Carlow is the county town of County Carlow, in the south-east of Ireland, 84 km from Dublin. At the 2016 census, it had a combined urban and rural population of 24,272; the River Barrow flows through the town, forms the historic boundary between counties Laois and Carlow. However, the Local Government Act 1898 included the town in County Carlow; the settlement of Carlow is thousands of years pre-dates written Irish history. The town has played a major role in Irish history, serving as the capital of the country in the 14th century; the name is an anglicisation of the Irish Ceatharlach. It was anglicised as Caherlagh and Catherlagh, which are closer to the Irish spelling. According to logainm.ie, the first part of the name derives from the Old Irish word cethrae, related to ceathar and therefore signified "four-legged". The second part of the name is the ending -lach; some believe that the name should be Ceatharloch, since ceathar means "four" and loch means "lake". It is directly translated as "Four lakes", there is no evidence to suggest that these lakes existed in this area.
Evidence shows that human occupation. The most notable and dramatic prehistoric site is the Browneshill Dolmen – a megalithic portal tomb just outside Carlow town. Now part of the diocese of Kildare and Leighlin, several Early Christian settlements are still in evidence today around the county. St Mullin's monastery is believed to have been established around the 7th century, the ruins of which are still in evidence today. Old Leighlin was the site of one of the largest monastic settlements in Ireland and the location for a church synod in 630 AD which determined the date of Easter. St Comhgall built a monastery in the Carlow area in the 6th century, an old church building and burial ground survive today at Castle Hill known as Mary's Abbey. Carlow was an Irish stronghold for agriculture in the early 1800s which earned the county the nickname of the scallion eaters. Famine wiped out half of the population. Carlow Castle was constructed by William Marshal, Earl of Striguil and Lord of Leinster, c1207-13, to guard the vital river crossing.
It was to serve as the capital of the Lordship of Ireland from 1361 until 1374. This imposing structure survived intact until 1814 when it was destroyed in an attempt to turn the building into a lunatic asylum; the present remains now are the West Wall with two of its cylindrical towers. The bridge over the river Barrow – Graiguecullen Bridge, is agreed to date to 1569; the original structure was replaced and widened in 1815 when it was named Wellington Bridge in celebration of the defeat of Napoleon's army by the Duke of Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo in June of that year. The bridge was built across a small island in the river and a 19th-century house was constructed on the bridge – this was for a time occupied by the Poor Clares, an enclosed religious order who still have a convent in Graiguecullen. Another convent belonging to the Presentation Order of nuns now houses the County Library and beautifully restored, newly opened Carlow County Museum; the Cathedral, designed by Thomas Cobden, was the first Catholic cathedral to be built in Ireland after Catholic Emancipation in 1829.
Its construction cost £9,000 and was completed in 1833. Beside the cathedral, Saint Patrick's College dates from 1793; the College, was established in 1782 to teach the humanities to both lay students and those studying for the priesthood. The Carlow Courthouse was constructed in the 19th century. There are still many old estates and houses in the surrounding areas, among them Ducketts Grove and Dunleckney Manor. St Mullin's today houses a heritage centre. In 1703 the Irish House of Commons appointed a committee to bring in a bill to make the Barrow navigable. By 1845 88,000 tons of goods were being transported on the Barrow Navigation. Carlow was one of the earliest towns to be connected by train; the Great Southern and Western Railway had opened its main line as far as Carlow in 1846, this was extended further to Cork in 1849. The chief engineer, William Dargan hailed from Killeshin, just outside Carlow. At the peak of rail transport in Ireland, Carlow county was served by a line to Tullow. Public supply of electricity in Carlow was first provided from Milford Mills 8 km south of Carlow, in 1891.
Milford Mills still generates electricity feeding into the national grid. Following independence in the early 1920s the new government of the Irish Free State decided to establish a sugar-processing plant in Leinster. Carlow was chosen as the location due to its transport links and large agricultural hinterland, favourable for growing sugar beet; the town is recalled in the famous Irish folk song, Follow Me Up to Carlow, written in the 19th century about the Battle of Glenmalure, part of the Desmond Rebellions of the late 16th century. In 1650, during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, Carlow was besieged and taken by English Parliamentarian forces, hastening the end of the Siege of Waterford and the capitulation of that city. During the 1798 rebellion Carlow was the scene of a massacre of 600 rebels and civilians following an unsuccessful attack on the town by the United Irishmen, known as the Battle of Carlow; the Liberty Tree sculpture in Carlow, designed by John Behan, commemorates the events of 1798.
The rebels slain in Carlow town are buried in'98 Street, Graiguecullen. The Carlow Nationalist is a newsp
A presenter is a person who introduces or hosts television programs. Nowadays, it is common for personalities in other fields to take on this role, but some people have made their name within the field of presenting within children's television series, to become television personalities; some presenters may double as an actor, singer, etc. Others may be subject matter experts, such as scientists or politicians, serving as presenters for a programme about their field of expertise; some are celebrities who have made their name in one area leverage their fame to get involved in other areas. Examples of this latter group include British comedian Michael Palin who now presents programmes about travel, American actor Alan Alda, who presented Scientific American Frontiers for over a decade. Another example would be American stand-up comedian Joe Rogan, a commentator and post-fight interviewer in UFC; the term is used in other countries including Ireland and Sri Lanka. In the US, such a person is called a host, such as in the terminology talk show host, or an MC.
In the context of TV news programs, they are known as anchors. News presenter Radio personality Horror host Sports commentator
Raidió Teilifís Éireann
Raidió Teilifís Éireann is a semi-state company and the national public service media of Ireland. It both produces programmes and broadcasts them on television and the Internet; the radio service began on 1 January 1926, while regular television broadcasts began on 31 December 1961, making it one of the oldest continuously operating public service broadcasters in the world. RTÉ publishes a weekly lifestyle magazine called the RTÉ Guide. RTÉ is financed through advertising; some RTÉ services are only funded by advertising, while other RTÉ services are only funded by the licence fee. RTÉ is a statutory body, run by a board appointed by the Government of Ireland. General management of the organisation is in the hands of the Executive Board headed by the Director-General. RTÉ is regulated by the Broadcasting Authority of Ireland. Radio Éireann, RTÉ's predecessor and at the time a section of the Department of Posts and Telegraphs, was one of 23 founding organisations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950.
This section deals with the history of RTÉ as an organisation. For details on this history of the various services see the separate articles on those services. For history of the broadcasting service prior to 1960, see Minister for Posts and Telegraphs and RTÉ Radio 1. Broadcasting in Ireland began in 1926 with 2RN in Dublin. From that date until June 1960 the broadcasting service operated as a section of the Department of Posts and Telegraphs, those working for the service were directly employed by the Irish Government and regarded as civil servants. RTÉ was established on 1 June 1960 under the Broadcasting Authority Act 1960, the principal legislation under which it operates; the existing Radio Éireann service was transferred to the new authority, made responsible for the new television service. The television service started broadcasting on 31 December 1961, from the Kippure transmitter site near Dublin. Eamonn Andrews was the first Chairman of Radio Éireann, the first director general was Edward Roth.
The name of the authority was changed, at the suggestion of Áine Ní Cheanainn, to Radio Telefís Éireann by the Broadcasting Authority Act 1966, both the radio and television services became known as RTÉ in that year. The Broadcasting Act 2009 changed the name of the organisation from "Radio Telefís Éireann" to "Raidió Teilifís Éireann", to reflect the proper spelling of the name in Irish. However, the station retains "Radio Telefís Éireann" carved in stone at the entrance to its Donnybrook headquarters in Dublin. Under Section 31 of the Broadcasting Authority Act, 1960 the Minister for Posts and Telegraphs of the day could direct RTÉ "not to broadcast any matter, or any matter of any particular class". In 1971 the first such directive was issued by Gerry Collins, directing RTÉ not to broadcast "any matter that could be calculated to promote the aims or activities of any organisation which engages in, encourages or advocates the attaining of any particular objective by violent means". A year Collins dismissed the entire RTÉ Authority over a report of an interview with Seán Mac Stíofáin, the chief of staff of the Provisional IRA.
RTÉ reporter Kevin O'Kelly, who reported the Mac Stiofáin interview, was jailed for contempt in a court case arising out of the interview. Kelly refused to identify Mac Stiofáin's as the voice on a tape seized from his house by the Garda Síochána. In 1976 Conor Cruise O'Brien, Minister for Posts and Telegraphs, amended Section 31 and thereafter issued a new annually-based directive to the RTÉ authority. RTÉ was now explicitly banned from broadcasting interviews or reports of interviews with spokespersons for Sinn Féin, the Provisional IRA, or any organisation banned in Northern Ireland under the UK's Northern Ireland Act 1973; these directives were reissued on an annual basis until the final one appeared in January 1993. During the late 1970s RTÉ was accused of extending the censorship rules into a system of self-censorship. A small minority of programme makers emerged who approved of Section 31 supporters of the Workers' Party, including Eoghan Harris, Gerry Gregg who opposed that party's official policy.
Opponents of censorship were portrayed as secret IRA sympathizers. The effect of this ban was greater than and similar to, though less harsh than, the censorship provision introduced in 1988 in the United Kingdom; the UK ban did not prevent reports of interviews with spokespersons. This allowed interviews using actors' voices dubbing the direct speech of censored persons; this was not permissible on RTÉ. In 1992–93, in O'Toole vs RTÉ, RTÉ was found by the High Court and Supreme Court to have illegally and unconstitutionally extended the censorship ban to Sinn Féin members who were not speaking on behalf of the party; the RTÉ ban did not affect UK stations broadcasting in the Republic of Ireland as, until 1988 at least, viewers in the Republic were still able to hear the voices of Sinn Féin representatives. The following figures were issued by RTÉ as part of their annual report in 2012. In 2012 RTÉ received in total €180,894,000 in public funding from the licence fee, it received €127,100,000 in commercial revenue.
RTÉ total expenditure in 2012 was €327,023,000. They had restructuring costs of €46,161,000 in 2012. Losses for the year came to €65,147,000. Profit and Loss across radio and online services. RTÉ receives income from two main sources: The television licence fee. Within the State, it is necessary to pay a fee of €160 per annum to possess any piece of
RTÉ News and Current Affairs
RTÉ News and Current Affairs, is a major division of Raidió Teilifís Éireann and provides a range of national and international news and current affairs programming for RTÉ television and online and for the independent Irish language broadcaster TG4. It is, by far, the largest and most popular news source in Ireland – with 77% of the Irish public regarding it as their main source of both Irish and international news, it broadcasts in English and Irish Sign Language. The organisation is a source of commentary on current affairs; the division is based at the RTÉ Television Centre in Donnybrook, however, the station operates regional bureaux across Ireland and the world. On 1 January 1926, 2RN started broadcasting, it was Ireland's first radio station. On 24 May 1926, there was the first advertised news bulletin on 2RN. On 26 February 1927, the first daily news report was broadcast on the station. During the Second World War, referred to in Ireland as The Emergency, because of the Emergency Powers Act 1939, media censorship of radio broadcasts affected news bulletins.
Before all news bulletins were broadcast, the scripts of the bulletins were read over the phone to Head of the Government Information Bureau, Frank Gallagher. Censorship brought in under the Act was lifted on 11 May 1945. On 31 December 1961 Ireland's first national television station, Telefís Éireann, was launched. A new Television Complex was built at Donnybrook in Dublin and the news service was the first to move in. On 1 January 1962 Charles Mitchel read the first television news bulletin at 6:00 pm. Andy O'Mahony was the station's other chief newsreader in the early days of the new service; the new studios were still being completed, so construction work was heard during news bulletins. On Telefís Éireann's first full day of broadcasting Broadsheet made its debut; this programme provided a more detailed analysis of current affairs. There was a mixture of incisive and light-hearted items, unscripted studio interviews and filmed reports. Presented by John O'Donoghue, Brian Cleeve and Brian Farrell, some of these men would continue broadcasting with the station until the new century.
Telefís Éireann's first full day saw the first broadcast of the Nine O'Clock News, a half-hour bulletin including news, newsview and sports results. Broadsheet was broadcast for the last time in 1964, it was replaced by Frank Hall's Newsbeat, a news and current affairs programme that focused more on the light-hearted stories from around the country. In 1966 Maurice O'Doherty joined the newsroom as a newsreader; that same year the station's new flagship news programme was broadcast for the first time. Seven Days had a production team with people such as Eoghan Harris, Brian Cleeve, Brian Farrell, John O'Donoghue. In 1967 the programme merged with another and became 7 days; when Radio Éireann and Telefís Éireann merged, RTÉ News was expanded, providing coverage to new stations RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta and RTÉ Radio 2. In the 1970s News moved from the original White picture format to color on television. In the early 1980s, in the space of two years, there were three general elections; this demanded a larger schedule of current affairs.
New programmes Morning Today Tonight were launched. The current set of TV News programmes began in 1988. Seán Duignan and Eileen Dunne were the first presenters of Six-One, which began in October 1988 In 1991, RTÉ News appointed its first legal affairs correspondent, Kieron Wood. In the 1990s, the first Washington DC correspondent Mark Little was appointed, Teilifís na Gaeilge, RTÉ lyric fm and RTÉ.ie were established. In 1992 RTÉ launched. Other notable current affairs programmes from the 1990s include The Week in Politics & Oireachtas Report Much of RTÉ's News output remained the same throughout the start of the 21st Century. In 2003 RTÉ's news department was merged with its Current Affairs department to form RTÉ News and Current Affairs. In September 2003, all RTÉ news reports in English on all networks were rebranded to RTÉ News, ending the separate branding of News 2 and 2FM News. In December 2008, RTÉ News moved out of their usual studio 3 in the Television Centre at Donnybrook and moved into a temporary studio while work was carried out in studio 3 for the relaunch.
The new look was unveiled at the One O'Clock news programme on Monday 9 February 2009. Due to RTÉ cutbacks, instead of using satellite, reporters on foreign assignments were asked to send reports by internet link. RTÉ's Beijing bureau was closed in June 2009. 2009 brought major changes the current affairs schedule with the axing of the long-running Questions and Answers, replaced by The Frontline. The 2010s opened with what has since been commemorated as "one of the most memorable moments of Irish television" being shown on RTÉ's televised news bulletins. On 24 October 2012, RTÉ News & Current Affairs announced some major changes to its output from 2013. Prime Time relaunched with additional presenters Claire Byrne and George Lee; the Frontline was brought under the Prime Time brand with the programme now airing 3 times a week. In 2012, RTÉ announced it was moving some of its regional newsrooms to local Institute of Technology as a cost saving arrangement; the affected areas are Sligo, Galway and Waterford.
RTÉ will retain the Limerick bureaux. In January 2013, RTÉ launched a new morning news programme Morning Edition which airs weekdays between 09:00–11:00 on RTÉ One and RTÉ Ne
Raymond Michael D'Arcy is an Irish television and radio presenter on his second spell at state broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann. He once presented a self-titled weekday morning radio programme on the Denis O'Brien-owned Today FM, his professional partner on that show, Jenny Kelly, became his wife on 24 August 2013 and they have two children: Tom and Kate. D'Arcy came to prominence with a television career on RTÉ, presenting children's television on The Den, a quiz show called Blackboard Jungle and the youth music show 2Phat, he presented television coverage of The Rose of Tralee beauty pageant each August for four consecutive years until 2010. He rejoined RTÉ in 2015. D'Arcy is a household name in Ireland, but does not consider himself to be a celebrity, gives interviews. D'Arcy was born into a working-class family of nine with one earner, his father, a non-commissioned officer, in Tipperary in 1964, his grandmother died at the age of 54 from lung cancer when D'Arcy was 11. Always into his music and his broadcasting, he began discoing in 1979 at the age of 15.
He attended Trinity College, Dublin, to take a degree in psychology, graduated in 1985. He began a career at RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta and in 1988 moved to RTÉ television, with a presenter spot on Jo Maxi, his first spell at RTÉ lasted for 13 years. D'Arcy replaced Ian Dempsey as the presenter of The Den, RTÉ's flagship children's television series, from 1990 to 1998, his career in children's television featured in the 2008 documentary Best Bitz From Back Den. D'Arcy presented the quiz show Blackboard Jungle at the time before presenting youth music quiz 2Phat. In addition, he presented the UTV and RTÉ collaborative travel show Bon Voyage! for one season. He has presented several once-off events, including Ireland's version of the Test The Nation franchise and the Irish Young Scientist Awards; until 2005 he presented You're a Star, the talent show established to find Ireland's entrant for the Eurovision Song Contest. In 2005, D'Arcy took over as Rose of Tralee presenter. On 1 April 2010, after five years, he stood down so as to spend more time with his family as they grew older.
Television roles dried up as the 2000s progressed, though he presented When Dreams Come True in 2005 and hosted Eurosong 2008 at the University of Limerick Concert Hall. And presented one episode of The Panel that year; that same year, he ruled out applying to host The Late Late Show, despite being linked to this prime-time slot. On 1 December 2008, he announced on his Today FM radio show that he would be participating in the second season of Celebrity Bainisteoir. D'Arcy moved to Today FM radio in the late 1990s, he took over Tim Kelly's mid-morning show, which went out from 10:00 to 12:45. This slot was changed to 9:00 to 12:00, entering direct competition with The Gerry Ryan Show on RTÉ 2fm, he credited much of the show's success to the team that served him well over the years: Jenny Kelly, Will Hanafin and Mairead Farrell. D'Arcy's Today FM show achieved something of a cult status due to its quirky segments, among which were "Fix-It Friday" and the "Odd One Out Quiz". In June 2008, D'Arcy was one of more than 1,200 people who stripped naked for a Spencer Tunick art project - he spoke of the experience on the radio.
On the weekend of 21–22 March 2009, someone placed nude images of the Taoiseach in the National Gallery of Ireland and the gallery of the Royal Hibernian Academy. The artist anonymously emailed D'Arcy's radio show, claiming responsibility for the creation of the paintings, but not their hanging. Gardaí subsequently raided the Today FM studios and producer Will Hanafin was asked to hand over the emails, on the basis that the placing of the paintings constituted indecency and criminal damage. Hanafin refused to provide the emails without a warrant. In July 2014, D'Arcy incurred the wrath of mixed martial arts fans by inviting Cathal Pendred onto his show grilling him on his part in the "violent and disturbing" sport. A household name in Ireland, D'Arcy does not consider himself a celebrity and tends to decline requests for interviews. While being interviewed on The Saturday Night Show in 2010, D'Arcy issued an ultimatum to Enda Kenny, "vowing he would leave Ireland" after the February 2011 general election if the man became Taoiseach.
Kenny did become Taoiseach. After being approached by RTÉ over the years and considering leaving Today FM, D'Arcy did just that abruptly in December 2014, quitting his Today FM show to rejoin RTÉ, it was announced that his wife Jenny Kelly would join him at RTÉ to produce the new radio show. His first show back at RTÉ went out on 2 February 2015 on Radio 1, his show will air every weekday from 3 to 4.30pm. On 26 September 2015, D'Arcy's new television talk-show called The Ray D'Arcy Show started on RTÉ 1. D'arcy's programmes have been the source of several complaints to the Broadcasting Authority of Ireland. In December 2015 the BAI upheld three complaints of bias about an interview D'Arcy had with Colm O'Gorman about Amnesty Ireland's campaign to change Ireland's laws on abortion. In May 2016, the BAI ruled for a second time that D'Arcy's programme lacked objectivity when he interviewed Graham Linehan and his wife, Helen, on her need to have an abortion in the UK following the discovery that a foetus she was carrying had a fatal abnormality.
In December 2016 the BAI upheld two complaints about an interview D'Arcy conducted on 9 June 2016 surrounding the United Nations Human Right's Committee periodic assessment of Ireland's human rights record. D'arcy conducted an interview with campaign
British Film Institute
The British Film Institute is a film and charitable organisation which promotes and preserves filmmaking and television in the United Kingdom. It was established by Royal Charter to: Encourage the development of the arts of film and the moving image throughout the United Kingdom, to promote their use as a record of contemporary life and manners, to promote education about film and the moving image and their impact on society, to promote access to and appreciation of the widest possible range of British and world cinema and to establish, care for and develop collections reflecting the moving image history and heritage of the United Kingdom; the BFI maintains the world's largest film archive, the BFI National Archive called National Film Library, National Film Archive, National Film and Television Archive. The archive contains more than 50,000 fiction films, over 100,000 non-fiction titles, around 625,000 television programmes; the majority of the collection is British material but it features internationally significant holdings from around the world.
The Archive collects films which feature key British actors and the work of British directors. The BFI runs the BFI Southbank and London IMAX cinema, both located on the south bank of the River Thames in London; the IMAX has the largest cinema screen in the UK and shows popular recent releases and short films showcasing its technology, which includes 3D screenings and 11,600 watts of digital surround sound. BFI Southbank shows films from all over the world critically acclaimed historical & specialised films that may not otherwise get a cinema showing; the BFI distributes archival and cultural cinema to other venues – each year to more than 800 venues all across the UK, as well as to a substantial number of overseas venues. The BFI offers a range of education initiatives, in particular to support the teaching of film and media studies in schools. In late 2012, the BFI received money from the Department For Education to create the BFI Film Academy Network; the BFI runs the annual London Film Festival along with BFI Flare: London LGBT Film Festival and the youth-orientated Future Film Festival.
The BFI publishes the monthly Sound magazine as well as films on Blu-ray, DVD and books. It runs the BFI National Library, maintains the BFI Film & TV Database and Summary of Information on Film and Television, which are databases of credits and other information about film and television productions. SIFT has a collection of about 7 million still frames from television; the BFI has co-produced a number of television series featuring footage from the BFI National Archive, in partnership with the BBC, including The Lost World of Mitchell & Kenyon, The Lost World of Friese-Greene, The Lost World of Tibet. The institute was founded in 1933. Despite its foundation resulting from a recommendation in a report on Film in National Life, at that time the institute was a private company, though it has received public money throughout its history—from the Privy Council and Treasury until 1965 and the various culture departments since then; the institute was restructured following the Radcliffe Report of 1948 which recommended that it should concentrate on developing the appreciation of filmic art, rather than creating film itself.
Thus control of educational film production passed to the National Committee for Visual Aids in Education and the British Film Academy assumed control for promoting production. From 1952–2000, the BFI provided funding for new and experimental filmmakers via the BFI Production Board; the institute received a Royal Charter in 1983. This was updated in 2000, in the same year the newly established UK Film Council took responsibility for providing the BFI's annual grant-in-aid; as an independent registered charity, the BFI is regulated by the Charity Commission and the Privy Council. In 1988, the BFI opened the London Museum of the Moving Image on the South Bank. MOMI was acclaimed internationally and set new standards for education through entertainment, but subsequently it did not receive the high levels of continuing investment that might have enabled it to keep pace with technological developments and ever-rising audience expectations; the Museum was "temporarily" closed in 1999. This did not happen, MOMI's closure became permanent in 2002 when it was decided to redevelop the South Bank site.
This redevelopment was itself further delayed. The BFI is managed on a day-to-day basis by its chief executive, Amanda Nevill. Supreme decision-making authority rests with a board of up to 14 governors; the current chair is Josh Berger, who took up the post in February 2016. He succeeded Greg Dyke, who took office on 1 March 2008. Dyke succeeded the late Anthony Minghella, chair from 2003 until 31 December 2007; the chair of the board is appointed by the BFI's own Board of Governors but requires the consent of the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. Other Governors are co-opted by existing board members; the BFI operates with three sources of income. The largest is public money allocated by the Department for Culture and Sport. In 2011–12, this funding amounted to £20m; the second largest source is commercial activity such as receipts from ticket sales at BFI Southbank or the BFI London IMAX theatre, sales of DVDs, etc. Thirdly and sponsorship of around £5m
Questions and Answers (TV programme)
Questions and Answers is a topical debate television programme broadcast in Ireland for 23 years between 1986 and 2009. Similar in format to the BBC television programme Question Time, it aired on Sunday nights but moved to Monday nights when it was shown at 10.30 pm. The first two series were presented by Olivia O'Leary. Broadcast on RTÉ One, the show featured politicians from large political parties as well as public figures who answered questions put to them by the audience; the final edition aired on 29 June 2009. Director-General of RTÉ Cathal Goan described the programme as an "integral part of the national conversation for over 20 years", it was replaced by The Frontline, a series hosted by Pat Kenny. The programme, was launched in the late 1980s; each week the chairperson initiates a discussion between several prominent politicians and commentators. The discussion is led by questions asked by members of the audience; the first question will deal with the major political issue of the week.
The final question is a trivial or comic question. Questions and Answers was broadcast from the RTÉ television complex in Donnybrook, Dublin with only occasional broadcasts from around Ireland, it was broadcast at 22:30, although one edition, broadcast at 21:30 drew comment from Declan Lynch in the Irish Independent who wondered if it was "a gesture to the poor ould fellas who might have some chance of staying awake past the first question". For its first decade the programme was taped for broadcast from 19:00 on the night of transmission. From the late 1990s, the programme was broadcast live, with phoned-in or emailed-in comments from viewers read out on air. Olivia O'Leary John Bowman Vincent Browne The programme has set the national news agenda. During a broadcast in 1990 the Tánaiste and expected next President of Ireland, Brian Lenihan, badly damaged his chances of being elected, he denied involvement in an effort eight years earlier in January 1982 to pressurise the President to refuse a parliamentary dissolution – contradicting previous statement he had made.
Lenihan had confirmed his involvement in the effort some months earlier in an on-the-record interview with a journalist Jim Duffy, as he had to numerous political colleagues over eight years. During the presidential election campaign he changed his story, first in an Irish Press interview, on Questions and Answers; some journalists had been told by Lenihan of his role in pressurising Hillery, but had been told it in an'off the record' conversation and so could not reveal it. However following the programme, Duffy, in a backlash to pressure from Lenihan's Fianna Fáil not to reveal the information, did reveal that Lenihan's account on the programme conflicted with his pre-campaign version; the minor party in Charles Haughey's government, the Progressive Democrats, threatened to quit government and cause a general election unless either Lenihan was sacked from cabinet or an inquiry was ordered into the events of January 1982. When Lenihan refused to resign, instead of ordering an inquiry into who had made the calls in 1982, sacked him.
The "ill-fated appearance" was remembered in the final episode of Questions and Answers in 2009. Sinn Féin's Pat Doherty used the show in 1996 to deny the involvement of the Provisional IRA in the death of Jerry McCabe. Members of that group were convicted of manslaughter and Sinn Féin have campaigned for their early release in conjunction with the Belfast Agreement. Doherty's refusal to condemn the murder was remembered in the final episode of Questions and Answers in 2009. In 2005, Sinn Féin chairman Mitchel McLaughlin told viewers that though it had been wrong for the Provisional IRA to kill Jean McConville, a widowed mother of ten young children kidnapped and secretly buried, the action was not a "crime". In the aftermath of his comments, he was subjected to extreme criticism from within the Irish government, from all the main parties in Dáil Éireann, the media and by the public on radio shows. Labour Party leader Pat Rabbitte, in a press release afterwards commented that "Any civilised society must consider the abduction and murder of a mother of 10 children to be a crime of considerable barbarism" while Mrs McConville's son Michael said that McLaughlin, along with Sinn Féin TD Arthur Morgan, who had made similar comments elsewhere, "should be holding their heads in shame".
McLaughlin's refusal to call the murder a crime was remembered in the final episode of Questions and Answers in 2009. On 20 October 2008, Defence Minister Willie O'Dea was invited onto the show to discuss the fallout of the government budget. Paul Doran, a member of the audience, threw paper at O'Dea. Doran was afterwards given VIP status, as was all who appeared on the show, in the station's Green Room with host John Bowman. Bowman gave Doran a signed copy of his book on Jonathan Philbin Bowman, it emerged that it was RTÉ who approached Doran to appear on the show, as is the practice with all guests, sparking questions about the show's impartial production values. He had been invited prior to this but had declined until a phone call arrived from RTÉ at 18:20 on the evening of the show. In one of the last episodes, former Mayor of Clonmel and Fianna Fáil member, Michael O'Brien confronted Minister for Transport Noel Dempsey about the way the Commission to Inquire into Child A