Principality of Pereyaslavl
The Principality of Pereyaslavl was a regional principality of Kievan Rus from the end of 9th century until 1323, based in the city of Pereyaslavl on the Trubizh River. The Principality of Pereyaslavl was usually administrated by younger sons of the Grand Prince of Kiev, the Russian Primary Chronicle dates the foundation of the city of Pereyaslavl to 992, the archaeological evidence suggests it was founded not long after this date. In its early days Pereyaslavl was one of the important cities in Kievan Rus behind the Principality of Chernigov, the city was located at a ford where Vladimir the Great fought a battle against the nomad Pechenegs. The Primary Chronicle records that in 988 Vladimir assigned the lands to Yaroslav. Pereyaslavl was destroyed by the Mongols in March 1239, the first Rus city to fall in the Mongol invasion of Rus
Prince Semyon Yurievich of Halshany was a noble from the Olshanski family in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Olshanski first appeared in politics as Grand Dukes marshal in 1488, two years he became starosta of Lutsk and successfully defended Volhynia from the Tatar invasion during the Polish–Ottoman War. He commanded the army in the victorious Battle of Zaslaw in January 1491 and was promoted to Marshal of Volhynia, when his son-in-law Konstanty Ostrogski was captured in the 1500 Battle of Vedrosha, Olshanski became Great Hetman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. However, he was replaced by Stanislovas Kęsgaila in 1501 or 1502, jan Litawor Chreptowicz, regent of Nowogródek, was taken captive at Vedrosha. He was married to Hedwig Olshanska, Semyons niece, and Olshanski took over Nowogródek, here as well he was soon replaced by Piotr Hlebowicz. However, he was able to hold the title of starosta of Kremenets until his death in 1505
Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated.
The senate appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine adopted Christianity which became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos.
The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperor
Grand Prince of Kiev
Grand Prince of Kyiv was the title of the Kievan prince and the ruler of Kievan Rus from the 10th to 13th centuries. In the 13th century, Kiev became an appanage principality first of the Grand Prince of Volodymyr and the Golden Horde governors, according to some Ukrainian historians, Ptolemys mention of Metropolis, a Sarmatian town on the Dnieper River, shows the ancient existence of Kiev. The name Dnieper is derived from Sarmatian Dānu apara the river far away, according to Slavophiles, Kyi ruled since 430, one of the dates attributed to the legendary founding of Kiev in 482, although that date relates to Kovin on the Danube in Serbia. Some historians speculate that Kyi was a Slavic prince of eastern Polans in the 6th century, kyis legacy along with Shcheks is mentioned in the Book of Veles, the authenticity of which, however, is disputed. Oleg, an apocryphal Kiev voivode, probably of Danish or Swedish origin, bravlin was a Varangian prince or chieftain, who led a Rus military expedition to devastate the Crimea, from Kerch to Sugdaea, in the last years of the 8th century.
According to some Russian historians, Dir was a chacanus of Rhos, thomas Noonan asserts that one of the Rus sea-kings, the High king, adopted the title khagan in the early 9th century. Peter Benjamin Golden maintained that the Rus became a part of the Khazar federation, some western historians suppose that Kiev was founded by Khazars or Magyars. Kiev is a Turkic place name, at least during the 8th and 9th centuries Kiev functioned as an outpost of the Khazar empire. According to Omeljan Pritsak, Constantine Zuckerman and other scholars, Khazars lost Kiev at the beginning of the 10th century, due to Mongol invasion in 1240 Michael of Chernigov left Kiev to seek military assistance from the Kingdom of Hungary. During that time Prince of Smolensk Rostislav occupied Kiev, but was captured the year by Daniel of Galicia who placed his voivode Dmytro to guard Kiev while the Grand Prince was away. Being unsuccessful in Hungary, Michael visited Konrad I in Masovia, receiving no results in Poland, he eventually asked Daniel of Galicia for a sanctuary due to the invasion of Mongols.
Since the 14th century the principality of Kiev started to fall under the influence of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, in 1299 Metropolitan of Kiev Maximus moved his metropolitan see from Kiev to Vladimir-on-Klyazma. In 1331 Kiev once again was taken by members of Rurik dynasty, after the Battle of Blue Waters in 1362, Kiev and surrounding areas were incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania
Its capital and most populous city is Minsk. Over 40% of its 207,600 square kilometres is forested and its strongest economic sectors are service industries and manufacturing. In the aftermath of the 1917 Russian Revolution, Belarus declared independence as the Belarusian Peoples Republic, the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia became a founding constituent republic of the Soviet Union in 1922 and was renamed as the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Belarus lost almost half of its territory to Poland after the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921, during WWII, military operations devastated Belarus, which lost about a third of its population and more than half of its economic resources. The republic was redeveloped in the post-war years, in 1945 the Byelorussian SSR became a founding member of the United Nations, along with the Soviet Union and the Ukrainian SSR. The parliament of the declared the sovereignty of Belarus on 27 July 1990. Alexander Lukashenko has served as the president since 1994.
Belarus has been labeled Europes last dictatorship by some Western journalists, Lukashenko continued a number of Soviet-era policies, such as state ownership of large sections of the economy. Though not directly espousing communism like the five remaining communist countries of China, Laos and North Korea, in 2000 Belarus and Russia signed a treaty for greater cooperation, with some hints of forming a Union State. Over 70% of Belaruss population of 9.49 million resides in urban areas, more than 80% of the population is ethnic Belarusian, with sizable minorities of Russians and Ukrainians. Since a referendum in 1995, the country has had two official languages and Russian, the Constitution of Belarus does not declare any official religion, although the primary religion in the country is Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Belarus is the only European country to retain capital punishment in both law and practice, the name Belarus is closely related with the term Belaya Rus, i. e. White Rus. There are several claims to the origin of the name White Rus, an alternate explanation for the name comments on the white clothing worn by the local Slavic population.
A third theory suggests that the old Rus lands that were not conquered by the Tatars had been referred to as white, other sources claim that, before 1267, the land not conquered by the Mongols was considered White Rus. The name Rus is often conflated with its Latin forms Russia and Ruthenia, in some languages, including German and Dutch, the country is generally called White Russia to this day. The Latin term Alba Russia was used again by Pope Pius VI in 1783 to recognize the Society of Jesus there, exclaiming Approbo Societatem Jesu in Alba Russia degentem, approbo. The first known use of White Russia to refer to Belarus was in the century by Englishman Sir Jerome Horsey. During the 17th century, the Russian tsars used White Rus to describe the lands added from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Sapieha is a Polish princely family of Lithuanian and Ruthenian origin, descending from the medieval boyars of Smolensk. The family acquired great influence and wealth in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth during the 16th century, semen had two sons and Iwan. The creator of the fortune and power of the Sapieha family was the Court and Great Chancellor and Great Hetman of Lithuania, on 14 September 1700, Michał Franciszek Sapieha obtained the title of Prince from Emperor Leopold I. The title became extinct upon his death on 19 November 1700 and that year, the family lost its dominant position in the Grand Duchy as a result of its defeat in the Lithuanian Civil War. In 1768, members of the Sapieha family obtained recognition of the title from the Polish Sejm. After the partitions of Poland, the family appeared in the list of persons authorised to bear the title of Prince of the Kingdom of Poland in 1824, the title was recognised in Austria in 1836 and 1840, and in Russia in 1874 and 1901. In 1905, the family obtained the qualification of Serene Highness in Austria, the maternal grandmother of Queen Mathilde of Belgium was a member of the house of Sapieha.
The Sapieha family used the Polish coat of arms named Lis, numery /112 przy nazwiskach oznaczają numery biogramów w/w pozycji. Tłomacki A. Sapiehowie Kodeńscy, nakładem własnym, Warszawa 2009
For other towns with a similar name see Dąbrowica Dubrovytsia is a town in Rivne Oblast, Ukraine. It is administrative center of the Dubrovytsia Raion, and is the site of the now ruined Jewish shtetl of Dombrovitza, until the Holocaust the city had three synagogues. Although in modern times part of Rivne Oblast, it was not part of Volhynia. It was not until 1805 that it was attached to Volhynian Governorate of the Russian Empire. In 19th century Dąbrowica was a centre of commerce, with a number of factories and manufactures serving the local market. It was notable for its run by Piarist monks. Among its alumni were Cyprian Godebski, Alojzy Feliński and Łukasz Gołębiowski, the town was owned by a Polish noble family, the Pliater brothers, who were murdered by the farmers as part of the communist revolution on November 22,1918. A younger brother survived, but moved away, the town was declared under communist self-rule. The Ukrainian army under Symon Petliura took the town for two days, in September 1939 the Soviets took over the town, in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.
A large Jewish population thrived at the center of town, owning many of the stores and houses there, Jews owned the timber cutting factories, one of the major industries in the area. In 1915 with the withdrawal of the Polish army of Nikolai, trains with Jewish refugees and Jewish soldiers reached the town, until 1917 the 83rd division of the Polish Democratic Republic stayed in town, expelling many of the Jews from their homes, and annexing their houses. During the Russian revolution, the Jews were accused of siding with the communists, against the white Russians and the Poles, who claimed national sovereignty. In March 1918 the remnants of the 83rd division of the now deserted army joined forces with Polish militants and began rampaging and killing Jews in the villages around Dubrovytzia. The Jews of the organized a self-defense team, and during the gathering of the militia with local farmers for a major planned lynch attack. Later the head of the militia was caught and imprisoned by the self-defense team, a German army unit took over the town, although Germany had signed a peace agreement and the war supposedly had ended.
In 1919, a hanging of Jews from towns nearby in the forest by Bolokhovist anti communist Polish and Russian soldiers took place. In 1920 Jews were repeatedly harassed and some killed when the town passed hands back, each of the three armies killed Jews confiscated property and accused the Jews of being loyal to their enemy. During the attack of the Petliura forces in 1919, the Jews fled the town to the nearby Wiesuzk Jews, four townsmen were killed including the ritual butcher, and one woman was killed in Wiesuzk by the Patliura militia
Slonim is a city in Grodno Region, capital of the Slonim district. It is located at the junction of the Shchara and Isa rivers,143 km southeast of Grodno, the population in 2015 was 49,739. Slonim has been known by several versions of its name, Сло́нім, Słonim, Slonim was first mentioned in chronicles in 1252 as Uslonim and in 1255 as Vslonim. According to one version, the name of the city originates from the Slavic word zaslona, another version, proposed by Jazep Stabroŭski, states that Slonim is a derivative from Uzslenimas in the Lithuanian language simply means beyond the valley. Some 19th century European historians tried to connect the name Slonim to the root word slon, this hypothesis has never been taken seriously. The earliest record is of a fort on the left bank of the Shchara river in the 11th century. The area was disputed between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Kievan Rus in early history and it changed several times. In 1040, the Kievans won control of the area after a battle, the Ruthenians retook the area early in the 13th century but were expelled by a Tartar invasion in 1241 and the town was pillaged.
When, in the year, the Tartars withdrew, Slonim became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania once again, in 1569, Lithuania and Poland united and Slonim became an important regional centre within the newly established Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. From 1631 to 1685 the city flourished as the seat of the Lithuanian diet, Slonim was in the area annexed by Russia. Ogiński built a complex, combining an opera theater, a school of music and a school of ballet. Russian control lasted until 1915, when the German army captured the town, after the First World War, the Slonim area was disputed between the Soviet Union and the newly recreated state of Poland. The town suffered badly in the Polish-Soviet war of 1920 and it was ceded by the Bolsheviks to Poland in the 1921 Peace of Riga and became a part of Nowogródek Voivodeship of the Second Polish Republic. Slonim was one of the towns in Poland that had a significant Jewish population. The imposing Great Synagogue, built in 1642, survived the destruction, the 10 small synagogues around the Great Synagogue called Stiblach did not survive.
In 1939, the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union resulted in the invasion of Poland by the two powers and its division between them, Slonim was in the area designated by the Pact to fall within the Soviet sphere of influence. The Soviets placed that area within the Byelorussian SSR, two years later, Germany invaded the Soviets and Slonim was captured. The Słonim Jews were herded into the Słonim Ghetto set up at the Na Wyspie neighbourhood across the bridge on the Szczara River, soon thereafter, 70% of Slonims Jews had been killed by the Einsatzgruppen, including 9,000 on 14 November 1941
Igor Olshansky is a Ukrainian-born former American football defensive end in the National Football League. He played college football at Oregon and was drafted by the San Diego Chargers in the round of the 2004 NFL Draft. He played for the Dallas Cowboys and Miami Dolphins, Olshansky was born in the industrial city of Dnipropetrovsk, Soviet Union. His father Yury had played basketball for the Red Army, shortly before the break-up of the Soviet Union, he and his family moved to San Francisco in 1989, when he was seven years old. His maternal grandfather, Abraham Rubshevsky, fought in World War II for the Red Army, Olshansky is Jewish and said of being Jewish, Its who I am, my culture, my roots. During his youth he attended the Lisa Kampner Hebrew Academy in San Francisco, headed by Rabbi Pinchos Lipner and he attended St. Louis and Milwaukee. After two years, he began playing football in his junior year in high school. He was used at all line positions. In his career at Oregon he had 146 tackles,11.5 sacks,3 blocked kicks, Olshansky left school following his junior season, with one year of eligibility remaining.
He set a record with a 505-pound bench press, and holds team records in the clean and jerk. In early try-outs for the draft, he bench-pressed 102.1 kilograms 43 times on one try and he ran the 40-yard dash in 4.9 seconds and jumped 33.5 inches from a stationary position. He scored high on the Wonderlic intelligence test in spite of still being unfamiliar with the English language, a National Football Conference scouting director observed, He can play both end and tackle, he can control the point and rush the passer, hes a very good athlete. In the second round of the 2004 NFL Draft, the San Diego Chargers selected Olshansky out of the University of Oregon, in August 2004, Olshansky and the Chargers agreed on a 6-year contract, with the final year being voidable. The contract called for a $2.25 million signing bonus and had a value of $5.2 million over five years and he became the NFLs first Soviet-born player. In his rookie season in 2004, he started all 16 of the teams games, Olshansky was ejected from a game against the Denver Broncos on November 19,2006.
He punched Broncos center Tom Nalen after what appeared to be Nalen trying to cut block Olshansky on a spike play. Olshansky had recently had knee surgery when Nalen went after Olshanskys knees, two days later, the NFL fined Nalen $25,000 for the cut block, more than double the $10,000 fine Olshansky received for the punch. With the Chargers, he had 151 tackles and 11 sacks in 75 games, Olshansky signed a four-year contract with the Dallas Cowboys on March 6,2009