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Oligosaccharide

An oligosaccharide is a saccharide polymer containing a small number of monosaccharides. Oligosaccharides can have many functions including cell binding. For example, glycolipids have an important role in the immune response, they are present as glycans: oligosaccharide chains linked to lipids or to compatible amino acid side chains in proteins, by N- or O-glygosidic bonds. N-Linked oligosaccharides are always pentasaccharides attached to asparagine via a beta linkage to the amine nitrogen of the side chain. Alternately, O-linked oligosaccharides are attached to threonine or serine on the alcohol group of the side chain. Not all natural oligosaccharides occur as components of glycolipids. Some, such as the raffinose series, occur as transport carbohydrates in plants. Others, such as maltodextrins or cellodextrins, result from the microbial breakdown of larger polysaccharides such as starch or cellulose. In biology, glycosylation is the process by which a carbohydrate is covalently attached to an organic molecule, creating structures such as glycoproteins and glycolipids.

N-Linked glycosylation involves oligosaccharide attachment to asparagine via a beta linkage to the amine nitrogen of the side chain. The process of N-linked glycosylation occurs cotranslationally, or concurrently while the proteins is being translated. Since it is added cotranslationally, it is believed that N-linked glycosylation helps determine the folding of polypeptides due to the hydrophilic nature of sugars. All N-linked oligosaccharides are pentasaccharides: five monosaccharides long. In N-glycosylation for eukaryotes, the oligosaccharide substrate is assembled right at the membrane of the endoplasmatic reticulum. For prokaryotes, this process occurs at the plasma membrane. In both cases, the acceptor substrate is an asparagine residue; the asparagine residue linked to an N-linked oligosaccharide occurs in the sequence Asn-X-Ser/Thr, where X can be any amino acid except for proline, although it is rare to see Asp, Leu, or Trp in this position. Oligosaccharides that participate in O-linked glycosylation are attached to threonine or serine on the hydroxyl group of the side chain.

O-linked glycosylation occurs in the Golgi apparatus, where monosaccharide units are added to a complete polypeptide chain. Cell surface proteins and extracellular proteins are O-glycosylated. Glycosylation sites in O-linked oligosaccharides are determined by the secondary and tertiary structures of the polypeptide, which dictate where glycosyltransferases will add sugars. Glycoproteins and glycolipids are by definition covalently bonded to carbohydrates, they are abundant on the surface of the cell, their interactions contribute to the overall stability of the cell. Glycoproteins have distinct Oligosaccharide structures which have significant effects on many of their properties, affecting critical functions such as antigenicity and resistance to proteases. Glycoproteins are relevant as cell-surface receptors, cell-adhesion molecules and tumor antigens. Glycolipids are important for cell recognition, are important for modulating the function of membrane proteins that act as receptors. Glycolipids are lipid molecules bound to oligosaccharides present in the lipid bilayer.

Additionally, they can serve as receptors for cellular cell signaling. The head of the oligosaccharide serves as a binding partner in receptor activity; the binding mechanisms of receptors to the oligosaccharides depends on the composition of the oligosaccharides that are exposed or presented above the surface of the membrane. There is great diversity in the binding mechanisms of glycolipids, what makes them such an important target for pathogens as a site for interaction and entrance. For example, the chaperone activity of glycolipids has been studied for its relevance to HIV infection. All cells are coated in either glycoproteins or glycolipids, both of which help determine cell types. Lectins, or proteins that bind carbohydrates, can recognize specific oligosaccharides and provide useful information for cell recognition based on oligosaccharide binding. An important example of oligosaccharide cell recognition is the role of glycolipids in determining blood types; the various blood types are distinguished by the glycan modification present on the surface of blood cells.

These can be visualized using mass spectrometry. The oligosaccharides found on the A, B, H antigen occur on the non-reducing ends of the oligosaccharide; the H antigen serves as a precursor for the B antigen. Therefore, a person with A blood type will have the A antigen and H antigen present on the glycolipids of the red blood cell plasma membrane. A person with B blood type will have the B and H antigen present. A person with AB blood type will have A, B, H antigens present, and a person with O blood type will only have the H antigen present. This means all blood types have the H antigen, which explains why the O blood type is known as the "universal donor". How do transport vesicles know the final destination of the protein that they are transporting? Vesicles are directed by many ways, but the two main ways are: 1- The sorting signals encoded in the amino acid sequence of the proteins. 2- The Oligosaccharide attached to the protein. The sorting signals are recognised by specific receptors that reside in the membranes or surface coasts of budding vesicles, ensuring that the protein is transported to the appropriate destination.

Many cells produce specific carbohydrate-binding proteins known as lectins, which mediate cell adhesion with oligosaccharides. Sel

Ella Rumpf

Ella Rumpf is a Swiss actress, best known for her role as Alexia in the 2016 horror drama film Raw, the film won 2016 Sutherland Award for most original and imaginative first feature at the London Film Festival. Her other notable roles include, critical acclaimed Tiger in Tiger Girl and Hanna in The Divine Order, the Swiss entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 90th Academy Awards. Ella Rumpf grew up in Zurich, Switzerland, her father is her mother a lecturer. Rumpf went to the Steiner school and had her first taste of acting by winning the lead role in Romeo and Juliet at 14, she appeared in her debut film at age 16 called Summer Outside in 2011 directed by Friederike Jehn. Rumpf won the role of Ali in the multi-award-winning feature film War, by Simon Jaquemet in 2014 and was nominated for Best Supporting Actress at the Swiss Film Awards, she shaved her head for the role. She attended the Giles Foreman Center for Acting in London from 2013–2015 after completing her studies at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences in 2013.

Ella Rumpf starred alongside Garance Marillier in Raw. In 2017, she played the lead role in a supporting role in The Divine Order. In 2020, Rumpf is set to appear in the HBO television series Tokyo Vice, to be directed by Michael Mann and written by JT Rogers. Ella Rumpf on IMDb

Role of The Doon School in Indian mountaineering

The role of The Doon School in Indian mountaineering describes the formative links between The Doon School, an all-boys boarding school in Dehradun and early post-Independence Indian mountaineering. From the 1940s onwards, Doon's masters and students like A. E. Foot, R. L. Holdsworth, J. A. K. Martyn, Gurdial Singh, Jack Gibson, Nandu Jayal, were among the first to go on major Himalayan expeditions in a newly-independent nation; these early expeditions contributed towards laying the foundation of mountaineering in an independent India. Doon's founding British headmaster A. E. Foot and masters J. A. K. Martyn, R. L. Holdsworth and Jack Gibson were all Alpinists and introduced regular mountaineering expeditions for the boys during the school year. Located in the Doon Valley, in the foothills of the Himalayas, the school proved to be an ideal starting point for treks to the mountains; the British masters were joined by Gurdial Singh who led the first Indian expedition to Trisul in 1951 and was a member of the first Indian expedition to Mount Everest in 1965.

Singh was accompanied by Narendra Dhar Jayal a student at Doon, who went on to pioneer mountaineering in India and became, at Jawaharlal Nehru's behest, the founder principal of the Himalayan Mountaineering Institute. In an interview to Indian Express, the Indian mountaineer and editor of Himalayan Journal, Harish Kapadia stated, "There were few Indians in the club initially. In 1947, when the British left, people thought that mountaineering and the club will not hold up in India. In 1951, a Doon School teacher, Gurdial Singh, few others went on a trek to the Trisul peak in the Kumaon region. That’s how Indian mountaineering took off." Kapadia describes in his book, Across Peaks & Passes in Garhwal Himalaya, how Doon's masters and pupils first explored the Western Garhwal region, which comprises peaks like Bandarpunch and Kalanag. In Tourism in Garhwal Himalaya, mountaineer Harshwanti Bisht further discusses the school's early expeditions to Badrinath and Hanuman Tibba. Doon's students and faculty continue the mountaineering tradition in the form of'midterms', established by the British masters.

Midway through each term, students go on treks in the Himalayas or abroad. Recent expeditions have been to Stok Kangri, Mont Blanc, Island Peak, Mount Everest base camp, Mount Kilimanjaro. 1946, 1950 – Bandarpunch. 1952 – Kamet 1953, 1955 – Abi Gamin 1955 - Kalanag or'Black Peak'. First ascent by Gibson and Doon's pupils. 1961 – Nanda Devi. Members included Hari Dang and former pupil Suman Dubey 1965 -- Kalanag. Norgay, Man of Everest – The Autobiography of Tenzing, Harrap UK, ISBN 9781447400288 Bisht, Tourism in Garhwal Himalaya: With Special Reference to Mountaineering and Trekking in Uttarkashi and Chamoli Districts, Indus, ISBN 9788173870064 Kapadia, Across Peaks & Passes in Garhwal Himalaya, Indus, ISBN 9788173870972 Anderson, Climbing with the Doon School, Alpine Journal Kohli, M. S. Mountains of India: Tourism and Pilgrimage, Indus, ISBN 9788173871351 Futehally, The Last Englishman: The Life and Times of Jack Gibson, Hachette UK, ISBN 9789350099698 Himalayan Mountaineering Institute The Doon School Adventure Club

Cheri Maracle

Cheri Maracle is an Aboriginal Canadian actress and musician of Mohawk-Irish descent. Maracle graduated in 1989 from Prince Rupert Secondary School. At seventeen, she moved to Vancouver to study theatre at Capilano University and the Spirit Song Native Indian Theatre School, she is a member of the Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation. Maracle is best known for her roles in the television series Blackfly and Moccasin Flats, the 2007 film Tkaronto and stage productions of Tomson Highway's Ernestine Shuswap Gets Her Trout, she has a recurring role on Degrassi: Next Class as the mother of Grace Cardinal. She appeared in Marie Clements' 2017 musical documentary on The Road Forward, she has been nominated twice for the K. M. Hunter Theatre award for her theatrical work, she was nominated for the Canadian Screen Awards in 2014 for her performance as Sarah Bull on the TV series Blackstone. From 2006 to 2008 she was an artistic associate of the Dora Mavor Moore Award-winning Aboriginal women's theatre company, Turtle Gals.

As a musician, she has performed as a backing vocalist for Jerry Alfred and the Medicine Beat, Tamara Podemski and Sandy Scofield, as both a lead and supporting vocalist for Tiyoweh and The Showbiz Indians. She performs with her quartet at various blues festivals across Canada, she frequently performs original compositions and contemporary and classic jazz standards with her piano partner, Brendan Peltier. She has performed in an one-woman musical, Paddle Song, about the life of Mohawk poet Pauline Johnson

St. Paul's Church, Hadsten

St. Paul's Church known as Hadsten Church, is a Danish church located in Hadsten, Denmark. In 1913, Hadsten Stationsby had grown to a population of 1350. A large group of citizens were convinced; until the city was served by two small churches, both located a few kilometres from the city. From 1900, the churches was supplemented by an Inner Mission community; the famous Hadsten-doctor, F. B. Larsen, bought in 1898 a farm in the small village Vinterslev. From the farm, he donated a piece of land for the church near the station; the citizens had in 1912 collected 15.000 kr. In the municipality, the city council sent an application to the Minister of Church in 1914 to fund the building; the Ministry rejected the city council that same year, with the reason, that they didn't see the possibility of providing financial support in near future. The city council did not give up; the same year they received permission for church services in new built Christian Center. 22 July 1916, the city council sent the second application to the Minister of Church.

This time, it was approved. The well known architect, Hack Kampmann, presented a proposal in old architectural style; the proposal was thwarted by the rising cost of materials, because of World War I. At the same time Kampmann's son, Hans Jørgen Kampmann, had an exhibition at Charlottenborg in Copenhagen, where a neoclassism-style church was exhibited; the church was completed on 23 November 1919. The church is dedicated to St. Paul

2015 NBA draft

The 2015 NBA draft was held on June 25, 2015, at Barclays Center in Brooklyn. It was televised nationally in the U. S. by ESPN. National Basketball Association teams took turns selecting amateur U. S. college basketball players and other eligible players, including international players. The draft lottery took place on May 19, 2015; the Minnesota Timberwolves won the draft lottery to earn the first overall pick in the draft. It marked the first time in Timberwolves history that they would receive the first overall pick through the lottery; the player selected would be the third consecutive number one pick on the Timberwolves roster, joining Andrew Wiggins and Anthony Bennett - who were traded to Minnesota for forward Kevin Love. This draft gave the Los Angeles Lakers the second overall pick after jumping over the Philadelphia 76ers and the New York Knicks within the draft lottery. Highlights from the draft include the first Dominican to be the first overall pick, the highest number of Kentucky Wildcats selected in the draft lottery, which tied the North Carolina Tar Heels in 2005 for most players selected in the lottery by one school.

Other noteworthy announcements that came out of the draft included the official announcement of the passing of the last pioneer of the original NBA, Harvey Pollack, around the third pick and the resignation of the league's president of basketball operations Rod Thorn that became official in August after the end of the first round. These players were not selected in the 2015 NBA draft, but have appeared in at least one regular-season or playoff game in the NBA; the draft was conducted under the eligibility rules established in the league's new 2011 collective bargaining agreement with its players union. The CBA that ended the 2011 lockout instituted no immediate changes to the draft, but called for a committee of owners and players to discuss future changes. Since the 2011 CBA, the basic eligibility rules have been: All drafted players must be at least 19 years old during the calendar year of the draft. In terms of dates, players eligible for the 2015 draft must be born on or before December 31, 1996.

Any player, not an "international player", as defined in the CBA, must be at least one year removed from the graduation of his high school class. The CBA defines "international players" as players who permanently resided outside the United States for three years prior to the draft, did not complete high school in the U. S. and have never enrolled at a U. S. college or university. Player who are not automatically eligible must declare their eligibility for the draft by notifying the NBA offices in writing no than 60 days before the draft. For the 2015 draft, this date fell on April 26. After this date, "early entry" players may attend NBA pre-draft camps and individual team workouts to show off their skills and obtain feedback regarding their draft positions. Under the CBA, a player may withdraw his name from consideration from the draft at any time before the final declaration date, 10 days before the draft. Under NCAA rules at that time, players only had until April 16 to withdraw from the draft and maintain their college eligibility.

In January 2016, the NCAA changed its draft withdrawal date to 10 days after the end of the annual NBA Draft Combine in May, with the 2016 draft the first to be held under the new rule. A player who has hired an agent will forfeit his remaining college eligibility, regardless of whether he is drafted. While the CBA allows a player to withdraw from the draft twice, the NCAA mandated that a player who declared twice lost his college eligibility; the aforementioned 2016 NCAA rule change allowed players to declare for more than one draft without losing college eligibility. This year, a total of 48 collegiate players and 43 international players declared as early entry candidates before the April 26 deadline. On June 15, the withdrawal deadline, 34 early entry candidates withdrew from the draft and one early entry candidate is added, leaving 47 collegiate players and 11 international players as the early entry candidates for the draft. Players who do not meet the criteria for "international" players are automatically eligible if they meet any of the following criteria: They have completed 4 years of their college eligibility.

If they graduated from high school in the U. S. but did not enroll in a U. S. college or university, four years have passed. They have signed a contract with a professional basketball team outside of the NBA, anywhere in the world, have played under that contract. Players who meet the criteria for "international" players are automatically eligible if they meet any of the following criteria: They are least 22 years old during the calendar year of the draft. In terms of dates, players born on or before December 31, 1993, are automatically eligible for the 2015 draft, they have signed a contract with a professional basketball team outside of the NBA within the United States, have played under that contract. Based on the eligibility rules, every college seniors who have completed their college eligibility and every "international" players who were born on or before