St. Louis County, Missouri
St. Louis County is located in the far eastern portion of the U. S. state of Missouri. It is bounded by the city of St. Louis and the Mississippi River to the east, the Missouri River to the north, the Meramec River to the south; as of the 2016 Census Bureau population estimate, the population was 998,581, making it the most populous county in Missouri. Its county seat is Clayton. Saint Louis County was settled by French colonists in the late 1700s, before switching to U. S. rule following the Louisiana Purchase. Saint Louis County split from St. Louis City in 1877. In the 1960s, with the growing suburbanization in Greater St. Louis, the County's population overtook the City's population for the first time. St. Louis County borders, but does not include, the city of St. Louis, an independent city; the county is included in MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 2019 there was a proposal to merge the county after a Saturday-wide vote. During the 18th century, several European colonial settlements were established in the area that would become St. Louis County.
French colonists moved from east of the Mississippi River after France ceded those territories to Spain after losing the Seven Years' War. The earliest of these, Saint Louis, was founded by Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau on February 14, 1764, who became major fur traders in the city. Founded in about 1767 was Carondelet, at the southern end of what is now the city of St. Louis. Florissant known as St. Ferdinand, was established in 1785 about twelve miles northwest of St. Louis on a tributary of the Missouri River. During the 1790s small settlements known as Creve Coeur and Point Labadie were built north and west of St. Louis. Upon the sale and transfer of French Louisiana to the United States on October 1, 1804, President Thomas Jefferson suggested that the territory retain the districts drawn by Spanish officials during their decades-long rule of the territory after an arrangement with the French. During this time, the first governing body of St. Louis County was established; this government, called the Court of Quarter Sessions, was composed of Charles Gratiot, Auguste Chouteau, Jacques Clamorgan, David DeLaunay, all ethnic French or French Canadians.
On October 1, 1812, the District of St. Louis was renamed St. Louis County during a federal reorganization of the Louisiana Territory's status. After the transfer of Louisiana to the United States, the authority to grant incorporation to municipalities was delegated to the Territory and was a state power; the first to gain municipal status in St. Louis County was St. Louis, which incorporated on November 9, 1809, under the territorial legislature, gained city status on December 9, 1822. Only a handful of other municipal incorporations took place prior to the separation of the county and city: St. Ferdinand was granted incorporation in 1829, while Bridgeton, a settlement along the Missouri River near Florissant, gained incorporation in 1843. Two towns grew and incorporated in the 1850s, with their growth stimulated by the construction of the Pacific Railroad: Pacific and Kirkwood. Pacific, a community along the Meramec River, known before the railroad line connection as Franklin, straddles St. Louis and Franklin counties.
Kirkwood was settled in 1853 after Hiram Leffingwell and Richard Elliott platted and auctioned land along the railroad line. Leffingwell organized the town as a planned suburb, Kirkwood was granted incorporation by the state in 1865. Other areas of the county did not incorporate as towns. Among these were Chesterfield, Gumbo, both settled in the 1820s in west St. Louis County, Gravois and Affton, which were settled in south St. Louis County in the 1850s and 1860s; the first St. Louis Public Schools were established in the major city in the 1830s, it was a decade and more before some of the settlements of St. Louis County began providing public education. In 1854, the School District of Maplewood was established, it included all of today's Maplewood district, part of what became Webster Groves, along the south and southwest, a large part of St. Louis in the east, to the north up to Clayton Road; the first school called the Washington Institute and renamed as Maplewood High School, opened as a one-room stone building at the crossing of Manchester Road over the Missouri Pacific Railroad tracks.
Another antebellum school district was Rock Hill, which provided a one-room school across from the Rock Hill Presbyterian Church until about 1870. The first school in Florissant opened in 1819 under the direction of the Religious of the Sacred Heart, a Roman Catholic religious congregation; the instructor, Rose Philippine Duchesne, was a French immigrant, described as "one of the foremost educators in the state of Missouri." A second school an Indian school known as the St. Regis Academy, was operated for young boys from 1823 to 1829; the complex included a Jesuit seminary known as St. Stanislaus Seminary, which continued to operate until 1971; the earliest public school in Florissant was the St. Ferdinand School, authorized by the General Assembly in 1845 and operated until 1871, when the Florissant School District was formed. From 1813 to 1830, the county initiated several c
Epstein Hebrew Academy
H. F. Epstein Hebrew Academy is a Jewish day school in Missouri, it was the first Jewish day school in St. Louis; the school is named for the first chief rabbi of the Orthodox Jewish community of St. Louis, Rabbi Hayim Fischel Epstein, it has been given the nickname an abbreviation of its full name. The school is housed on the six-acre Israel and Yetra Goldberg Educational Campus and includes classrooms, two playgrounds, a gymnasium, cafeteria and Beit Midrash; the school building houses Yeshivat Kadimah High School. The H. F. Epstein Hebrew Academy, established in 1943, was the first Jewish day school in St. Louis; the school is named for the first chief rabbi of the Orthodox Jewish community of St. Louis, Rabbi Hayim Fischel Epstein; until the establishment of the school, Jewish education in St. Louis had been provided by a system of Talmudei Torah; these schools were administered by the "United Hebrew Schools" organization reorganized as the "Associated Hebrew Schools of St. Louis", under the leadership of Harry Yawitz.
In 1922, there were four Orthodox Talmudei Torah in St. Louis providing for the Jewish educational needs of the community. By 1939, there were fourteen of these schools, located on the premises of various synagogues. In 1943, Yawitz was one of the founders and supporters of the H. F. Epstein Hebrew Academy, which consolidated the Talmudei Torah into the first Orthodox Jewish day school in St. Louis. At first, the school did not have a dedicated school building. Classes were held in various locations including homes, synagogue classrooms and other school buildings. In 1960, the construction of the building in Olivette was completed and became the permanent location of the EHA; the school defines itself as a child-centered Orthodox Jewish day school, dedicated to educating Jewish children in Torah and general studies, developing love for Israel and the Jewish people, teaching critical thinking and reasoning, excelling in all the academic disciplines and instilling good character and values of caring for others.
The school is accredited by the Independent Schools Association of the Central States and is associated with the Torah U’Mesorah network of schools and Yeshiva University’s Institute for University School Partnership. The school is overseen by an elected Board of Directors; the parent organization, Friends of the Hebrew Academy raises funds and holds educational and other events for the school. The school follows a dual curriculum of Judaic studies, including Hebrew language, general studies; the general studies curriculum complies with the requirements of the Missouri Department of Education. After-school activities that are offered include art and drama. Rabbi Yaakov Green is the current head of the school, he has held this position since August 2014. Former heads of school include: Rabbi Avi Greene, Ed. D Rabbi Shmuel Kay Rabbi Joshua Einzig Rabbi David Leibtag Rabbi Dr. Joseph Rischall Rabbi Donald Patchen Rabbi Chaim Tzvi Hollander Rabbi Abraham Kellner Epstein Hebrew Academy, St. Louis
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Ladue is an inner-ring suburb of St. Louis, located in central St. Louis County, United States; as of the 2013 census, the city had a population of 8,560. Ladue has the highest median household income of any city in Missouri with a population over 1,000. Ladue is located at 38°38′13″N 90°22′54″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.55 square miles, all land. The homeownership rate is 91.6%. As of the census of 2010, there were 8,521 people, 3,169 households, 2,538 families residing in the city; the population density was 996.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,377 housing units at an average density of 395.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.1% White, 1.0% African American, 0.1% Native American, 3.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.4% of the population. There were 3,169 households of which 36.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 72.6% were married couples living together, 5.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 1.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 19.9% were non-families.
18.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.06. The median age in the city was 46.4 years. 27.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.5% male and 51.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,645 people, 3,414 households, 2,598 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,006.2 people per square mile. There were 3,557 housing units at an average density of 414.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.83% White, 0.88% African American, 0.10% Native American, 1.49% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 0.13% from other races, 0.45% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.78% of the population. Ladue is Missouri's best-educated city, with 74.5% of adult residents holding an associate degree or higher, 71.8% of adults possessing a Bachelor degree or higher. There were 3,414 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.6% were married couples living together, 4.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.9% were non-families.
22.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.94. In the city the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 3.5% from 18 to 24, 16.9% from 25 to 44, 32.2% from 45 to 64, 22.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $141,720, the median income for a family was $179,328. Males had a median income of $100,000 versus $51,678 for females; the per capita income for the city was $89,623. About 1.4% of families and 2.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.0% of those under age 18 and 2.4% of those age 65 or over. The Ladue School District serves all of Ladue and part of Frontenac and Creve Coeur; the Ladue School District is home to the elementary schools Conway, Old Bonhomme and Spoede.
Ladue Horton Watkins High School is located in Ladue. As of the 2015-2016 academic year, Ladue High School had an enrollment of 1,301 students. Ladue is home to two of St. Louis' private high schools, the John Burroughs School and Mary Institute and St. Louis Country Day School The Headquarters Branch of the St. Louis County Library is located in Ladue on Lindbergh Boulevard; the historical anecdotes contained in this section were derived from the 2011 book "Ladue Found", written by Charlene Bry, former editor and owner of "The Ladue News."Ladue began as a farming community St. Louis County suburb. After St. Louis City ejected St. Louis County in 1876, Ladue was known as ranges 4 and 5 of "Township 45," with Clayton being the political hub. Original Township 45 farming families included the Dennys, Conways, McCutcheons, McKnights, Schraders, Luedloffs, Seigers Per 1868 Pitzman map of St. Louis</ref>, as well as 1878 and 1909 maps of St. Louis County </ref>, LaDues, Lays, Barnes and Watsons.
Once automobiles replaced horse and wagon as the primary mode of transportation, farmers in the area began selling portions of their land to city workers who wished to live outside of the urban setting. Three small villages merged in 1936 to become. Ladue was named from Ladue Road, the main thoroughfare in the area that led from St. Louis City to wealthy entrepreneur Peter Albert LaDue's large property at the current intersection of Warson Rd. and Ladue Rd.. Peter Albert LaDue was born in Kinderhook, New York in 1821, a descendant of Pierre LaDoux who arrived from France in the 1600s, he arrived in Saint Louis about 1848 and became a prominent attorney and banker and land speculator. In the early 1990s, the city tried to force a woman to take down a yard sign stating "Say No to the War in the Persian Gulf, Call Congress Now" a
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
Overland is a city in St. Louis County, United States; the population was 16,062 at the 2010 census. Overland is located at 38°41′57″N 90°22′4″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.38 square miles, of which 4.36 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 16,062 people, 6,717 households, 4,136 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,683.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,356 housing units at an average density of 1,687.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 73.3% White, 16.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 3.2% Asian, 3.9% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.4% of the population. There were 6,717 households of which 30.2% had children under the age of eighteen living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 17.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.4% were non-families.
30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age in the city was 37.9 years. 22.4% of residents were under the age of eighteen. The gender makeup of the city was 49.0% male and 51.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 16,838 people, 7,012 households, 4,494 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,842.8 people per square mile. There were 7,446 housing units at an average density of 1,699.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 83.56% White, 11.19% African American, 0.32% Native American, 2.01% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.83% from other races, 2.05% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.19% of the population. There were 7,012 households out of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.8% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.9% were non-families.
29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.96. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,437, the median income for a family was $43,655. Males had a median income of $31,168 versus $25,352 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,266. About 6.6% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.8% of those under age 18 and 3.6% of those age 65 or over. The area south of the King's Road to Saint Charles was first settled in the early 1820s, when travelers westward from St. Louis would stop overnight at what became known as "The Overland Park".
Daniel Boone, noted frontiersman, constructed a single room cabin here, near the current location of Lake Sherwood and Wyland Elementary School. A historic marker on Wabaday Avenue shows the exact spot. In time, businesses were established and a one-room subscription school, the Buck School, was built in 1846. In 1867, the Ritenour School District was organized. In 1919, the town's name was shortened to "Overland", to avoid postal confusion with the city of Overland Park, Kansas; the town was incorporated as a fourth class city in 1939 with a mayoral-city council government. In the 1990s, the city voters approved a change to a third class city. In 2007, the city voted to move to a mayor-council-administrator form of government. Under this structure, the mayor serves as the chief elected official; the city council serves as the legislative body, is empowered to pass ordinances and resolutions it deems necessary to the operation of the city. The city administrator is a full-time employee of the city, executes the day-to-day tasks of operations.
The historic "Overland Park" wagon train stop is located near the intersection of Midland Boulevard and Lackland Road. A monument marks this site. An early Overland settler and prominent St. Louis businessman, Dennis Lackland, built the Lackland House in 1844 on the road named for him; the nearby McElhinney Log House, built in the 1850s, is maintained by the Overland Historical Society. The Ritenour School, built in 1867 on Woodson Road, was remodeled and expanded over the years and is the Ritenour School District's administration building. Lake Sherwood, near the original Overland Park, was developed as a private residence in 1877 and is now a gated community; the lake is spring-fed, the dam spills into headwaters for the River des Peres. Construction of the earthen dam was completed in 1894, its height is 21 feet, capacity is 135 acre feet, normal storage is 80 acre feet. It drains an area of 121 square miles. At normal levels, the lake has a surface area of 12 acres; the lake is owned by the Lake Sherwood homeowners' association and is used for recreational purposes.
The Gocke-Vance House, on Poe Avenue, was built in 1910 by Edward Gocke. This fireproof house was built from plans drawn by Frank Lloyd Wright. Overland has several large parks; the Garnett Estate, built in 1907 on Ashby Road, is n
St. Louis is an independent city and major inland port in the U. S. state of Missouri. It is situated along the western bank of the Mississippi River, which marks Missouri's border with Illinois; the Missouri River merges with the Mississippi River just north of the city. These two rivers combined form the fourth longest river system in the world; the city had an estimated 2017 population of 308,626 and is the cultural and economic center of the St. Louis metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, the second-largest in Illinois, the 22nd-largest in the United States. Before European settlement, the area was a regional center of Native American Mississippian culture; the city of St. Louis was founded in 1764 by French fur traders Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, named after Louis IX of France. In 1764, following France's defeat in the Seven Years' War, the area was ceded to Spain and retroceded back to France in 1800. In 1803, the United States acquired the territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase.
During the 19th century, St. Louis became a major port on the Mississippi River, it separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. In 1904, it hosted the Summer Olympics; the economy of metropolitan St. Louis relies on service, trade, transportation of goods, tourism, its metro area is home to major corporations, including Anheuser-Busch, Express Scripts, Boeing Defense, Energizer, Enterprise, Peabody Energy, Post Holdings, Edward Jones, Go Jet and Sigma-Aldrich. Nine of the ten Fortune 500 companies based in Missouri are located within the St. Louis metropolitan area; this city has become known for its growing medical and research presence due to institutions such as Washington University in St. Louis and Barnes-Jewish Hospital. St. Louis has two professional sports teams: the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball and the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League. One of the city's iconic sights is the 630-foot tall Gateway Arch in the downtown area.
The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native American Mississippian culture, which built numerous temple and residential earthwork mounds on both sides of the Mississippi River, their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 to 1500. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the "Mound City"; these mounds were demolished during the city's development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, the Illiniwek. European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette traveled through the Mississippi River valley. Five years La Salle claimed the region for France as part of La Louisiane; the earliest European settlements in the area were built in Illinois Country on the east side of the Mississippi River during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia and Fort de Chartres. Migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River founded Ste.
Genevieve in the 1730s. In early 1764, after France lost the 7 Years' War, Pierre Laclède and his stepson Auguste Chouteau founded what was to become the city of St. Louis; the early French families built the city's economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain on the fur trade with Santa Fe. French colonists used African slaves as domestic workers in the city. France, alarmed that Britain would demand French possessions west of the Mississippi and the Missouri River basin after the losing New France to them in 1759–60, transferred these to Spain as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain; these areas remained in Spanish possession until 1803. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis; the founding of St. Louis began in 1763. Pierre Laclede led an expedition to set up a fur-trading post farther up the Mississippi River.
Before Laclede had been a successful merchant. For this reason, he and his trading partner Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent were offered monopolies for six years of the fur trading in that area. Although they were only granted rights to set-up a trading post and other members of his expedition set up a settlement; some historians believe that Laclede's determination to create this settlement was the result of his affair with a married woman Marie-Thérèse Bourgeois Chouteau in New Orleans. Laclede on his initial expedition was accompanied by Auguste Chouteau; some historians still debate. The reason for this lingering question is that all the documentation of the founding was loaned and subsequently destroyed in a fire. For the first few years of St. Louis's existence, the city was not recognized by any of the governments. Although thought to be under the control of the Spanish government, no one asserted any authority over the settlement, thus St. Louis had no local government; this led Laclede to assume a position of civil control, all problems were disposed i