Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Lyn 1896 Fotballklubb is a Norwegian football club and a department of the sports club Ski- og Fotballklubben Lyn based in Oslo, whose members participate in Nordic skiing and orienteering. Until 2010, SFK Lyn had one professional section and one amateur section. After the professional football department, FK Lyn was bankrupted in 2010, the fans decided to support the amateur department, Lyn Fotball, instead. With the help of some of the old FK Lyn players, Lyn Fotball have won three consecutive promotions, is playing in the 3. Divisjon; the team plays its home matches at Bislett Stadium, the head coach is Thomas André Ødegaard. Lyn was founded in 1896 and is one of the oldest football clubs in Norway, they were founding members of the Football Association of Norway in 1902; the club have won the cup eight times. Lyn was the initiator of the construction of Ullevaal Stadion, which has served as Norway's national stadium since 1927 and was Lyn's home ground from 1926 to 2010. Lyn has traditionally been perceived as representing the upper and middle classes, whereas the eastside club Vålerenga was seen as belonging to the workers.
The club enjoyed some success during the first half of the 20th century, securing many Cup titles, despite failing to win the league title, had a certain stature in Norwegian football. The Norwegian national football team that won the bronze medal at the 1936 Summer Olympics included six players from Lyn; the captain of this team was Lyn-player Jørgen Juve, still the player with the most goals scored for the Norwegian national team. The club's most recent period of success was during the 1960s, when they won four trophies and reached the quarter-finals of the European Cup Winners' Cup. Lyn fields a women's team, which in 2012 won promotion to the 1. Divisjon, the second tier in women's football. In 2018 the women's team, managed by Glenn Kleven, won promotion to the Toppserien, the top tier of women´s football in Norway. Lyn was founded on 3 March 1896 at St. Hanshaugen. Lyn was one of three clubs who in 1902 founded the Football Association of Norway, is the only one still existing. In the first decade of Football in Norway, the club was one of the strongest and won four consecutive Norwegian Cups from 1908 till 1911.
At the 1936 Summer Olympics, six Lyn-players, Arne Brustad, Øivind Holmsen, Fredrik Horn, Magnar Isaksen, Jørgen Juve and Frithjof Ulleberg, represented the Norwegian national football team that won the bronze medal, with Juve as the team's captain. Jørgen Juve is still the player with the most goals scored for the Norwegian national team. Lyn won the cup in 1945 and 1946 but had to wait till 1964 for their first league-title. With Harald Berg and Ola Dybwad-Olsen as main contributors the club secured another victory in the cup in 1967, in 1968 the club won The Double, clinching both the League title and the Cup, became the first Norwegian team to reach the quarter final of the European Cup Winners' Cup, where they met Barcelona; because of the weather conditions during the winter in Norway, both matches were played in Spain. Lyn lost the first game 2-3 and in the second match Lyn was leading 2-0 with 15 minutes left to play; the match ended 2-2 and thus Lyn was eliminated. The Double was followed by a dismal period in the club's history.
The club was relegated in 1969, though the team was promoted back after one year and reached the cup final in 1970, the club was again relegated in 1973. During the next 30 years, Lyn was swiftly relegated and promoted between the first and the third tier and the club was never playing in the top division for more than three consecutive seasons. During this period the fan base eroded and Lyn is said to have lost a generation of supporters. During the 90s the club went forth between the Premier League and the First Division. In 1994, Lyn narrowly lost 2-3 to Molde. Norwegian investor Atle Brynestad bought the club in 1999, in effect saving it from bankruptcy. In 2000, the team was promoted to the Premier League, after winning the First Division with an unprecedented number of points, they retained their spot in the top flight the following year. In the 2002-season a strengthened Lyn took the lead early on and had gained a large advantage halfway through the season, but had to settle for a 3rd-place finish after a disastrous slump in form and the controversial appointment of new head coach, Hvroje Braovic.
The misery, in part due to the constant hiring and firing of coaches, continued into the next year. Lyn struggled at the bottom of the table for most of the season but avoided relegation thanks to the efforts of team captain Tommy Berntsen, who took on the role as coach after Teitur Thordarson, the 5th coach in two years, had resigned. 2004 was a recovery year for Lyn, ending the season in 6th place and reaching the Norwegian Cup final. 2005 was an eventful year for the club, both off the pitch. The club’s youth program was beginning to bear fruits and with former international Henning Berg as the new head coach the club claimed 3rd spot in the league. Lyn defeated Rosenborg at Ullevaal for the first time since 1968 and repeated the feat in the away game. In April, the club's talented Nigerian midfielder John Obi Mikel signed a contract with Manchester United, according to a statement by Lyn's managing director Morgan Andersen, it was the most expensive transfer in Norwegian football to date.
The transfer has since been the source of a heated dispute, Mikel instead joined Chelsea after a long period of time. FIFA released an announcement stating; the transfer is said to have cost Chelsea £16 million. £12 million of this to Manc
Vålerenga Fotball is a Norwegian association football club from Oslo and a part of the multi-sport club Vålerengens IF. Founded in 1913, the club is named after the neighbourhood of Vålerenga. Vålerenga's home ground is Intility Arena, located in Valle-Hovin. Vålerenga are five-time league champions and four-time Norwegian Football Cup champions, having last won the league in 2005 and the cup in 2008; the history of Vålerenga Fotball goes back to Fotballpartiet Spark, founded in 1898 by pastor Hans Møller Gasmann. An early mission for Gasmann was to give the local youth social exercise. On a larger scale, the club was part of the movement known as Muscular Christianity. A successor to this football club, Idrettslaget Spring, was founded on 29 July 1913 by a group of teenage factory workers. A year the club changed its name to Vaalerengens Idrættsforening. Rooted in the neighborhood of Vålerenga on the east end of Oslo, the club would recruit players and supporters from the many workers in the area, in a society characterized for its low mobility between social strata.
Within its first seasons, Vålerengen would compete with the major clubs in Oslo at that time. Where Lyn and Frigg had a strong identity with the academia and the upper classes, Vålerengen developed a working class identity. Vålerengens Idrettsforening had mixed success in its first years, but fortunes improved as the 1920s came around and the club secured promotion to the Oslo Championships in 1921. Vålerengen won the Oslo Championships four times before a national league was established in 1937. In the 1948–49 season, Vålerengen finished second. After this period, Vålerengen entered a period of instability, being relegated from the top division two times in the 1950s; the charismatic Helmuth Steffens became a central figure in building up the culture in the club after the war. At the beginning of the 1960s, a new generation of local players broke into Vålerengen's first squad. Players like Einar Bruno Larsen, Terje Hellerud and Leif Eriksen became core personalities of a group of players which became known as Bohemene.
The club would become known for its brilliant style of football as the number of people in the audience increased. The players became popular for their witty comments and light hearted humour. Vålerengen secured a third place in 1961. In 1965, Vålerengen won the First Division for the first time. By the help of manager Helmuth Steffens and head coach Anton Ploderer, the club had managed to win the title with a team of local players; the league was won in dramatic fashion, with arch-rivals Lyn giving Vålerengen a fight for the title until the last matches of the season. The Bohemian era came to an end when the club was relegated from the First Division in 1968 and again to the Third Division in 1970. Vålerengen did not achieve promotion to the top league again until 1974. In 1976, Vålerenga signed Odd Iversen. Iversen would help the club reestablish itself in the First Division; the 80s saw the emergence of a new generation. With the help of players like Tom Jacobsen and Vidar Davidsen, Vålerengen would win its first cup title in 1980.
Led by head coach Leif Eriksen, the team won the First Division title for the second time in 1981 with a style of play characterized by intensity and discipline. The club was unable to reclaim the league title in 1982, but won it again in 1983 and 1984. During the decade, Vålerengen would become twice runners-up in the cup and achieve a third place in the league in 1985. Vålerengen had become a stable top team for the first and, to date, only time. 1985 saw the signing of striker Jørn Andersen, who would go on to score 23 goals in 22 matches in his sole season for Vålerengen. However, as the club had miscalculated the home crowd average, the club entered severe financial difficulties. Vålerenga was saved from bankruptcy in 1987. In 1990, now known as Vålerenga, the club was relegated after 14 seasons in the top division. Vålerenga was close to further relegation in the 1992 season, but managed to remain in the second highest division thanks to a last round 3–0 win against Eik-Tønsberg IF. In 1994, Vålerenga returned to the top division, but were relegated again in 1996.
In 1997 Vålerenga won the cup and the 1. Divisjon and were again promoted to Tippeligaen; as earlier in the 1990s, the stay in the top division lasted only a few years. In the 2000 season Vålerenga lost the play-off matches against Sogndal and was relegated to the 1. Divisjon. Vålerenga returned to Tippeligaen and won the cup in 2002; the 2003 season was poor for Vålerenga and they wound up third last in the league sending them into play-offs against Sandefjord to avoid relegation. The result was a 0–0 draw in Sandefjord and a 5–3 victory in Oslo and so Vålerenga retained the position in the top league and avoided relegation. Vålerenga rebounded nicely in the 2004 season and proved a serious challenge to the dominant Rosenborg team in the bid for the league's gold medal. After a frantic final round where Vålerenga beat Stabæk 3–0, they missed out on the league title since Rosenborg beat FK Lyn, Vålerenga's city rivals 4–1. Vålerenga won the silver medal, finishing 2nd to Rosenborg equal on points and goal difference, but Vålerenga had scored fewer goals than Rosenborg during the season, leaving Rosenborg as league champions.
At the start of the 2005 season it was apparent that Rosenborg was in bad shape and it seemed like Vålerenga's season to go all the way. After a strong season opening, the surprise of the season IK Start – newly promoted to the Tippeligaen – looked to give Vålerenga a fight to the finish, the two clubs alternated on lead
Sweden national football team
The Sweden national football team represents Sweden in association football and is controlled by the Swedish Football Association, the governing body for football in Sweden. Sweden's home ground is Friends Arena in Stockholm and the team is coached by Janne Andersson. From 1945 to late 1950s, they were considered one of the greatest teams in Europe. Sweden made their first World Cup appearance in 1934. Sweden has made six appearances in the European Championships, they finished second in the 1958 FIFA World Cup, third in both 1950 and 1994. Sweden's accomplishments include a gold medal in the 1948 Summer Olympics, bronze medals in 1924 and 1952, they reached the semi-finals in UEFA Euro 1992. Sweden has traditionally been a strong team in international football, with 11 World Cup appearances and 3 medals in the Olympics; the Swedish team finished second in the 1958 World Cup, when it was the host team, being beaten by Brazil 5–2 in the final. Sweden has finished third twice, in 1950 and 1994. In 1938, they finished fourth.
Sweden played its first international game against Norway on 12 an 11 -- 3 victory. Other matches in 1908 were played against Great Britain, the Netherlands and Belgium. In the same year, Sweden competed in the 1908 Summer Olympics for the first time. Sweden, lost a game in the Olympics against the Great Britain 1–12, the biggest loss in the Swedish national team's history. In 1916, Sweden defeated Denmark for the first time. Sweden played in the 1912 Olympics, the 1920 Olympics, in the 1924 Olympics, where Sweden took the bronze and their first medal ever; the 1938 World Cup was Sweden's second qualification for the World Cup. In the first round, they were scheduled to play against Austria, but after Germany's occupation of Austria, the Austrian team could not continue playing in the tournament. Instead, Sweden went straight to the quarter-finals match against Cuba, they beat Cuba 8 -- 0 with both Harry Gustav Wetterström scoring hat-tricks. In the semi-final match against Hungary, Sweden lost 1–5.
Sweden's next match was the third-place match against Brazil. In that game the Swedes lost 2–4, ended in fourth place for the first and only time in Swedish football history. In the first round, Sweden played against Austria; the Austrian team had qualified without their professional players, a surprise since the Austrian league had many professional players who were allowed to play in the tournament. The match was played at White Hart Lane in London and Sweden won 3–0. In the second game, Sweden played against Korea and won 12–0, one of the two largest margin wins Sweden has had. In the semi-final Sweden met their archrivals from Denmark beating them 4–2; the final was played at legendary Wembley Stadium in London. The attendance was around 40,000 people, high for a football game in those days. Sweden took on Yugoslavia in the final and won 3–1, with goals by Gunnar Gren, Stjepan Bobek and Gunnar Nordahl; this was Sweden's first championship win in any international football tournament. In the 1950 World Cup, the Swedish football association did not allow any professional Swedish football players to take part.
Sweden only fielded amateur players during the tournament. Qualifying for the tournament as one of six European national teams, Sweden played in the same group as Italy and Paraguay. In the first match, Sweden beat Italy 3–2 in São Paulo; the second match was a 2–2 draw against Paraguay. With the most points in the group, Sweden advanced to the next round, their first game in the second stage – a group format – was against the hosts Brazil. It was played at the Maracanã Stadium with a total attendance of more than 138,000, to this day the record attendance for the Swedish national team; the game ended 7–1 to Brazil and it is rumored that everyone in the Brazilian audience waved the Swedes goodbye with their scarfs. The next game was against Uruguay, who Sweden played against for the first time in World Cup history. Played in São Paulo, Uruguay won the game 3 -- 2; the final game for Sweden in the tournament was played against Spain. Sweden won 3 -- 1 with goals by Bror Mellberg and Karl-Erik Palmér.
Sweden took their first World Cup medal. As Sweden was the best placed European team, Sweden was, as the time, regarded "unofficial European champions". At the Summer Olympics in 1952 in Helsinki, Sweden continued to achieve success and won an Olympic bronze; the following year, the Football Association decided not to allow foreign professionals to play in the national team and the team failed to qualify for the World Championships in Switzerland in 1954 when Sweden only came second in their qualifying group behind Belgium. In 1956, the Swedish football federation allowed the professional footballers to play for the national team again, giving Swedish football fans hope for the 1958 FIFA World Cup. Sweden, the host nation, were in the same group as Mexico and Wales; the first game, Sweden vs Mexico, was played at Sweden's national stadium, Råsunda Stadium and was attended by around 32,000 people. Sweden won the game 3–0, taking the lead in Group 3; the next match was against Hungary, who had finished 2nd in the 1954 World Cup in Switzerland and were the 1952 Olympic Champions.
Played at Råsunda, this game ended 2–1 to Sweden, with both goals scored by Kurt Hamrin. In the next match, against Wales, Sweden drew 0–0. Making it through to the quarter-finals, playing at Råsunda for the fourth time in this tournament, Sweden
Jönköpings Södra IF
Jönköpings Södra IF known as J-Södra IF, J-Södra or Jönköping, is a Swedish football club based in Jönköping. The club, founded in 1922, returned to the Swedish second division Superettan in 2018 after relegation from the 2017 Allsvenskan. J-Södra has played a total of twelve Allsvenskan seasons with the most successful finish being runner-up in 1950 and their last spell ending in 2017; the club is affiliated to the Smålands Fotbollförbund. Their home games are played at Stadsparksvallen with a capacity of 5,200 but in the autumn of 2015 the municipality decided to build a new stadium where J-Södra will play in the future; the club's training facility is located in Jönköping. Jönköpings Södra IF was founded on December 9th 1922 with Bandy being the first sport where the club fielded a team. Other sports that were played by the club in its early days includes Boxing, Ice hockey and Table tennis. In 1923 they played their first football match, which only featured eight players for each side as they did not have access to a big enough pitch to fit more players.
Five years J-Södra entered into league play for the first time as well as the district championship. The clubs first major success came during the 44–45 season, it was only their second year in the second tier of the Swedish football league system, but J-Södra managed to go through the season winning all 18 league games as well as the promotion playoffs, thus qualifying themselves for the top division Allsvenskan for the first time ever. Though they were relegated the following season they bounced back up to Allsvenskan again and the golden age of the club began as they established themselves in the top division throughout the late 40's and early 50's. With the culmination being the second-place finish in the 1949–50 Allsvenskan behind a dominant Malmö FF. After their relegation in 1954 J-södra only managed two short one year appearances in Allsvenskan during the sixties, they instead became established in the second tier until the late 80's when the club started plummeting down the divisions and bottoming out in 1996 when they finished in 8th place in the fifth tier of swedish football.
In 2003 the club had returned to the third tier and at the start of the season they announced the high-profile signing of former Sweden national football team coach Olle Nordin as their new manager. During his reign he helped the club advance to, establish themselves in, Superettan and he also took over the role of director of sports; the 2014 Superettan season started in chaos as manager Mats Gren abruptly left to work for IFK Göteborg. After feeling unhappy with the list of managers that the board was considering the player squad declared that they wanted inexperienced youth coach Jimmy Thelin as their new manager; the board accepted the players proposal and during his second year in charge Thelin won promotion back to Allsvenskan with the club. As of 17 August 2018Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality; as of 10 August 2018Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
In recent seasons Jönköpings Södra have had the following average attendances: Allsvenskan: Runners-up: 1949–50 Superettan: Winners: 2015 Media related to Jönköpings Södra IF at Wikimedia Commons Jönköpings Södra IF – official site Green Machine – supporter club Stadsparksvallen – supporter site Södrasajten.se- Supporter site
Småland is a historical province in southern Sweden. Småland borders Blekinge, Halland, Västergötland, Östergötland and the island Öland in the Baltic Sea; the name Småland means Small Lands. The Latinized form Smolandia has been used in other languages; the highest point in Småland is at 377 metres. The traditional provinces of Sweden no longer serve any governmental purpose, but they do remain important and culturally; the province of Småland today is divided entirely into the three administrative counties of Jönköping and Kronoberg. Some few small portions of historic Småland are situated in Östergötland Counties; the current coat of arms, granted in 1569, displays a rampant red lion carrying a crossbow, all on a golden background. The arms may be surmounted by a ducal coronet; the blazon in English would be, "Or, a lion rampant gules and armed azure, holding in its front paws a crossbow of the second and stringed Sable with a bolt argent." The population of Småland was 754,535 as of 31 December 2016, distributed over five counties as follows: The land is dominated by a forested high plain in which the soil is mixed with sand and small boulders, making it barren in all but the coastal areas and unsuited for agriculture except in certain locations, most notably the Kalmar plains.
The province is rich in bogs. The coast is marked by cultivated flatlands in the south. In total, cultivated land covers 14%, meadows cover 7%, forests cover 50% of the surface of the province. Other than lacking deep valleys, the landscape is similar to the Norrland terrain found further north in Sweden; the largest towns are Jönköping in the north-west, Växjö in the south, Kalmar on the east coast near Öland Island. Småland comprises the central and southern parts of the South Swedish highlands. In detail, the topography of Småland is a series of flat surfaces built upon or deformed by a geological dome; the elevated terrain thought to be a buckle formed as result of far-away forces transmitted to Sweden. The main surfaces are the Sub-Cambrian peneplain, the South Småland peneplain and the "200 m peneplain"; these surfaces and others are arranged in a stepped sequence called a piedmonttreppen. In eastern Småland, the Sub-Cambrian peneplain dips to the sea. To the West, this part of the Sub-Cambrian peneplain terminates along a North-South escarpment that separates it from other flat surfaces.
Central and northwestern Småland contains strings of isolated hills. The lakes and rivers of Småland are associated to zones of weak rock, either fractured, weathered, or both; the many lakes in Småland owe their existence to the creation of basins through the stripping of an irregular mantle of weathered rock by glacial erosion. The Lagan and the Nissan drain western Småland, following for most of their courses zones of weak rock associated with the Protogine Zone. Rusken, Möckeln lakes are aligned with a more eastern branch of the Protogine Zone. Canyons cut into the bedrock are common in central and northern Småland, with the area near Mörlunda containing various narrow canyons; the climate of Småland is divided between the oceanic climate of coastal areas such as Kalmar and the humid continental climate of the interior higher areas such as Jönköping. Southern interior areas such as Växjö have similar oceanic climates such as the coastline. However, temperature average differences between areas are small, since Småland lies in the continental/oceanic transition zone.
Summer daytime averages are similar throughout the province, since according to Weatherbase all three major urban areas are on average around 21 °C with daytime winter temperatures hovering around the freezing point. The colder nights averaging −5 °C in Jönköping are rendering its continental classification; the locality of Målilla has the Swedish and Scandinavian all-time highest-measured temperature with 38 °C on June 1, 1947. The area was populated in the Stone Age from the south, by people moving along the coast up to Kalmar. Småland was populated by Stone Age peoples by at least 6000 BC, since the Alby People are known to have crossed the ice bridge across the Kalmar Strait at that time, it is named Småland because it was an aggrupation of a dozen little territories: Kinda, Vista, Tjust, Aspeland, Handbörd, Möre, Värend and Njudung. Each "small land" had its own law in the Viking age and early Middle Ages and could declare itself neutral in wars that Sweden was involved in -- at least if the King had no army present at the parliamentary debate.
Around 1350, during the reign of Magnus Eriksson, the first national law code was introduced in Sweden and the historic provinces lost much of their old autonomy. The city of Kalmar is one of the oldest cities of Sweden. In the medieval period it was the southernmost and the third largest city in Sweden, when it was a center for export of iron, which, in many cases, was handled by German merchants. At that time and Blekinge were not part of Sweden. Småland was the center of several peasant rebellions; the most nearly successful was the Dackefejden led by Nils Dacke in 1542 and 1543. When officials of king Gustav Vasa were assaulted and murdered, the king sent small expeditions to pacify the area. Dacke was the virtual ruler of large parts of Småland during that Winter, though much troubled by a blockade of supplies, before being defeated by larger forces attacking