Hausvogteiplatz (Berlin U-Bahn)
Hausvogteiplatz is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U 2 in Mitte. The eponymous square, former site of a bastion of the historic city fortification, was named after the Prussian aulic court and prison. In the late 19th century it had developed as a centre of Berlin's clothing industry; the station designed by Alfred Grenander opened on 1 October 1908 with Berlin's second U-Bahn line, running from Potsdamer Platz on the initial Stammstrecke route to Spittelmarkt. During an air raid on 3 February 1945 it was devastated by a direct bomb hit and could not be reopened until 1950. Www.hausvogteiplatz.de
Gleisdreieck (Berlin U-Bahn)
Gleisdreieck is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on a viaduct on the U 1/U 3 and the U 2 lines in the Kreuzberg district. The station has platforms; the platforms of the U1/U3 are at a higher level than, at right angles to, those of the U2. The station's name means "railway triangle" or wye in English and marks the spot of an earlier major train hub opened in 1902, where the three branches of the first Stammstrecke U-Bahn line from Zoologischer Garten, Potsdamer Platz and Warschauer Brücke met. A major accident at the triangle happened on 26 September 1908. One car derailed and fell from the viaduct, killing 18 people and injuring 21. Upon another dangerous incident, the single level triangle from 1912 was rebuilt and replaced by the current two-level station. Since there is no direct rail connection between the two lines at Gleisdreieck, only an intersection. Though in 1939 the North-South Tunnel was opened in close vicinity, there is no interchange to the S-Bahn system. In 28/29 January 1944, there was a heavy hit in the viaduct, on 14 February 1945, there was adverse bombing hits heavy air pressure damage to the steel station construction.
It was directly hit on 3 February 1945. On 11/12 March 1945, the signal box was destroyed, on 18 March 1945, the upper platform was destroyed. A viaduct was destroyed in the Battle of Berlin. After the building of the Berlin Wall from 13 August 1961 the lower platform became the eastern terminus of the U2, until service discontinued on 1 January 1972. Between 1984 and 1991 it served as the southern terminal of the short-lived M-Bahn maglev running to Kemperplatz near the Philharmonie; the U2 train service on the lower platform was resumed on 13 November 1993. It is the westernmost station in Kreuzberg for both lines; the German Museum of Technology is adjacent to the station. The name Gleisdreieck refers to a large area in the south, the former freight yards of the Anhalter and Potsdamer Bahnhof, which are redeveloped as an urban park. Gardner, Nicky. "Letter from Europe: The Lost Kingdom". Hidden Europe website. Hidden europe. Retrieved 30 August 2013
Alfred Frederik Elias Grenander, was a Swedish architect, who became one of the most prominent engineers during the first building period of the Berlin U-Bahn network in the early twentieth century. Born in Skövde, Grenander was raised in Stockholm and began studying at the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology in 1881, he changed to the Royal Technical College of Charlottenburg in 1885. After his final degree in 1890 he became a site engineer at the construction of the new Reichstag building under the direction of Paul Wallot and continued his career in the architectural office of Alfred Messel. In 1896 Grenander set up his own business and worked as a designer of the Hochbahngesellschaft, an affiliate of Siemens & Halske established in 1897 to build the first U-Bahn elevated railway of Berlin, opened in 1902. Up to 1931, he constructed about 70 U-Bahn stations. While the first stations were designed in an Art Nouveau or Neoclassical style, he preferred a Modern architecture. Alfred Grenander died in Berlin.
In 2009 the front yard of Krumme Lanke station in Berlin-Zehlendorf was named in his honour. 1902: Ernst-Reuter-Platz 1906: Deutsche Oper, Wilhelmplatz - demolished 1907: Potsdamer Platz 1908: Sophie-Charlotte-Platz, Theodor-Heuss-Platz.
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Uhlandstraße (Berlin U-Bahn)
The underground station Uhlandstraße is the western terminus of U1 line, part of the Berlin U-Bahn network. It is located on Kurfürstendamm boulevard in the central Charlottenburg quarter of Berlin, among a mix of chain and high end shopping facilities; the station opened on October 12, 1913 at the intersection of Kurfürstendamm and Uhlandstraße, named after the poet Ludwig Uhland. Built according to plans designed by Alfred Grenander it was meant as the first section of a projected metro line connecting Wittenbergplatz with Berlin-Halensee station which, was never built. Damaged by the bombing of Berlin in World War II, the station was closed in 1945. From 1970, trains only went to Wittenbergplatz station but since 1993 trains are going to Warschauer Straße station again; the second entrance at the eastern end of the station, at the junction of Kurfürstendamm and Fasanenstraße, was closed in 1964, but re-opened in 2005. Up to today, the area is somewhat reminiscent of the period of promoterism and the Wirtschaftswunder days of the 1950s.
Quiet, green roads with expensive flats make the area one of the most desirable but unaffordable in Berlin, comparable for instance to the area between Westminster and Kensington in London
Westend is a locality of the Berlin borough Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf in Germany. It emerged in the course of Berlin's 2001 administrative reform on the grounds of the former Charlottenburg borough. A mansion colony, it is today a quite densely settled, still affluent territory adjacent to Berlin's inner city in the east. Westend is situated west of Berlin's inner city on Spandauer Berg, the northern peak of the sandy Teltow plateau between the river valleys of Spree and Havel, it is centered on Theodor-Heuss-Platz, a large square, from where the Heerstraße arterial road, part of the Bundesstraße 2 and Bundesstraße 5 highways, runs west towards the Berlin city limits. In the west and north, Westend borders on the Berlin Spandau borough; the locality includes the neighbourhoods of Neu-Westend and Ruhleben, a suburban housing area of the 1920s. The site of the former Ruhleben internment camp, a World War I detention camp for civilians, today is part of the adjacent Spandau district. Furthermore, the areas of Pichelsberg, Heerstraße and Eichkamp at the northern rim of the Grunewald forest belong to Westend.
It is home of the Messe Berlin exhibition grounds and of the Olympiastadion built for the 1936 Summer Olympics. When upon the 1806 Battle of Jena–Auerstedt victorious Napoleon moved into Berlin, he had a military camp set up on Spandauer Berg, though he himself chose nearby Charlottenburg Palace for accommodation. In May 1808 General Claude Victor-Perrin, French governor of Berlin, pitched the large Camp Napoleonbourg here, however, he folded up his tents in November and wasteland was left behind. On the road from Charlottenburg to Spandau, the Spandauer Bock brewery was established in 1840, together with a popular pub catering though of doubtful reputation; the Villenkolonie Westend was developed from 1866 on as a residential area for the wealthy bourgeoisie of Berlin and named after the West End of London. The beginnings, overshadowed by the Austro-Prussian War, were quite modest and the first land settlement company around the Stettin merchant Johannes Quistorp and architect Martin Gropius collapsed in the Panic of 1873.
The development was boosted by Berlin's population pressure after the unification of Germany and similar to other mansion colonies such as Lichterfelde West or Grunewald, most of the premsies were overbuilt by the end of the century. The area was connected to the Berlin Ringbahn with the inauguration of Westend station in 1877. In 1889 a harness racing track opened, relocated to Ruhleben in 1908. Westend again became a garrison town, when in the 1890s the 3rd Brigade regiment No. 3 barracks of the German 2nd Guards Infantry Division were erected on the eastern Spandauer Berg slope. On 8 June 1913, the Deutsches Stadion was inaugurated in the northern Grunewald forest, designated as venue of the 1916 Summer Olympics that were never held due to World War I and rebuilt as Olympiastation. Funkturm, erected in 1926 on the Messe Berlin grounds Haus des Rundfunks by Hans Poelzig, 1931, today broadcasting centre of the Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg Deutschlandhalle arena, 1935, demolished in 2011 Messe Berlin arena, 1936/1937 St. George's Anglican Church, 1950 Epiphany Church, built in 1906 according to plans designed by Jürgen Kröger Olympic Stadium with Bell Tower and Waldbühne amphitheatre by Werner March, 1934–36 Unité d'Habitation with Modulor scale by Le Corbusier, part of the Interbau exhibition 1957 Studio of sculptor Georg Kolbe, 1928/1929, today a museum Internationales Congress Centrum conference centre, 1975–1979 Mommsen Stadium, 1930, home of the Tennis Borussia Berlin football club Westend hospital of the German Red Cross Spandauer Berg water tower, 1909 Villas along the street Am Rupenhorn by Erich Mendelsohn, 1930 and Wassili and Hans Luckhardt, 1932 Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Cemetery Westend is served by the Berlin S-Bahn Ringbahn lines S41, S42 and S46 at the stations Westend, Messe Nord/ICC and Westkreuz as well as the Westbahn lines S75 and S5 at the stations Messe Süd, Heerstraße, Olympiastadion and Pichelsberg.
The Siemensstadt-Fürstenbrunn station is abandoned since 1980. U-Bahn connection to the inner city is provided by the U2 line with the stations Kaiserdamm, Theodor-Heuss-Platz, Neu-Westend, Olympia-Stadion and Ruhleben; the A100 motorway marks Westend's eastern border. The federal highways Bundesstraße 2 and Bundesstraße 5 together run through the locality along the streets Kaiserdamm and Heerstraße. Near the S-Bahn station Messe Nord/ICC is Berlin's Central Bus station Zentraler Omnibusbahnhof. St. George's Anglican Church, Berlin Touro College Berlin Media related to Westend at Wikimedia Commons
Hallesches Tor (Berlin U-Bahn)
The underground station Hallesches Tor is part of the Berlin U-Bahn network at the intersection of the east-west bound U1/U3 and the north-south bound U6 in the central Kreuzberg quarter. It is named; the historic gate of the Customs Wall, laid out from 1737 onwards to replace the medieval city fortifications, marked the southern tip of the Friedrichstadt neighbourhood. It was located at the southern end of the Rondell. Neighbouring gates were on Potsdamer Platz in the west and on Wassertorplatz in the east, where the present course of the U1 viaduct corresponds to the former city wall. South of the gate, a wooden bridge led across the Landwehr Canal; the present-day stone bridge was built between 1874 and 1876. The U1 and U3 platform on an elevated railway at the northern banks of the Landwehr Canal opened on 18 February 1902 with Berlin's first U-Bahn line from Stralauer Tor to Potsdamer Platz; the underground U6 platform was linked by a pedestrian tunnel. Up to today, changing from one platform to the other is a quite long distance.
Though damaged by the bombing of Berlin in World War II, both parts of the station had to be shut down due to numerous bombing hits and electricity shortage in April 1945. U-Bahn service at the underground platform was resumed on July 4, 1945; the viaduct was rebuilt by 1949, the lower platform was elongated and refurbished in 1976. The Amerika-Gedenkbibliothek on Blücherplatz and the Jewish Museum Berlin with its 1999 extension designed by Daniel Libeskind are nearby