Akure is a city in south-western Nigeria, is the largest city and capital of Ondo State. The city had a population of 484,798 as at the 2006 population census. Rock engravings dating back to the Mesolithic period, have been discovered on the outskirts of Akure; the oldest Homo sapiens fossil found in West Africa thus far was discovered there, dating back to around 11,000 years ago. Oral tradition states that Akure was founded by a grandson of the Emperor Oduduwa; the Prince left Ile-Ife, his grandfather's principal kingdom, in search of a place to settle after passing a strict test administered by Oduduwa himself, founded the city. The Oba's Palace is located at the centre of the town, was built in 1150 AD, it has over 15 courtyards, with each having its unique purpose. Ua nla, Ua Ibura, Ua jemifohun, Ua Ikomo are some of the names of the courtyards. For example, in the Ua ubura courtyard, oaths are taken, the ua Ikomo is used for naming ceremonies. At present, a bigger and more modern palace is being built to the south of the old palace's grounds.
Oja Oba, which means the Oba's Market, is just a stone's throw away from the Palace. Akure's King is supported by six high chiefs in his or her domain; the totem of Akure is the father of Omoremi Omoluabi was himself called Ekun. It is for this reason that every descendant of the Akure clan has been addressed by outsiders as Omo Ekun during the recitation of his or her praise poetry or, alternatively, as'Omo Akure Oloyemekun', since Omoremi was said to have stayed for a while at Igbo Ooye before coming to the Akure region. In 1915, the colonial government merged the divisions of Owo and Ekiti to form a new province with headquarters in Akure. In 1976, the town became the capital of Ondo State. Adebiyi Adegboye Adesida Afunbiowo II was chosen as the Deji of Akure on 13 August 2010 to succeed the previous Oba Oluwadamilare Adeshina, dethroned on 10 June 2010 for sacrilegious misdeeds. Afunbiowo's daughter, the Omoba Adetutu, was appointed princess regent following his demise on the 30th of November, 2013.
In 2015, Omoba Kola Aladetoyinbo emerged the new monarch of Akure after beating twelve other contestants nominated by the Osupa ruling house to become the 47th Deji of Akure. Akure lies 5 ° 19' east of the Meridian, it is 311 km north of Lagos State. Residential districts are of varying density, some area such as Arakale, Ayedun Quarters and Oja-Oba consist of over 200 persons per hectare, while areas such as Ijapo Estate, Alagbaka Estate and Idofin have between 60-100 people per hectare; the town is situated in the tropic rainforest zone in Nigeria. Akure has two television and Seven radio stations NTA Akure, Ondo State Television, Sunshine Radio Akure, Adaba FM, FUTA FM, Positive FM Akure, Orange FM, Galaxy Radio and Breeze FM. Akure is the trade center for a farming region where cocoa, cassava and tobacco are grown. Cotton is grown and used to weave cloth; the state specialist hospital in Akure is equipped and staffed with trained medical personnel to cater to the health needs of the populace.
To supplement the efforts of the state specialist hospital in this regard, there are other government health centres and private clinics.'Abiye' health programme of Governor Mimiko administration was recognized by World Health Organization as one of the best health programmes on maternal health programme with the establishment of Mother-Child hospital in Akure. The city has tertiary institutions which include: the Federal University of Technology Akure, Federal College of Agriculture, School of Nursing and Midwifery and School of Health Technology, it has famous secondary schools like St. Thomas Aquinas College, Oyemekun Grammar School, St. Louis Grammar School, Fiwasaye Girls' Grammar School; the first two are for boys while the latter two are for girls in the tradition of early schools in Nigeria. The town is host to Federal Government Girls' College and St. Peter's Unity Secondary School, amongst many others. Within the modern Akure kingdom are two other constituent communities with their separate chiefs and traditions.
The more prominent of the pair is Isikan. The Oba of Isikan is known as the Iralepo. In the olden days these were separate towns, but they were brought together under the nominal control of Akure as a result of a number of wars. Nearby towns include Isarun, Igbaraoke, Itaogbolu, Owo and Ondo; the most influential Deji in recent history was Oba Adesida I, known as Afunbiowo. Several Dejis after him were his direct descendants, it is the birthplace of notable Nigerians like Chief Olu Falae, legal luminary Dr Akinola Aguda and several personalities in the academia, the military and the civil service. Philip Emeagwali the Gordon Bell Prize winner was born in Akure while the mother of King Sunny Adé is a native of Akure. Akure is the hometown of Ralph Alabi, former Chairman of Guinness Nigeria, Kole Omotosho. In Akure, there are many stores which include cuisines such as Chicken Republic, Captain Cook and Mr. Bigg's. There are several clothing stores in Akure, with a newly opened store named "Atmospheric".
The major supermarkets are NAO supermarket,CECI supermarket,PEP stores, Omega supermarket DE CHRIS supermarket while there's a SHOPRITE STORE Akure mall. For sporting events, Akure has a stadium with a capacity to sit 15,000 spectators. A new state-of-the-a
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Idanre is a Local Government Area and historic town in Ondo State, Nigeria. The town is located at the foot of the scenic Idanre Hill, of unique cultural and environmental significance, attracts many tourists; the town is about 20 km southeast of the state's capital Akure, it has an area of 1,914 km² and a population of 129,024 as of the 2006 census. The postal code of the area is 340. Idanre is Nigeria's largest cocoa producing area. Idanre is a Yoruba speaking tribe with the majority Into farming and trading. Idanre controversially divided under three-leader Rule, is divided into three localities of Atosin, Odode. Although Ode Idanre is set as the Major Township with vast Population and Land Area, the others has always been recognized by the inhabitants independently. Idanre major food is mixed okro pounded yam; the Idanre Hill, or Oke Idanre is located in Idanre town in Ondo State of southwestern Nigeria. The hill of Idanre is one of the most beautiful natural landscapes in Nigeria, it includes such cultural sites as "Owa's Palace, Old Court, Agbooogun footprint, thunder water and burial mounds and grounds".
It resides 3000 ft above sea level and houses a unique ecosystem upon which the cultural landscape has integrated. On getting to the entrance of the hill you will see a great tree at the entrance of the ancient city of Idanre called the IRAYE TREE you can now get prepared to take the steps to the great city beyond the hills of Idanre; this site was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List on October 8, 2007 in the Cultural category. Amietophrynus perreti, or the Perret's toad, is only known from a single locality at the Idanre Hill; the five sites where forest elephants are found in southern Nigeria are the Omo Forests in Ogun State, the Okomu National Park in Edo State, the Cross River National Park in Cross River State, the IDANRE FORESTS and Osse River Park in Ondo State and the Andoni Island in Rivers State
Wembley is an area of north west London and part of the London Borough of Brent. It is notably home to the Wembley Wembley Stadium. Wembley formed a separate civil parish from 1894 and was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1937. In 1965, the area merged with the Municipal Borough of Willesden to create the London Borough of Brent, has since formed part of Greater London, it includes Alperton, North Wembley, Wembley Park and Northwick Park. Wembley is derived from the Old English proper name "Wemba" and the Old English "lea" for meadow or clearing; the name was first mentioned in the charter of 825 of Selvin. A further instance may be seen as Wambeleye; the village of Wembley grew up on the hill by the clearing with the Harrow Road south of it. Much of the surrounding area remained wooded. In 1547 there were but six houses in Wembley. Though small, it was one of the wealthiest parts of Harrow. At the dissolution of the monasteries in 1543, the manor of Wembley fell to Richard Andrews and Leonard Chamberlain, who sold it to Richard Page, Esq. of Harrow on the Hill, the same year.
The Page family continued as lords of the manor of Wembley for several centuries and commissioned Humphry Repton the landscape gardener to design what is now Wembley Park. Wembley Park thus derived its name from Repton's habit of referring to the areas he designed as "parks". There was a mill on Wembley Hill by 1673. In 1837, the London and Birmingham Railway was opened from London Euston through Wembley to Hemel Hempstead, completed to Birmingham Curzon Street the following year; the changing names of the local station demonstrated the increasing importance of the'Wembley' name.'Sudbury' station opened in 1845, renamed as'Sudbury and Wembley' in 1882, renamed as'Wembley for Sudbury' in 1910, renamed as'Wembley Central' in 1948, at the time of the Olympic Games. To modernise the service, a new Watford DC Line was built alongside the main lines and Bakerloo line trains, electric trains to Broad Street started in 1917. Electric trains to London Euston began running in 1922. Since 1917, there have been six platforms at.
In 1880, the Metropolitan Railway opened its line from Baker Street through the eastern side of Wembley, but only built a station, Wembley Park, in 1894. There are now three physically separate services, the London to Aylesbury Line, the Metropolitan line, the Jubilee line. Only the latter two services have platforms at Wembley Park station. In November 1905, the Great Central Railway opened a new route for fast expresses that by-passed the congested Metropolitan Railway tracks, it ran between Neasden Junction, south of Wembley, Northolt Junction, west of London, where a new joint main line with the Great Western Railway began. Local passenger services from London Marylebone were added from March 1906, when new stations were opened, including'Wembley Hill', next to what became the site of Wembley Stadium - the national stadium of English sport - which opened for the FA Cup Final of April 1923, remaining open for 77 years until it closed for reconstruction in October 2000. After a long planning and redevelopment process dogged by a series of funding problems and construction delays, the new stadium opened its doors in March 2007.
Wembley Hill station was renamed'Wembley Complex' in May 1978, before getting its present name of'Wembley Stadium' in May 1987. The area around the current Wembley Stadium was the location of the British Empire Exhibition of 1924-1925; until the 2000s, remnants of the many reinforced concrete buildings, including the original Wembley Stadium, but nearly all have now been removed, to make way for redevelopment. Wembley, in common with much of northwest London, had an extensive manufacturing industry, but much of it closed in the 1980s. Factories in the area included Glacier Metals, Wolf Power Tools, Sunbeam Electrical Appliances, Griffin & George and GEC; the retail centre of Wembley has suffered from chronic traffic congestion and from the opening of neighbouring purpose-built shopping centres, first Brent Cross in the early 1970s and the Harrow and Ealing Broadway Shopping Centres. During the 1960s, rebuilding of Wembley Central station, a block of flats, an open-plan shopping plaza, a car park were constructed on a concrete raft over the railway.
The shopping plaza suffered slow decline and was therefore poorly maintained, but it is being redeveloped. The first phase, including construction of eighty-five homes and reconstruction of the plaza, has been completed. Most of the rest of Wembley's housing consists of inter-war semi-detached houses and terraces and of modern apartment blocks, with a significant minority of detached housing. Extensive redevelopment has occurred in the Wembley Park area, about a mile northeast from Wembley town centre. On 16 May 1990, a 2 lb IRA bomb killed 34-year-old soldier Sergeant Charles Chapman and injured four others near the Stadium intersection in Wembley. Wembley has a high degree of ethnic diversity, as illustrated by the accompanying pie chart for Wembley Central. According to the 1991 census, 49.2% of the Wembley Cental ward was Asian, with 39% being Indian. The ward along with neighbouring Alperton were in the top 10 most diverse in London; the white population dropped further to 21.3% by the 2001 census, with 78.6% being of black or minority ethnic groups.
The White British populatio
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures and objects, performed in a sequestered place, performed according to set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions including a religious community. Rituals are characterized but not defined by formalism, invariance, rule-governance, sacral symbolism, performance. Rituals are a feature of all known human societies, they include not only the worship rites and sacraments of organized religions and cults, but rites of passage and purification rites, oaths of allegiance, dedication ceremonies, coming of age ceremony or rites and presidential inaugurations and funerals, school "rush" traditions and graduations, club meetings, sporting events, Halloween parties, veterans parades, Christmas shopping and more. Many activities that are ostensibly performed for concrete purposes, such as jury trials, execution of criminals, scientific symposia, are loaded with purely symbolic actions prescribed by regulations or tradition, thus ritualistic in nature.
Common actions like hand-shaking and saying "hello" may be termed rituals. The field of ritual studies has seen a number of conflicting definitions of the term. One given by Kyriakidis is that a ritual is an outsider's or "etic" category for a set activity that, to the outsider, seems irrational, non-contiguous, or illogical; the term can be used by the insider or "emic" performer as an acknowledgement that this activity can be seen as such by the uninitiated onlooker. In psychology, the term ritual is sometimes used in a technical sense for a repetitive behavior systematically used by a person to neutralize or prevent anxiety; the English word ritual derives from the Latin ritualis, "that which pertains to rite". In Roman juridical and religious usage, ritus was the proven way of doing something, or "correct performance, custom"; the original concept of ritus may be related to the Sanskrit ṛtá" in Vedic religion, "the lawful and regular order of the normal, therefore proper and true structure of cosmic, worldly and ritual events".
The word "ritual" is first recorded in English in 1570, came into use in the 1600s to mean "the prescribed order of performing religious services" or more a book of these prescriptions. There are hardly any limits to the kind of actions; the rites of past and present societies have involved special gestures and words, recitation of fixed texts, performance of special music, songs or dances, manipulation of certain objects, use of special dresses, consumption of special food, drink, or drugs, much more. Catherine Bell argues that rituals can be characterized by formalism, invariance, rule-governance, sacral symbolism and performance. Ritual utilizes a limited and rigidly organized set of expressions which anthropologists call a "restricted code". Maurice Bloch argues that ritual obliges participants to use this formal oratorical style, limited in intonation, vocabulary and fixity of order. In adopting this style, ritual leaders' speech becomes more style than content; because this formal speech limits what can be said, it induces "acceptance, compliance, or at least forbearance with regard to any overt challenge".
Bloch argues that this form of ritual communication makes rebellion impossible and revolution the only feasible alternative. Ritual tends to support traditional forms of social hierarchy and authority, maintains the assumptions on which the authority is based from challenge. Rituals appeal to tradition and are continued to repeat historical precedent, religious rite, mores or ceremony accurately. Traditionalism varies from formalism in that the ritual may not be formal yet still makes an appeal to the historical trend. An example is the American Thanksgiving dinner, which may not be formal, yet is ostensibly based on an event from the early Puritan settlement of America. Historians Eric Hobsbawm and Terrence Ranger have argued that many of these are invented traditions, such as the rituals of the British monarchy, which invoke "thousand year-old tradition" but whose actual form originate in the late nineteenth century, to some extent reviving earlier forms, in this case medieval, discontinued in the meantime.
Thus, the appeal to history is important rather than accurate historical transmission. Catherine Bell states that ritual is invariant, implying careful choreography; this is less an appeal to traditionalism than a striving for timeless repetition. The key to invariance is bodily discipline, as in monastic prayer and meditation meant to mold dispositions and moods; this bodily discipline is performed in unison, by groups. Rituals tend to be governed by a feature somewhat like formalism. Rules impose norms on the chaos of behavior, either defining the outer limits of what is acceptable or choreographing each move. Individuals are held to communally approved customs that evoke a legitimate communal authority that can constrain the possible outcomes. War in most societies has been bound by ritualized constraints that limit the legitimate means by which war was waged. Activities appealing to supernatural beings are considered rituals, although the appeal may be quite indirect, expressing only a generalized belief in the existence of the sacred demanding a human response.
National flags, for example, may be considered more than signs representing a country. The flag stands for larger symbols such as freedom, free enterprise or national superiority. Anthropologi
A veranda or verandah is a roofed, open-air gallery or porch, attached to the outside of a building. A veranda is partly enclosed by a railing and extends across the front and sides of the structure. Although the form verandah is correct and common, some authorities prefer the version without an "h"; the veranda has featured quite prominently in Australian vernacular architecture and first became widespread in colonial buildings during the 1850s. The Victorian Filigree architecture style is used by residential and commercial buildings across Australia and features decorative screens of wrought iron, cast iron "lace" or wood fretwork; the Queenslander is a style of residential construction in Queensland, adapted to subtropical climates and characterized by its large verandas. The bandeirista style house from Brazil has a veranda positioned to face the sunrise. In Heavy Snowfall region in Japan Aomori and Niigata Prefectures, The structures are developed called Gangi-Zukuri since Edo period. For example, The total length of Gangi in old Takada city is over 16 Kilometers.
In Poland, the word "weranda" is used for the unheated roofed annex to a house, without walls or with glass walls. The Creole townhouse in New Orleans, Louisiana, is noted for its prominent use of verandas. In fact, most houses constructed in the Southern United States before the advent of air conditioning were built with a covered front porch or veranda. Spanish Colonial architecture incorporates verandas, both on the exterior of buildings and, in cases of buildings with courtyards, along the interior walls of courtyards. In some cases, homes were constructed with every room opening into a courtyard veranda, rather than interior corridors or direct connections to other rooms. Given its Portuguese and British rule many colonial Sri Lankan bungalows feature Verandahs. In the Sri Lankan Walauwa it is used as a space for leisure where families will spend time or read newspapers. Given the rarity of the architectural style in contemporary Sri Lanka houses with verandahs are featured in local films and dramas and symbolise a wealthy household.
Archnet discussion forum on Verandah British Empire Architecture Ajay Sinha Discovers Experimentation in Ancient Indian Temple Design See more verandahs in the State Library of Queensland's collection