Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina referred to as the Bosnian Croats, are the third most populous ethnic group in that country after Bosniaks and Serbs, are one of the constitutive nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina have made significant contributions to the culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Most Croats declare themselves speakers of Croatian. From the 15th to the 19th century, Catholics in modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina were persecuted under the Ottoman Empire, causing many of them to flee the area. In the 20th century, political turmoil and poor economic conditions caused more to emigrate. Ethnic cleansing within Bosnia and Herzegovina in the 1990s saw Croats forced to different parts of Bosnia-Herzegovina, although having lived in numerous regions prior to the Bosnian War. According to the report by the Bosnia and Herzegovina statistics office, on the census of 2013 there were 544,780 Croats living in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croats settled Bosnia and Herzegovina in the 7th century.
There, they assimilated with Romans during the great migration of the Slavs. The Croats adopted Christianity and began to develop their own culture and political institutions, culminating in their own kingdom, which consisted of two principalities: Pannonian Croatia in the north, Dalmatian Croatia in the south. Red Croatia, to the south, was land of a few minor states. One of the most important events of the Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the early Middle Ages is the First Croatian Assembly held in 753 in Županjac; the second major event was the coronation of the first King of Croatia, in ca. 925, in the fields of Županjac. By this act, Pannonian Croatia and Dalmatian Croatia formed a united Croatian kingdom, which included Dalmatia and part of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Savia. In 1102 Croatia entered into a union with the Kingdom of Hungary. After this, earlier part of the Kingdom of Croatia, started to disassociate with Croatia. At first, Bosnia became a separate principality under Ban Kulin who managed to solidify Bosnian autonomy at the expense of more powerful neighbours, but only in the 14th century did Bosnia become a formidable state.
In the 14th century, King Tvrtko I conquered part of western Serbia and part of the Kingdom of Croatia, which he accomplished by defeating various Croatian nobles and supporting Hungary. Thus, the Kingdom of Bosnia emerged, but part of present territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina remained in the Kingdom of Hungary. Regarding religion, Bosnia was closer to Croatia than the Orthodox lands to the east, the Diocese of Bosnia is mentioned as Catholic in the 11th century, fell under the jurisdiction of the Archdiocese of Split and in the 12th Century under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Dubrovnik. Another connection of Bosnia with Croatia is that Bosnian rulers always used the political title "Ban Kulin" in similarity with their Croatian counterparts; the specific religion in medieval Bosnia was Bogomilism and Bosnian Church, so some of the notable feudal lords in Medieval Bosnia were followers of this religion, such as Duke Hrvoje Hrvatinić. Due to the scarcity of historical records, there are no definite figures dealing with the religious composition of medieval Bosnia.
However, some Croat scholars suggest that a majority of Bosnia's medieval population were Catholics who, according to Zlopaša, accounted for 700,000 of 900,000 of the total Bosnian population. Some 100,000 were Bogomils and other 100,000 were Orthodox Christians. In the middle of the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire started to conquer Bosnia. In 1451 they took Vrhbosna province and conquered Bosnia in 1463. Herzegovina was conquered in 1481, while northern Bosnia was still under Hungary and Croatia until 1527, when it was conquered by the Ottomans. After the Turkish conquest, many Catholic Bosnians converted to Islam, their numbers in some areas shrank as many fled from fear of conversion and persecution; the Ottoman conquest changed the demographics of Bosnia and Herzegovina, reducing the number of Catholics, eliminating the Bosnian Church, whose members converted to Islam en masse. The present-day boundaries of Bosnia and Herzegovina were made in 1699, when the Treaty of Karlowitz was signed in order to establish peace between the Austrian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.
Another significant event for Bosnian Croats is the boundary established by an agreement between the Republic of Ragusa and the Ottoman Empire, where Ragusans promised to give in part of their territory in Neum to the Ottomans in order to protect themselves from the Republic of Venice. The activity of the Catholic Church was limited, while the Ottomans preferred the Orthodox Church because Catholicism was the faith of Austria, the Ottoman enemies, while Orthodoxy was common in Bosnia, thus it was more acceptable to the Ottomans. In the first 50 years of Ottoman rule, many Catholics fled from Bosnia. A number of Catholics converted to Orthodox Christianity. Franciscans were only Catholic priests to be active in Bosnia. Before the Ottomans arrived in Bosnia, there was 35 Franciscan monasteries in Bosnia and four in Herzegovina; some monasteries were destroyed and some were converted to mosques. In the 1680s there were only 10 Franciscan monasteries left in Bosnia; the Catholic Church in Bosnia divided its administration into two dioceses, one was the Croatian Bosnia diocese, part, not conquered by the Ottomans, other was Bosna Srebrena diocese.
Between 1516 and 1524, a planned persecution and forced Islamization of Catholics occurred in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In that year, Franciscan monasteries in Kraljeva Sutj
Zavidovići is a town and municipality located in Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is situated in central Bosnia and Herzegovina, located between Doboj and Zenica on the confluence of rivers Bosna and Gostović, it sits in a valley surrounded by many mountains. As of 2013, it has a population of 40,272 inhabitants. Zavidovići was developed by the Austrians during the 19th century Austro-Hungarian reign in Bosnia because of the "wood industry". After World War II, the company, founded in 1884 and named after the Krivaja river, expanded; the company focused on furniture manufacturing, which it began to export to the United States under the name "Krivaja Beechbrook". Due to the Bosnian war in the 1990s, the former giant and the town are left with nothing. Although once a diverse town, many of the former Serb and Croat residents left their homes during the Bosnian war. Few have returned to their properties, those who do suffer discrimination.
Now, it is a Bosniak town, with few non-Bosniaks remaining. Zavidovići's nickname is "Wood Town". Zavidovići is located in the basin of three rivers: Bosna and Gostović; the town of Zavidovići itself had 12,947 residents in 1991. ZaN Portal Krivajske Doline Large iron ball just discovered near Zavidovici
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina, known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, located within the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is largest city. Bosnia and Herzegovina is an landlocked country – it has a narrow coast at the Adriatic Sea, about 20 kilometres long surrounding the town of Neum, it is bordered by Croatia to the north and south. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, the northeast is predominantly flatland; the inland, Bosnia, is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip, has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries.
In the 12th century the Banate of Bosnia was established, which evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country; this was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, it was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic proclaimed independence in 1992, followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina has grown at double digit rates in recent years. Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural environment and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music and its festivals, some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe.
The country is home to three main ethnic groups or constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second, Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. Minorities, defined under the constitutional nomenclature "Others", include Jews, Poles and Turks. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is limited, as the country is decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third unit, the Brčko District, governed under local government; the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 cantons. Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks in terms of human development, has an economy dominated by the industry and agriculture sectors, followed by the tourism and service sectors; the country has a social security and universal healthcare system, primary- and secondary-level education is tuition-free.
It is a member of the UN, OSCE, Council of Europe, PfP, CEFTA, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean upon its establishment in July 2008. The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan; the first preserved acknowledged mention of Bosnia is in De Administrando Imperio, a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in the mid-10th century describing the "small land" of "Bosona". The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could derive from Illyrian *"Bass-an-as"), which would derive from the Proto-Indo-European root "bos" or "bogh"—meaning "the running water". According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia "adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna and themselves Bosniaks ".
The name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stjepan Vukčić Kosača's title, "Herceg of Hum and the Coast". Hum Zahumlje, was an early medieval principality, conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century; the region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina within the Eyalet of Bosnia up until the formation of the short-lived Herzegovina Eyalet in the 1830s, which remerged in the 1850s, after which the entity became known as Bosnia and Herzegovina. On initial proclamation of independence in 1992, the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the official name was changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia has been inhabited by humans since at least the Neolithic age; the earliest Neolithic population became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians. Celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were notable. Concrete historical e
Maglaj is a town and municipality located in Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in northern Herzegovina, 25 km south of Doboj, it has a population of 24,980 inhabitants. The town is situated in the northern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina and is situated in territory where Bosniaks presently form a large majority; the old Maglaj, like numerous other cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina, has an old town with mosques, traditional houses dating back from the Ottoman Empire, a fortress that stands as a symbol of Maglaj. The new part of Maglaj, situated on the West side of the river Bosna, is made up of modern architecture, started in the 1950s, became massively developed until 1991; the Bosna flows through Maglaj on its way north to the Sava river on the border between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. Before the Bosnian War, the Bosna river was polluted due to heavy industrial activity at the nearby Natron paper and pulp factory, as well as steel and wood industry factories in the southern cities of Zenica and Zavidovići respectively.
Nowadays, the river has become cleaner due to decreased industrial activity at those plants and higher environmental standards. The city, as well as the entire Maglaj municipality, have been subject to a large demographic population shift. Close to all of its pre-war Christian inhabitants, i.e. Orthodox Serbs and Catholic Croats, who made up the majority of the pre-war municipality population, no longer reside in the Maglaj municipality; the Orthodox population has settled in the Doboj and Modriča regions of the Republika Srpska, while the Catholic population has settled in the nearby municipality of Žepče, an enclave inhabited by Croats. A significant number of former Croat inhabitants have settled in Croatia's capital Zagreb. Due to the severe fighting around Maglaj throughout the Bosnian War, the catastrophic conditions it was exposed to, numerous Bosniak Muslims have departed the region as well. Pre-war Maglaj was unique because over one third of its married couples were made up of mixed ethnic groups.
As a result of this, a great number of these Maglaj inhabitants felt welcome by none of the three warring ethnic groups, tried to settle abroad. Consequentially, Maglaj residents have dispersed. Maglaj originated in the 14th century; the river Bosna goes through this town. From 1929 to 1941, Maglaj was part of the Vrbas Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia; the city endured a long siege by Bosnian Serbs forces between 1993 and 1994 during the Bosnian War, when the area was the scene of heavy fighting and the population had to be supplied by airdrops. The last flooding occurred on May 16, 2014. Although little floods occur every year, the 2014 flood was major, people lost their homes and belongings. Admir Hasančić, former football player Alma Čardžić, singer Bahrudin Čengić, film director and screenwriter Šemsa Suljaković, singer Dževad Galijašević, political analyst Edhem Mulabdić, Writer Ruža Tomašić, politician and European Parliament member http://www.maglaj.net/ Tragovima bosanskog kraljevstva - Tourist route for medieval Bosnia Trail of the Bosnian Kingdom - Cultural Tourism in Tesanj
Zenica is the fourth largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the administrative center of the Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located about 70 km north of Sarajevo and is situated on the Bosna river, surrounded by a mountainous and hilly landscape; as of 2013, it has a population of 110,663 inhabitants. Zenica was an important economic and military center during the Banate of Bosnia and the Kingdom of Bosnia, one of the relics from these eras is the Vranduk fortress; the city's old quarter contains several attractions, including the former synagogue, dating from 1906, now part of the City Museum. There is a mosque, an Austrian fountain and an old bey's farm house; the urban part of today's Zenica was formed during several specific periods which can be chronologically dated to the time of Neolithic community, Illyrian old towns ruins, Roman Municipium Bistua Nova, the most important archaeological finding. Ruins of a substantial ancient settlement were found not far from Bilimišće and close by the villages of Putovići and Tišina, with sites like a Villa Rustica, pagan temples among other structures.
Known by the Romans as Bistua Nova, the town became known as Bilino Polje and took its modern name of Zenica from 20 March 1436. During the Middle Ages, the town was important in the governance of the Bosnian Kingdom, in particular under Ban Kulin in the 12th Century. Nearby were the stone fortress of Vranduk, the residence of the Kings of Bosnia at Bobovac and the village of Janjici, where the Did, head of the Bosnian Church resided; the nearby villages of Puhovac and Pojske are the site of several Stećak tombstones, unique to Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of Croatia and Serbia. During the rule of the Ottoman Empire, changes to the main trade routes sidelined the town in Bosnian affairs, except during a brief period until 1557, when Zenica was the residence of the Ottoman Qadi of Brod. Zenica became a small town with several mosques: Sultan Ahmet's, Osman Chelebi's, Seymen and Jali mosques, a Madrassa, founded in 1737 and several lower primary schools, with interesting Ottoman tombstones, gardens and several stopping inns for caravans.
In one description from the year 1697, Zenica is compared to a delta of the Nile, where melons grow and where the entire landscape is pleasant. It is estimated; the raids of Eugene of Savoy during the Great Turkish War during the 1680s are remembered as dark times which left a lot destruction and caused an exodus of population, but by 1697, Zenica had started to stabilise and to begin to recover its influential position. At the end of the 19th century, during the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, there were investments in capital projects that had wider social and economic importance, were soon to become life and fate of Zenica; those projects include a railway from Bosanski Brod to Zenica built in 1879, a coal mine, paper works, steel factory, a prison. In the beginning of the 20th century, there was an urban boom and the official State Register for the year 1910 shows that in only a few years the number of population had increased to 7,215 inhabitants. An Orthodox Church was built in 1882, two Roman Catholic churches in 1910, a synagogue in 1903, several coaching inns, a hotel, a school, paved roads and more.
The city changed markedly in character during this developmental boom. During the Second World War, the local population signed the Resolution of the Muslims of Zenica in May 1942, formed Muslim militias in the villages of Šerići, Doglodima and other places who joined the Yugoslav Partisans. Zenica managed to escape large-scale reprisals and human casualties. Following the liberation of Zenica by the Partisans in 1945, the town began to grow as the steel industry developed further; the town spread to encompass the former villages of Bilino Polje and Radakovo, new apartment blocks were built to house the new miners and steelworkers. In 1948 the population was only 12,000 people, but by 1961 it had grown to over 30,000. In 1981 the town had over 63,000 people, in the last census taken 1991 Zenica was a city of some 96,027 people; the city has seen a sixfold increase in its population over 50 years. In 1991, the year before the Bosnian War began, Zenica became the headquarters of one of the first private and independent radio stations in Eastern Europe, Radio CD-CEMP.
In the spring of 1993, Zoran Mišetić, a journalist and owner of Radio CD-CEMP, was granted the Belgian Award for Independent Journalism, known as The Pen Of Peace. On 19 April 1993, during the Croat-Bosniak War, 15 civilians were killed and 50 others injured, when a HVO Howitzer grenade landed in the central market place of Zenica; the grenade was fired from the village of Puticevo. A total of six grenades landed, in rounds of three. One round of two at 12.10 pm, one round of two shells at 12.24 pm, a further round of two shells at 12.29 pm. During this period Zenica was isolated from the rest of the world for a half; the city suffered considerable civilian casualties from sniper fire and hunger. Bosnia's fourth-largest city had electricity. Du
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the two political entities that compose Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being Republika Srpska. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 autonomous cantons with their own governments, it is inhabited by Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats, why it is sometimes informally referred to as the Bosniak-Croat Federation. It is sometimes known by the shorter name Federation of B&H; the Federation was created by the 1994 Washington Agreement, which ended the part of the conflict whereby Bosnian Croats fought with Bosniaks. It established a constituent assembly that continued its work until October 1996; the Federation has a capital, president, parliament and police departments, two postal systems and an airline. It had its own army, the Army of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, merged with the Army of the Republika Srpska to form the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the capital and largest city is Sarajevo with 438,443 inhabitants and the total population of 688,354 in its metropolitan area.
The Serb-dominated Yugoslav People's Army attacked Croatia from Herzegovina. Their first target was the village Ravno, attacked on 2 November 1991 and destroyed. Yugoslavia effected an economic blockade of Bosnia and Herzegovina, thus trying to keep it as part of Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia claimed territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina with a Serb majority and the capital Sarajevo. Serb Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was declared on 27 March 1992 with the goal to incorporate parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina into Yugoslavia; the objective of Serbian politics in Bosnia and Herzegovina was to unite Serbian autonomous provinces into a single unit that would join Yugoslavia, with total blockade of Sarajevo, break Bosnia and Herzegovina into smaller and hardly defensible enclaves. Because of superiority in armaments, support from Belgrade and an embargo on the importation of arms into Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbs achieved their goals by June 1992; the Bosniak leadership was still indecisive concerning a major conflict, so the Croats were the first to participate in the war.
They organized military units, Croatian Defence Forces in November 1991 and the Croatian Defence Council in April 1992. Those units were composed of Bosniaks; the Territorial Defence of Bosnia and Herzegovina Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina organized in autumn of 1992. In Serb-controlled areas, Serbs performed mass murders, ethnic cleansing of non-Serbs Bosniaks and Croats, established concentration camps and destroyed Bosniak and Croat cultural inheritance. By November 1992 Serbs had conquered 70% of the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina and held Sarajevo in limbo by terrorizing its population by shelling and constant sniper fire; the creation of a Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia was a matter of dispute for Bosniaks. Croats accused Bosniaks of Islamization of the country and attempts to create Bosniak domination in all areas. So they withdrew the ethnic Croat representatives from Parliament and the Presidency. Due to expulsions by Bosnian Serbs, Bosniaks moved to other areas and thus disrupted the Croats' area and altered their pre-war ratio.
Political disputes and minor incidents in central and northern Bosnia and in northern and central Herzegovina led to Croat-Bosniak War in November 1992. The Vance-Owen plan was presented in January 1993, it was planned to create 10 cantons on the territory of the whole of Herzegovina. This plan increased conflict between Bosniaks; the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina launched four offensives and conquered a large area, under control of HVO. Crimes against civilians were committed on both sides. Hostility between Croats and Bosniaks ended with mediation by the United States and the signing of the Washington Agreement on 18 March 1994; the cooperation between Croats and Bosniaks was renewed, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a Bosniak and Croat controlled area was established. There was a proposal to create a confederation of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republic of Croatia; the joint command of ARBiH, HVO and Croatian Army was established in March 1995. The closer cooperation between Croats and Bosniaks was made through the Split Agreement where Bosnia and Herzegovina's Muslim leaders allowed the Croatian Army to free western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina with cooperation with ARBiH.
After the Operation Storm, the Serbian hoop around Bihać was broken and Croatian and Bosnian armies continued to liberate western Bosnia. The UN unsuccessfully tried to establish peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina by trying to create a successful structure for Bosnia and Herzegovina. Serbs launched an attack on the UN-protected town of Bihać, but they were stopped by the Croatian army during Operation Storm. Joint Croatian-Bosnian military successes made peace negotiations possible; the basis for the creation of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina were laid down by the Washington Agreement of March 1994. Under the agreement, the combined territory held by the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Croati
Visoko is a city located in Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As of 2013, it has a population of 41,352 inhabitants, it was an early centre of the Bosnian medieval state, the site where the first Bosnian king Tvrtko I was crowned. Located between Zenica and Sarajevo, Visoko lies on the Bosna river where the river Fojnica merges into it; the municipality is organized into 25 local communities. The Visoko municipality covers 232 square kilometres with several characteristic, morphologically distinctive valleys formed by the foothills of the Central Bosnian mountains including Ozren and Zvijezda; the altitude of the region ranges from 400 – 1,050 metres. Visoko's natural environment is defined by the river-valleys of the Fojnica rivers; the municipality borders the towns of Kiseljak, Busovača, Vareš, Ilijaš and Ilidža, is connected by rail to the Adriatic coast. It is on the Sarajevo–Zenica magistral road to the north; the Visoko region shows evidence of long continuous occupation, with the first traces of life dating back to 4000 BC.
Because there are two rivers that go through Visoko, the Bosna and Fojnica, the area of Visoko was always inhabited. In the Neolithic period, the area of Central Bosnia played an important role as a mediator between the settlements of Adriatic Coast and the central Balkans; these metropolitan areas were connected by Bosna rivers. Since Visoko was situated on the Bosna River, it has gained a lot of economic traffic between the two larger cities. Neolithic emplacements were founded on the shores of the rivers in places known today as Arnautovići, Donje Moštre, Okolište, Zbilje and Dvor. In these settlements, many tools, other objects have been found from this period. Since 2002, smaller excavations and geophysical prospectus ions in the big settlement hill Okolište were carried out; as the first, the result of these activities showed a geomagnetic plan of a 5 house settlement with house lines and connection systems. During the first excavations, 6 5 x 5 m surfaces were uncovered; the findings of excellently preserved settlements as well as typological, radiometric and botanical analyses of the present excavations show a large scientific potential of the place regarding the late Neolithic period.
In September 2007 the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina continued archaeological excavations of Okolište, where it is estimated that around 3,000 people lived in the settlement during the Neolithic Age. The age of settlement is estimated by Radiocarbon dating to be around 4700 to 4500 years B. C. E; this is one of the largest settlements found in Bosnia, confirmed by materials found and the number of houses that were located using the geomagnetic method. The Visoko area was inhabited by the Illyirian tribe of Daesitiates; the Roman empire established its rule in 9 AD and built roads and fortresses in places like Kralupi, Seoča and Mokronozi. Area of Visoko was part of Roman province Illyricum. Visoko is named after the Visoki Castle and the town of Visoki, which occupied Visočica hill, Mile, Biskupići and Moštre — together known as Visoko valley. Visoki and other historical places in the Visoko valley were the early center of the once powerful medieval Bosnian kingdom. Many historical charters were made and written in Visoko valley, including the charter of first Bosnian king Tvrtko I Kotromanić in 1355, in castro nostro Vizoka vocatum, the first direct mention of the town of Visoki.
Visoki was a place where many important documents and legislation of medieval Bosnia were signed and written. The town of Visoki had a defensive role in protecting trade center Podvisoki, located just below the town and was one of earliest examples of the medieval urban environments in Bosnia. Podvisoki was long time main trade center in medieval Bosnia; the Rusag met at Mile, where Tvrtko I was crowned in 1377 and buried alongside his uncle, Stjepan II Kotromanić, the Ban of Bosnia who preceded him. The Medieval Bosnian State Archive was located there. Mile is today known for its many ornamented tombs of kings and other former rulers. By 1340, Mile was the centre of the church province of Saint Kuzme an Damjan, the remains of the church can still be seen at the site. Ban Kulin's Plate was discovered at Biskupići, along with the remains of another medieval church, grave sites and the foundations of several other contemporary structures. Moštre's university, founded in 1175 was one of the first in Europe, was known for its scholarship in medicine, theology and ethics, although because of its connection to the Bosnian Church, nothing remains of its archives.
Its existence is documented only by a handful of references in the Vatican archives of its enemy, the Catholic Church. Other notable medieval settlements in the vicinity included Sebinje town, Čajan town in Gračanica — which protected the roads between Visoko and Bobovac — and the town of Bedem i Goduša; the area of Visoko was conquered by Ottoman Empire around 1463, it is from this time period that modern Visoko was formed. The founder of the town of Visoko was Ajas-beg, from Visoko but converted to Islam from Bogomilism. Visoko was a municipality at that time. From 1483, a voivod served at the head of the Visoko municipality, who together with the serdar was the representative of the military and administration; the main imam, who existed in Visoko, fulfilled religious duties to society. The court administration was carried out by the naib, who received help for bringing decisions b