Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, they emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism is popularly considered to have begun in Germany in 1517 when Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers.
However, the term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider and modern movement. In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, Latvia and Iceland. Reformed denominations spread in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, John Knox; the political separation of the Church of England from the pope under King Henry VIII began Anglicanism, bringing England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement. Protestants have developed their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, many other fields. Protestantism is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or Oriental Orthodoxy.
Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants developed the concept of an invisible church, in contrast to the Roman Catholic view of the Catholic Church as the visible one true Church founded by Jesus Christ. Some denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of Protestant denominational families: Adventists, Anglicans, Reformed, Lutherans and Pentecostals. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Proponents of the branch theory consider Protestantism one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodoxy. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest against the edict of the Diet of Speyer, were the first individuals to be called Protestants; the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.
The term protestant, though purely political in nature acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. However, it is misused to mean any church outside the Roman and Eastern Orthodox communions. Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. During the Reformation, the term protestant was hardly used outside of German politics. People who were involved in the religious movement used the word evangelical. For further details, see the section below. Protestant became a general term, meaning any adherent of the Reformation in the German-speaking area, it was somewhat taken up by Lutherans though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists.
The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was used for those involved in the religious movement in the German-speaking area beginning in 1517. Nowadays, evangelical is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and United Protestant traditions in Europe, those with strong ties to them. Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany. In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Calvinist, or a United Protestant; the German word evangelisch means Protestant, is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical refers to evangelical Protestant churches, therefore to a certain part of Protestantism rather than to Protestantism as a whole; the English word traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, was brought to the United States. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term evangelical, derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "gospel".
The followers of
A novel is a long work of narrative fiction written in prose form, and, published as a book. The entire genre has been seen as having "a continuous and comprehensive history of about two thousand years", with its origins in classical Greece and Rome, in medieval and early modern romance, in the tradition of the Italian renaissance novella. Murasaki Shikibu's Tale of Genji has been described as the world's first novel. Spread of printed books in China led to the appearance of classical Chinese novels by the Ming dynasty. Parallel European developments occurred after the invention of the printing press. Miguel de Cervantes, author of Don Quixote, is cited as the first significant European novelist of the modern era. Ian Watt, in The Rise of the Novel, suggested that the modern novel was born in the early 18th century. Walter Scott made a distinction between the novel, in which "events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern state of society" and the romance, which he defined as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse.
However, many such romances, including the historical romances of Scott, Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights and Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, are frequently called novels, Scott describes romance as a "kindred term". This sort of romance is in turn different from the genre fiction love romance novel. Other European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel: "a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo, en roman." A novel is a fictional narrative which describes intimate human experiences. The novel in the modern era makes use of a literary prose style; the development of the prose novel at this time was encouraged by innovations in printing, the introduction of cheap paper in the 15th century. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the Italian novella for "new", "news", or "short story of something new", itself from the Latin novella, a singular noun use of the neuter plural of novellus, diminutive of novus, meaning "new". Most European languages use the word "romance" for extended narratives.
A fictional narrativeFictionality is most cited as distinguishing novels from historiography. However this can be a problematic criterion. Throughout the early modern period authors of historical narratives would include inventions rooted in traditional beliefs in order to embellish a passage of text or add credibility to an opinion. Historians would invent and compose speeches for didactic purposes. Novels can, on the other hand, depict the social and personal realities of a place and period with clarity and detail not found in works of history. Literary proseWhile prose rather than verse became the standard of the modern novel, the ancestors of the modern European novel include verse epics in the Romance language of southern France those by Chrétien de Troyes, in Middle English. In the 19th century, fictional narratives in verse, such as Lord Byron's Don Juan, Alexander Pushkin's Yevgeniy Onegin, Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Aurora Leigh, competed with prose novels. Vikram Seth's The Golden Gate, composed of 590 Onegin stanzas, is a more recent example of the verse novel.
Content: intimate experienceBoth in 12th-century Japan and 15th-century Europe, prose fiction created intimate reading situations. On the other hand, verse epics, including the Odyssey and Aeneid, had been recited to a select audiences, though this was a more intimate experience than the performance of plays in theaters. A new world of individualistic fashion, personal views, intimate feelings, secret anxieties, "conduct", "gallantry" spread with novels and the associated prose-romance. LengthThe novel is today the longest genre of narrative prose fiction, followed by the novella. However, in the 17th century, critics saw the romance as of epic length and the novel as its short rival. A precise definition of the differences in length between these types of fiction, is, not possible; the requirement of length has been traditionally connected with the notion that a novel should encompass the "totality of life." Although early forms of the novel are to be found in a number of places, including classical Rome, 10th– and 11th-century Japan, Elizabethan England, the European novel is said to have begun with Don Quixote in 1605.
Early works of extended fictional prose, or novels, include works in Latin like the Satyricon by Petronius, The Golden Ass by Apuleius, works in Ancient Greek such as Daphnis and Chloe by Longus, works in Sanskrit such as the 4th or 5th century Vasavadatta by Subandhu, 6th– or 7th-century Daśakumāracarita and Avantisundarīkathā by Daṇḍin, in the 7th-century Kadambari by Banabhatta, Murasaki Shikibu's 11th-century Japanese work The Tale of Genji, the 12th-century Hayy ibn Yaqdhan by Ibn Tufail, who wrote in Arabic, the 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus by Ibn al-Nafis, another Arabic novelist, Blanquerna, written in Catalan by Ramon Llull, the 14th-century Chinese Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Gua
Shillington is a borough in Berks County, United States with a population of 5,273 at the 2010 census nestled amongst other suburbs outside Reading. It is best known for being the location of the Homestead to Pennsylvania's First Governor, Thomas Mifflin and as the childhood home of American author John Updike. Many of Updike's stories take place in its environs. Shillington began in 1860 as part of Cumru Township, when local landowner and borough namesake Samuel Shilling sold some of his lots for residences; the area had an inn built in 1762, called the Three Mile House because it was 3 miles from Reading on the Lancaster Pike. The inn was a popular stop for farmers going to the city's markets, it sat near a horse racing track built by Aaron Einstein in 1868. A post office opened in Shillington in 1884. On August 18, 1908, the Quarter Session Court incorporated the borough of Shillington as a separate municipality from Cumru Township with a population of 450; that year Shillington elected its first official, Adam Rollman, as chief burgess.
Borough council meetings were held in various locations over the years until the present town hall was completed in 1932. Much of the borough's present land was occupied by Angelica Farm which would be established as an almshouse, or poorhouse, in 1824; the alms house was replaced by Bern Township's Berks Heim in 1952. The buildings of the Governor Mifflin School District now occupy most of land, once part of the almshouse. Today, the most notable visible remnant of the poorhouse is a stone wall, within short walking distance down the road from John Updike's old home. Updike's first novel, The Poorhouse Fair, is set in a fictional building based on Shillington's poorhouse. Angelica Farm was the historical home of Thomas Mifflin, the first governor of Pennsylvania and 11th President of the Continental Congress. Shillington borough is home to Governor Mifflin School District. Within the Shillington borough there are 5 schools: Governor Mifflin Senior High School, Governor Mifflin Middle School, Governor Mifflin Intermediate School, Cumru Elementary School, Mifflin Park Elementary.
GMSD has another elementary school in Brecknock Township called Brecknock Elementary School. Kenny Brightbill, Race Car Driver, Nicknamed the "Shillington Slingshot" Thomas Mifflin, First Governor of Pennsylvania John Updike, Famous Author Alexander “birthday boy” Ermold, Birthdayburg U Track & Field Shillington is located at 40°18′16″N 75°58′1″W, it is situated in southeastern Pennsylvania, adjacent to Reading, the county seat, about 60 miles northwest of Philadelphia. Wyomissing Creek, a tributary of the Schuylkill River, runs along the western border of Shillington. Cumru Township surrounds Shillington, except for the border with Wyomissing in the northwest. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.97 square miles, of which 0.004 square miles, or 0.57%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,059 people, 2,238 households, 1,405 families residing in the borough; the population density was 4,964.4 people per square mile. There were 2,321 housing units at an average density of 2,277.6 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the borough was 97.11% White, 0.49% African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.53% Asian, 0.75% from other races, 1.01% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.10% of the population. There were 2,238 households, out of which 26.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.2% were non-families. 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.84. In the borough the population was spread out, with 21.5% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, 21.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 89.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.4 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $43,833, the median income for a family was $52,500.
Males had a median income of $35,318 versus $27,179 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $22,322. About 2.2% of families and 3.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.4% of those under age 18 and 5.3% of those age 65 or over. Shillington Borough. Published by the Reading Eagle on August 5, 2002. Borough of Shillington official website WEEU Community Salutes: Shillington, includes pictures AllRefer Gazetteer: Shillington
Hosiery referred to as legwear, describes garments worn directly on the feet and legs. The term originated as the collective term for products of which a maker or seller is termed a hosier; the term is used for all types of knitted fabric, its thickness and weight is defined by denier or opacity. Lower denier measurements of 5 to 15 describe a hose which may be sheer in appearance, whereas styles of 40 and above are dense, with little to no light able to come through on 100 denier items; the first references to hosiery can be found in works of Hesiod, where Romans are said to have used leather or cloth in forms of strips to cover their lower body parts. The Egyptians are speculated to have used hosiery as socks have been found in certain tombs. Most hosiery garments are made by knitting methods. Modern hosiery is tight-fitting by virtue of stretchy fabrics and meshes. Older forms include binding to achieve a tight fit. Due to its close fit, most hosiery can be worn as an undergarment, but it is more worn as a combined under/outer garment.
Hosiery garments are the product of hosiery fabric produced from hosiery yarn. Like the yarn used for making woven fabric, hosiery yarn comes from a separate spinning process, is used with circular knitting machines to form fabric. One or more hosiery yarn is used to make knitted or hosiery fabric, garments produced out of this are referred to as hosiery garments. Bodystockings Compression stockings, a.k.a. support stockings Hold-ups, stay-ups or thigh-high stockings Hosen Knee highs Leggings Socks, tube socks, knee-highs and over-the-knees Stockings, held by a suspender belt Tights or pantyhose Toe socks Legwarmers Hosiery portal Pantyhose for men Undergarment Media related to Hosiery at Wikimedia Commons
Fictional locations are places that exist only in fiction and not in reality, such as the Negaverse or Planet X. Writers may describe such places to serve as backdrop for their fictional works. Fictional locations are created for use as settings in role-playing games such as Dungeons and Dragons, they may be used for technical reasons in actual reality for use in the development of specifications, such as the fictional country of Bookland, used to allow EAN "country" codes 978 and 979 to be used for ISBN numbers assigned to books, code 977 to be assigned for use for ISSN numbers on magazines and other periodicals. Fictional locations vary in their size. Small places like a single room are kept out of the umbrella of fictional locations by convention, as are most single buildings. A fictional location can be the size of a university, a town, a county, a state, a large section of continent, a whole planet, a whole galaxy a multiverse. In a larger scale the term alternate reality is used, but only if it is considered a variant of Earth rather than an original world.
Austin Tappan Wright's Islandia has Karain, on our world. However in fanfiction, along with pastiche and/or parody, it is not considered canon unless they get authorized. Within narrative prose, providing a believable location can be enhanced by the provision of maps and other illustrations; this is considered true for fantasy novels and historical novels which make great use of the map, but applies to science fiction and mysteries: earlier, in mainstream novels by Anthony Trollope, William Faulkner, etc. Fantasy and science fiction novels also provide sections which provide documentation of various aspects of the environment of the fiction, including languages, character lists, cultures and, of course, locations. In an online article on writing Dawn Arkin writes about the importance of location to the author's art: Setting has become a important part of most novels. Creating a fictional location has many advantages for the writer. You get to name the town, businesses, etc. Everything inside your town is under your control.
Maps are an immediate necessity for some works. Writers need working maps to keep straight at a glance whether the castle is north or south of the river, how long it takes to get between valleys; this can be helpful in preventing snags when dealing directly with fictional geography. Authors are as forgetful and absent-minded as the lesser breeds of humankind, a simple precaution like taking a moment to sketch out a map helps prevent such errors and inconsistencies. Sometimes an actual geographic corner is used as a model for "getting it right", identifying these can become a game for readers. Authors may turn an island into a continent or vice versa, rotate orientation, or combine two similar locales to get the best of both. Area code 555 Fictional universe List of fictional locations List of mythological places Category:Fictional locations
In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area, located outside towns and cities. The Health Resources and Services Administration of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services defines the word rural as encompassing "...all population and territory not included within an urban area. Whatever is not urban is considered rural."Typical rural areas have a low population density and small settlements. Agricultural areas are rural, as are other types of areas such as forest. Different countries have varying definitions of rural for administrative purposes. In Canada, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development defines a "predominantly rural region" as having more than 50% of the population living in rural communities where a "rural community" has a population density less than 150 people per square kilometre. In Canada, the census division has been used to represent "regions" and census consolidated sub-divisions have been used to represent "communities". Intermediate regions have 15 to 49 percent of their population living in a rural community.
Predominantly urban regions have less than 15 percent of their population living in a rural community. Predominantly rural regions are classified as rural metro-adjacent, rural non-metro-adjacent and rural northern, following Ehrensaft and Beeman. Rural metro-adjacent regions are predominantly rural census divisions which are adjacent to metropolitan centres while rural non-metro-adjacent regions are those predominantly rural census divisions which are not adjacent to metropolitan centres. Rural northern regions are predominantly rural census divisions that are found either or above the following lines of parallel in each province: Newfoundland and Labrador, 50th; as well, rural northern regions encompass all of Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Statistics Canada defines rural for their population counts; this definition has changed over time. It has referred to the population living outside settlements of 1,000 or fewer inhabitants; the current definition states that census rural is the population outside settlements with fewer than 1,000 inhabitants and a population density below 400 people per square kilometre.
84% of the United States' inhabitants live in suburban and urban areas, but cities occupy only 10 percent of the country. Rural areas occupy the remaining 90 percent; the U. S. Census Bureau, the USDA's Economic Research Service, the Office of Management and Budget have come together to help define rural areas. United States Census Bureau: The Census Bureau definitions, which are based on population density, defines rural areas as all territory outside Census Bureau-defined urbanized areas and urban clusters. An urbanized area consists of a central surrounding areas whose population is greater than 50,000, they may not contain individual cities with 50,000 or more. Thus, rural areas comprise open country and settlements with fewer than 2,500 residents. USDA The USDA's Office of Rural Development may define rural by various population thresholds; the 2002 farm bill defined rural and rural area as any area other than a city or town that has a population of greater than 50,000 inhabitants, the urbanized areas contiguous and adjacent to such a city or town.
The rural-urban continuum codes, urban influence code, rural county typology codes developed by USDA’s Economic Research Service allow researchers to break out the standard metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas into smaller residential groups. For example, a metropolitan county is one that contains an urbanized area, or one that has a twenty-five percent commuter rate to an urbanized area regardless of population. OMB: Under the Core Based Statistical Areas used by the OMB, a metropolitan county, or Metropolitan Statistical Area, consists of central counties with one or more urbanized areas and outlying counties that are economically tied to the core counties as measured by worker commuting data. Non-metro counties are outside the boundaries of metro areas and are further subdivided into Micropolitan Statistical Areas centered on urban clusters of 10,000–50,000 residents, all remaining non-core counties. In 2014, the USDA updated their rural / non-rural area definitions based on the 2010 Census counts.
National Center for Education Statistics revised its definition of rural schools in 2006 after working with the Census Bureau to create a new locale classification system to capitalize on improved geocoding technology. Rural health definitions can be different for establishing under-served areas or health care accessibility in rural areas of the United States. According to the handbook, Definitions of Rural: A Handbook for Health Policy Makers and Researchers, "Residents of metropolitan counties are thought to have easy access to the concentrated health services of the county's central areas. However, some metropolitan counties are so large that t
The Centaur is a novel by John Updike, published by Alfred A. Knopf in 1963, it won the U. S. National Book Award for Fiction. Portions of the novel first appeared in The New Yorker; the French translation of the novel won the Prix du Meilleur Livre Étranger. The story concerns George Caldwell, a school teacher, his son Peter, outside of Alton, Pennsylvania; the novel explores the relationship between his anxious son. George has given up on life, he feels put upon by the school's principal, he views his students as hapless and uninterested in anything he has to teach them. Peter, meanwhile, is a budding aesthete who idolizes Vermeer and dreams of becoming a painter in a big city, like New York, he has no friends his age, worries that his peers might detect his psoriasis, which stains his skin and flecks his clothes every season but summer. One thing George and Peter share is the desire to get out; this masculine desire for escape appears in Updike's famed "Rabbit" novels. The novel's image of Peter's mother alone on an untended farm is one we see in Updike's 1965 novel Of the Farm.
Like James Joyce in Ulysses, Updike drew on the myths of antiquity in an attempt to turn a modern and common scene into something more profound, a meditation on life and man's relationship to nature and eternity. George is both the Centaur Chiron and Prometheus, Mr. Hummel, the automobile mechanic, is Hephaestus; the novel's structure is unusual. It is punctuated with a feverish dream scene and George's obituary. Near the end of the novel, Updike includes two untranslated Greek sentences, their translation is as follows: This quote is from Bibliotheca 2.5.4, describes the death of Chiron