. Due to the redevelopments of the 1950s/60s the overcrowded and impoverished area suffered from serious depopulation. From the 1960s onwards the Canongate area became notably less industrial, with all of the breweries closing. Residential redevelopment began on former industrial sites in the 1990s and 2000s with flats and other commercial operations being built south of the main road, reversing the decline in population. Whilst much of this development has a modern appearance, some attempt has been made in terms of layout to retain the "fishbone" pattern characteristic of the Royal Mile; as of 2006, the redevelopment of former industrial land to the north of the Canongate, once occupied by Victorian gasworks and a bus garage, has proved controversial due to the original proposal, now abandoned, to demolish some of the replacement buildings from the 1930s. Above all, the construction of the new Scottish Parliament Building on the site of the old Younger's Abbey Brewery has led to a resurgence of the area's vitality with the Canongate becoming the centre of Scottish political life.

Although modern dev