Willem de Kooning
Willem de Kooning was a Dutch American abstract expressionist artist. He was born in Rotterdam and moved to the United States in 1926, becoming an American citizen in 1962. In 1943, he married painter Elaine Fried. In the years after World War II, de Kooning painted in a style that came to be referred to as abstract expressionism or "action painting", was part of a group of artists that came to be known as the New York School. Other painters in this group included Jackson Pollock, Elaine de Kooning, Lee Krasner, Franz Kline, Arshile Gorky, Mark Rothko, Hans Hofmann, Nell Blaine, Adolph Gottlieb, Anne Ryan, Robert Motherwell, Philip Guston, Clyfford Still, Richard Pousette-Dart. Willem de Kooning was born in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, on April 24, 1904, his parents, Leendert de Kooning and Cornelia Nobel, were divorced in 1907, de Kooning lived first with his father and with his mother. He became an apprentice in a firm of commercial artists; until 1924 he attended evening classes at the Academie van Beeldende Kunsten en Technische Wetenschappen, now the Willem de Kooning Academie.
In 1926 de Kooning travelled to the United States as a stowaway on the Shelley, a British freighter bound for Argentina, on August 15 landed at Newport News, Virginia. He stayed at the Dutch Seamen's Home in Hoboken, New Jersey, found work as a house-painter. In 1927 he moved to Manhattan, he supported himself with jobs in house-painting and commercial art. De Kooning began painting in his free time and in 1928 he joined the art colony at Woodstock, New York, he began to meet some of the modernist artists active in Manhattan. Among them were the American Stuart Davis, the Armenian Arshile Gorky and the Russian John Graham, whom de Kooning collectively called the "Three Musketeers".:98 Gorky, whom de Kooning first met at the home of Misha Reznikoff, became a close friend and, for at least ten years, an important influence.:100 Balcomb Greene said that "de Kooning worshipped Gorky". None of them were executed, but a sketch for one was included in New Horizons in American Art at the Museum of Modern Art, his first group show.
Starting in 1937, when De Kooning had to leave the Federal Art Project because he did not have American citizenship, he began to work full-time as an artist, earning income from commissions and by giving lessons. That year de Kooning was assigned to a portion of the mural Medicine for the Hall of Pharmacy at the 1939 World's Fair in New York, which drew the attention of critics, the images themselves so new and distinct from the era of American realism. De Kooning met Elaine Fried, at the American Artists School in New York, she was 14 years his junior. Thus was to begin a lifelong partnership affected by alcoholism, lack of money, love affairs and separations, they were married on December 9, 1943. De Kooning worked on his first series of portrait paintings: standing or sedentary men like Two Men Standing and Seated Figure combining with self-portraits as with Portrait with Imaginary Brother. At this time, de Kooning's work borrowed from Gorky's surrealist imagery and was influenced by Picasso.
This changed only when de Kooning met the younger painter Franz Kline, working with the figurative style of American realism and had been drawn to monochrome. Kline, who died young, was one of de Kooning's closest artist friends. Kline's influence is evident in de Kooning's calligraphic black images of this period. In the late 1950s, de Kooning's work shifted away from the figurative work of the women and began to display an interest in more abstract, less representational imagery, he became a US citizen on 13 March 1962, in the following year moved from Broadway to a small house in East Hampton, a house which Elaine's brother Peter Fried had sold to him two years before. He built a studio near by, lived in the house to the end of his life, it was revealed that, toward the end of his life, de Kooning had begun to lose his memory in the late 1980s and had been suffering from Alzheimer's disease for some time. This revelation has initiated considerable debate among scholars and critics about how responsible de Kooning was for the creation of his late work.
Succumbing to the progression of his disease, de Kooning painted his final works in 1991. He was cremated. Elaine had admired Willem's artwork before meeting him. After meeting, he began to instruct her in painting, they painted in Willem's loft at 143 West 21st Street, he was known for his harsh criticism of her work, "sternly requiring that she draw and redraw a figure or still life and insisting on fine, clear linear definition supported by modulated shading." He destroyed many of her drawings, but this "impelled Elaine to strive for both precision and grace in her work". When they married in 1943, she moved into his loft and they continued sharing studio spaces. Elai
Woman III is a painting by abstract expressionist painter Willem de Kooning. Woman III is one of a series of six paintings by de Kooning done between 1951 and 1953 in which the central theme was a woman, it measures 68 by 48 1⁄2 inches and was completed in 1953. From late 1970s to 1994 this painting was part of Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art collection, but after the revolution in 1979, this painting could not be shown because of strict rules set by the government about the visual arts and what they depict. In 1994 it was traded by Thomas Ammann Fine Art to David Geffen for the remainder of the 16th century Persian manuscript, the Tahmasbi Shahnameh. In November 2006, the painting was sold by Geffen to billionaire Steven A. Cohen for $137.5 million, making it the fourth most expensive painting sold. List of most expensive paintings Thomas Ammann New York Times article Artnet image page
Eton College is an English 13–18 independent boarding school and sixth form for boys in the parish of Eton, near Windsor in Berkshire. It was founded in 1440 by King Henry VI as The King's College of Our Lady of Eton besides Wyndsor, as a sister institution to King's College, making it the 18th-oldest Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference school. Eton is one of the original nine public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868; the others are Harrow, Rugby, Westminster, Merchant Taylors' and St Paul's. Following the public school tradition, Eton is a full boarding school, which means pupils live at the school seven days a week, it is one of only five such remaining single-sex boys' public schools in the United Kingdom; the remainder have since become co-educational: Rugby, Charterhouse and Shrewsbury and Merchant Taylors', now a day school. Eton has educated 19 British prime ministers and generations of the aristocracy and has been referred to as "the chief nurse of England's statesmen".
Eton charges up to £12,910 per term, with three terms per academic year, in 2017/18. Eton was noted as being the sixth most expensive HMC boarding school in the UK in 2013/14, however the school admits some boys with modest parental income: in 2011 it was reported that around 250 boys received "significant" financial help from the school, with the figure rising to 263 pupils in 2014, receiving the equivalent of around 60% of school fee assistance, whilst a further 63 received their education free of charge. Eton has announced plans to increase the figure to around 320 pupils, with 70 educated free of charge, with the intention that the number of pupils receiving financial assistance from the school continues to increase. Eton College was founded by King Henry VI as a charity school to provide free education to 70 poor boys who would go on to King's College, founded by the same King in 1441. Henry took Winchester College as his model, visiting on many occasions, borrowing its statutes and removing its headmaster and some of the scholars to start his new school.
When Henry VI founded the school, he granted it a large number of endowments, including much valuable land. The group of feoffees appointed by the king to receive forfeited lands of the Alien Priories for the endowment of Eton were as follows: Archbishop Chichele Bishop Stafford Bishop Lowe Bishop Ayscough William de la Pole, 1st Marquess of Suffolk John Somerset, Chancellor of the Exchequer and the king's doctor Thomas Beckington, Archdeacon of Buckingham, the king's secretary and Keeper of the Privy Seal Richard Andrew, first Warden of All Souls College, Oxford the king's secretary Adam Moleyns, Clerk of the Council John Hampton of Kniver, Staffordshire, an Esquire of the Body James Fiennes, another member of the Royal Household William Tresham, another member of the Royal HouseholdIt was intended to have formidable buildings and several religious relics including a part of the True Cross and the Crown of Thorns, he persuaded the Pope, Eugene IV, to grant him a privilege unparalleled anywhere in England: the right to grant indulgences to penitents on the Feast of the Assumption.
The college came into possession of one of England's Apocalypse manuscripts. However, when Henry was deposed by King Edward IV in 1461, the new King annulled all grants to the school and removed most of its assets and treasures to St George's Chapel, Windsor, on the other side of the River Thames. Legend has it that Jane Shore, intervened on the school's behalf, she was able to save a good part of the school, although the royal bequest and the number of staff were much reduced. Construction of the chapel intended to be over twice as long, with 18, or 17, bays was stopped when Henry VI was deposed. Only the Quire of the intended building was completed. Eton's first Headmaster, William Waynflete, founder of Magdalen College and Head Master of Winchester College, built the ante-chapel that completed the chapel; the important wall paintings in the chapel and the brick north range of the present School Yard date from the 1480s. As the school suffered reduced income while still under construction, the completion and further development of the school has since depended to some extent on wealthy benefactors.
Building resumed when Roger Lupton was Provost, around 1517. His name is borne by the big gatehouse in the west range of the cloisters, fronting School Yard the most famous image of the school; this range includes the important interiors of the Parlour, Election Hall, Election Chamber, where most of the 18th century "leaving portraits" are kept. "After Lupton's time nothing important was built until about 1670, when Provost Allestree gave a range to close the west side of School Yard between Lower School and Chapel". This was remodelled and completed in 1694 by Matthew Bankes, Master Carpenter of the Royal Works; the last important addition to the central college buildings was the College Library, in the south range of the cloister, 1725–29, by Thomas Rowland. It has a important collection of books and manuscripts. In the 19th century, the architect John Shaw Jr became surveyor to Eton, he designed New Buildings, Provost Francis Hodgson's addition to provide better accommodation for collegers, who until had lived in Long Chamber, a long f
Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales, was a member of the British royal family. She was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, the mother of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex. Diana was born into the Spencer family, a family of British nobility, she was the youngest daughter of Viscount and Viscountess Althorp, she grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate, was educated in England and Switzerland. In 1975, after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer, she became known as Lady Diana Spencer. Diana came to prominence in February 1981 upon engagement to Prince Charles, the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II, their wedding took place at St Paul's Cathedral on 29 July 1981 and made her Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, Countess of Chester. The marriage produced two sons, the princes William and Harry, who were respectively second and third in the line of succession to the British throne; as Princess of Wales, Diana undertook royal duties on behalf of the Queen and represented her at functions overseas.
She was celebrated for her charity work and for her support of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. Diana was involved with dozens of charities including London's Great Ormond Street Hospital for children, of which she was president from 1989, she raised awareness and advocated ways to help people affected with HIV/AIDS, mental illness. Diana remained the object of worldwide media scrutiny during and after her marriage, which ended in divorce on 28 August 1996 following well-publicised extramarital affairs by both parties. Media attention and public mourning were extensive after her death in a car crash in a Paris tunnel on 31 August 1997 and subsequent televised funeral. Diana Frances Spencer was born on 1 July 1961, in Park House, Norfolk, she was the fourth of five children of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp, his first wife, Frances. The Spencer family has been allied with the British royal family for several generations; the Spencers were hoping for a boy to carry on the family line, no name was chosen for a week, until they settled on Diana Frances, after her mother and after Lady Diana Spencer, a many-times-great-aunt, a prospective Princess of Wales.
On 30 August 1961, Diana was baptised at Sandringham. She grew up with three siblings: Sarah and Charles, her infant brother, died shortly after his birth one year before Diana was born. The desire for an heir added strain to the Spencers' marriage, Lady Althorp was sent to Harley Street clinics in London to determine the cause of the "problem"; the experience was described as "humiliating" by Diana's younger brother, Charles: "It was a dreadful time for my parents and the root of their divorce because I don't think they got over it." Diana grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate. The Spencers leased the house from its owner, Queen Elizabeth II; the royal family holidayed at the neighbouring Sandringham House, Diana played with the Queen's sons Prince Andrew and Prince Edward. Diana was seven years old, her mother began a relationship with Peter Shand Kydd and married him in 1969. Diana lived with her mother in London during her parents' separation in 1967, but during that year's Christmas holidays, Lord Althorp refused to let Diana return to London with Lady Althorp.
Shortly afterwards he won custody of Diana with support from his former mother-in-law, Ruth Roche, Baroness Fermoy. In 1976, Lord Althorp married Countess of Dartmouth. Diana's relationship with her stepmother was bad, she resented Raine, whom she called a "bully", on one occasion Diana "pushed her down the stairs". She described her childhood as "very unhappy" and "very unstable, the whole thing". Diana became known as Lady Diana after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer in 1975, at which point her father moved the entire family from Park House to Althorp, the Spencer seat in Northamptonshire. Diana was home-schooled under the supervision of her governess, Gertrude Allen, she began her formal education at Silfield Private School in Gayton and moved to Riddlesworth Hall School, an all-girls boarding school near Thetford, when she was nine. She joined her sisters at West Heath Girls' School in Sevenoaks, Kent, in 1973, she did not shine academically. Her outstanding community spirit was recognised with an award from West Heath.
She left West Heath. Her brother Charles recalls her as being quite shy up until that time, she showed a talent for music as an accomplished pianist. Diana excelled in swimming and diving, studied ballet and tap dance. After attending Institut Alpin Videmanette for one term in 1978, Diana returned to London, where she shared her mother's flat with two school friends. In London, she took an advanced cooking course, but cooked for her roommates, she took a series of low-paying jobs. She found employment as a playgroup pre-school assistant, did some cleaning work for her sister Sarah and several of her friends, acted as a hostess at parties. Diana spent time working as a nanny for the Robertsons, an American family living in London, worked as a nursery teacher's assistant at the Young England School in Pimlico. In July 1979, her mother bought her a flat at Coleherne Court in Earl's Court as an 18
College of Sorbonne
The College of Sorbonne was a theological college of the University of Paris, founded in 1253 by Robert de Sorbon, after whom it was named. With the rest of the Paris colleges, it was suppressed during the French Revolution, it was restored in 1808 but closed in 1882. In recent times it came to refer to the group of academic faculties of the University of Paris, as opposed to the professional faculties of law and medicine, it is used to refer to the main building of the University of Paris in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, which houses several faculties created when the University was divided up into thirteen autonomous universities in 1970. Robert de Sorbon was the son of peasants from the village of Sorbon in the Ardennes, who had become a master of theology, a chanoine of the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris, the confessor and chaplain of King Louis IX. At the time that he founded his college, the University of Paris had been in existence for half a century, had thousands of students. Obtaining a higher degree in theology could take as long as twenty years, therefore required considerable financial support.
Students who belonged to the religious orders of the Franciscans and Dominicans, or from the large monasteries of Cluny or Citeaux, received housing and board from their religious orders, but independent students did not. Sorbon founded his college to provide housing and board for poorer students of theology who did not have such support. Sorbon made them into lodging for students; the college opened in 1257 with called socii. As the college grew, Sorbon provided a library containing over a thousand volumes by 1292, the largest in the university, a chapel; the Sorbonne became the most distinguished theological institution in France, its doctors were called upon to render opinions on important ecclesiastical and theological issues. In 1470, the Sorbonne had one of the first printing presses in France, it was active in the effort to suppress heresy and the spread of Protestant doctrines. Its students included Cardinal Richelieu, who studied there from 1606 to 1607. Richelieu became Proviseur, or administrator of the college on 29 August 1622.
Between 1635 and 1642, Richelieu renovated the Sorbonne. Richelieu left a large part of his fortune and his library to the Sorbonne, he was buried in the chapel. Only the chapel remains of the Richelieu era buildings; the Sorbonne was closed to students in 1791 during the French Revolution. For a brief time, under Robespierre, the chapel became a Temple of Reason. Napoleon turned the college buildings into studios for artists. In 1822, it became the home of the faculties of letters and theology of the University of Paris. In 1885, as part of the Third Republic policy of separation of church and state, the theology faculty was closed; the old buildings of the Sorbonne, with the exception of the chapel, were demolished and the new Sorbonne building, designed by Henri Paul Nénot, opened in 1889, the centenary of the French Revolution. It contained a large amphitheater, reception halls and meeting rooms, the offices of the rector of the University of Paris, the faculties of arts and sciences; the chapel was no longer used for religious services, but only for official ceremonies and exhibitions.
In 1971, as a result of the riots of demonstrations of May 1968, the University of Paris was broken up into thirteen independent faculties. The New Sorbonne building became the home of the Universities of Paris I, II, III, IV, V, the École Nationale des Chartes, the École pratique des hautes études. Robert de Sorbon was a native of Le Réthelois, a distinguished professor and famous preacher who lived from 1201 till 1274. Sorbon found; the two principal mendicant orders—the Dominicans and the Franciscans—each had colleges at Paris where they delivered lectures which extern students could attend without fee. Robert de Sorbon decided that the university should provide free instruction, so that it could compete with the religious orders. Further, he believed the society of professors should follow the practices of the cenobitic life, except in vows, his important work was made possible by the high esteem in which de Sorbon was held at Paris, together with his intellectual brilliance, great generosity, the assistance of his friends.
The foundation dates from 1257 or the beginning of 1258. Guillaume de Saint-Amour, Gérard d'Abbeville, Henry of Ghent, Guillaume des Grez, Odo or Eudes of Douai, Chrétien de Beauvais, Gérard de Reims, Nicolas de Bar were among the most illustrious scholars connected either with the first chairs in the Sorbonne, or with the first association that constituted it; these savants were attached to the university staff. The constitution of the society as conceived by De Sorbon was simple: an administrator and guests; the provisor was the head. The associates formed the body of the society. To be admitted to it, the candidate was required to have taught a course of philosophy. There were two kinds of the bursaires and the pensionnaires; the latter paid forty pounds a year. The burse could be granted only to persons not having an income of forty (Pa