Wenlock Olympian Games
The Wenlock Olympian Games, dating from 1850, are a forerunner of the modern Olympic Games. They are organised by the Wenlock Olympian Society, are held each year at venues across Shropshire, centred on the little market town of Much Wenlock. One of the two mascots for the 2012 Summer Olympics was named Wenlock in honour of the Wenlock Olympian Games. On 25 February 1850 the Wenlock Agricultural Reading Society resolved to establish a class called The Olympian Class – "for the promotion of the moral and intellectual improvement of the inhabitants of the town and neighbourhood of Wenlock and of the working classes, by the encouragement of outdoor recreation, by the award of prizes annually at public meetings for skill in athletic exercise and proficiency in intellectual and industrial attainments"; the secretary of the class and driving force behind the Olympian Games was Dr William Penny Brookes, inspired to create these events through his work as a doctor and surgeon in the sprawling borough of Wenlock which consisted of Madeley and Much Wenlock.
The first meeting was held at Much Wenlock racecourse on 22–23 October 1850. The first Games were a mixture of athletics and traditional country sports such as quoits and cricket. Events included running, hurdles and cycling on penny farthings; some of the early Games included "fun events" as the blindfolded wheelbarrow race and, one year an'Old Women's Race' with the prize of a pound of tea. In 1859 Wenlock Olympian Class sent £10 to Athens as a prize for the best runner in the Long Foot Race at the Zappas Olympics, held in November that year – open only to Greek-speaking athletes; the Wenlock Prize, the largest prize on offer was won by Petros Velissarios of Smyrna in the Ottoman Empire, one of the first international Olympians. In 1860, when the games were held despite'vile weather', Lieutenant Colonel Herbert Edwardes, who Brookes had invited to speak at the games, praised their founder and the WARS's work but showed disagreement with the Greek influence by publicly suggesting the games be called "'The Shropshire Class of British Work and Play', or anything else you will.
Despite that the Olympian name stuck. Following a dispute with WARS, in November 1860, the Wenlock Olympian Class separated from WARS and changed its name to Wenlock Olympian Society; the 1860 Games the following year was a great success and Rifle Shooting was added to the programme. In 1861 after several years of work by Brookes and his colleagues the Shropshire Olympian Games were introduced; the first National Olympian Games were held in London in 1866 and were organised by the National Olympian Association, co-founded by Brookes in 1865. The National Olympic Association ceased its operations in 1883. Baron Pierre de Coubertin visited the Olympian Society in 1890, which held a special festival in his honour, he went on to establish the International Olympic Committee. Brookes was named as an honorary delegate at the 1894 Sorbonne Congress at which the IOC was established, although he was unable to attend due to ill health; the Wenlock Olympian Games continued intermittently after his death in 1895, with significant revivals in 1950 and 1977.
The current series has been running since 1977, has received official recognition from the IOC and the British Olympic Association, exemplifed by visits from the Princess Royal for the BOA in 1990 and Juan Antonio Samaranch for the IOC in 1994. The mascot for the London 2012 Summer Olympics was named Wenlock after Much Wenlock where the Wenlock Olympian Society and its Games began; the 2012 Summer Paralympics mascot was named Mandeville in honour of Stoke Mandeville Hospital, where the Paralympian Games originated. The medals awarded the Greek goddess of victory, as do Olympic medals. Following the unexpected death of President Roy Rogers, triple jump world record holder and Olympic gold medallist Jonathan Edwards, CBE, was elected President of the WOS in 2011. In 2017 the games included the following: Archery Athletics Badminton Fencing Golf Junior Biathlon Kwik Cricket Half Marathon Netball Road Race Schools Hockey Tennis Triathlon Volleyball Live Arts, open to school age participants, consisting of the following: Cotswold Olimpick Games British Olympic Association International Olympic Committee Mullins, Sam.
British Olympians: William Penny Brookes and the Wenlock Games. ISBN 978-0-901662-01-9. Furbank, Muriel. William Penny Brookes and the Olympic Connection. Much Wenlock: Wenlock Olympian Society. Beale, Catherine. Born Out of Wenlock: William Penny Brookes and the British Origins of the Modern Olympics. DB Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85983-967-6. Heck, Sandra. William Penny Brookes – the Founding Father of the Modern Pentathlon?. Sport in History. 34 pp. 75–89 DOI: 10.1080/17460263.2013.873074 Wenlock Olympian Society BBC: William Penny Brookes – Father of the modern Olympics
Olympic Stadium is the name given to the main stadium of an Olympic Games. An Olympic stadium is the site of closing ceremonies. Many, though not all, of these venues contain the words Olympic Stadium as part of their names. Olympic Stadium may be named a multi-purpose stadium which hosts Olympic sports. In the case of the Summer Olympic Games, athletics competitions and the football final are traditionally held in the Olympic Stadium. Exceptions to this have occurred though at the 1900, 1996 and 2016 Summer Olympics as well as at the 2010 and 2018 Summer Youth Olympic Games. Early Winter Olympic Games used figure skating venues as focal points; these were designated as the Olympic Stadium hosting the opening and closing ceremonies. A number of stadiums have been used in more than one Olympics, in those cities that have held the Games more than once. Lysgårdsbakken was the main stadium of a Winter Youth Olympic Games. Bergiselschanze was the main stadium of two Winter Olympics and one Winter YOG.
Olympiahalle jointly shared the Olympic Stadium role with Bergiselschanze during the two Winter Olympics, but not during the Winter YOG. Only one stadium, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, has been the main stadium of two Summer Olympics. In addition to the inaugural Summer Olympics, Panathinaiko Stadio was the main stadium of the only Intercalated Games held. In 2022 Beijing National Stadium will join these in being the main stadium at two Olympics, but with a special distinction: it will become the only stadium to have been such at both a Summer and a Winter Olympics. A number, including both the Panathinaiko Stadio and the Vélodrome de Vincennes, have hosted events at subsequent Olympics; the London Games of 2012 were not opened and closed at the rebuilt Wembley Stadium, the site of the 1948 Olympic Stadium, but instead at a new stadium in Stratford. Wembley was, the venue for some 2012 Olympic football matches; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the centrepiece stadium for the 1956 games hosted the first games of the Sydney 2000 football tournament.
Lake Placid's 1930 Olympic Stadium was utilized in the 1980 Lake Placid games as the speed skating venue. Olympiahalle hosted figure skating and short-track speed skating during the 2012 Winter Youth Olympics. Stockholm Olympic Stadium hosted equestrian events for the 1956 Summer Olympics. Olympic Past and Future Stadiums - BALLPARKS.com Summer Olympic Stadiums 1896 - on Google Maps
An Olympiad is a period of four years associated with the Olympic Games of the Ancient Greeks. Although the Ancient Olympic Games were established during Archaic Greece, it was not until the Hellenistic period, beginning with Ephorus, that the Olympiad was used as a calendar epoch. Converting to the modern BC/AD dating system the first Olympiad began in the summer of 776 BC and lasted until the summer of 772 BC, when the second Olympiad would begin with the commencement of the next games. By extrapolation to the Gregorian calendar, the 3rd year of the 699th Olympiad will begin in mid-summer 2019. A modern Olympiad refers to a four-year period beginning on the opening of the Olympic Games for the summer sports; the first modern Olympiad began in 1896, the second in 1900, so on. The ancient and modern Olympiads would have synchronised had there been a year zero between the Olympiad of 4 BC and the one of 4 AD, but as the Gregorian calendar goes directly from 1 BC to 1 AD, the ancient Olympic cycle now lags the modern cycle by one year.
An ancient Olympiad was a period of four years grouped together, counting inclusively as the ancients did. Each ancient Olympic year overlapped onto two of our modern reckoning of BC or AD years, from midsummer to midsummer. Example: Olympiad 140, year 1 = 220/219 BC. Therefore, the games would have been held in July/August of 220 BC and held the next time in July/August of 216 BC, after four olympic years had been completed; the sophist Hippias was the first writer to publish a list of victors of the Olympic Games, by the time of Eratosthenes, it was agreed that the first Olympic games had happened during the summer of 776 BC. The combination of victor lists and calculations from 776 BC onwards enabled Greek historians to use the Olympiads as a way of reckoning time that did not depend on the time reckonings of one of the city-states; the first to do so was Timaeus of Tauromenium in the third century BC. Since for events of the early history of the games the reckoning was used in retrospect, some of the dates given by historian for events before the 5th century BC are unreliable.
In the 2nd century AD, Phlegon of Tralles summarised the events of each Olympiad in a book called Olympiads, an extract from this has been preserved by the Byzantine writer Photius. Christian chroniclers continued to use this Greek system of dating as a way of synchronising biblical events with Greek and Roman history. In the 3rd century AD, Sextus Julius Africanus compiled a list of Olympic victors up to 217 BC, this list has been preserved in the Chronicle of Eusebius. Early historians sometimes used the names of Olympic victors as a method of dating events to a specific year. For instance, Thucydides says in his account of the year 428 BC: "It was the Olympiad in which the Rhodian Dorieus gained his second victory". Dionysius of Halicarnassus dates the foundation of Rome to the first year of the seventh Olympiad, 752/1 BC. Since Rome was founded on April 21, in the last half of the ancient Olympic year, it would be 751 BC specifically. In Book 1 chapter 75 Dionysius states: "... Romulus, the first ruler of the city, began his reign in the first year of the seventh Olympiad, when Charops at Athens was in the first year of his ten-year term as archon."
Diodorus Siculus dates the Persian invasion of Greece to 480 BC: "Calliades was archon in Athens, the Romans made Spurius Cassius and Proculus Verginius Tricostus consuls, the Eleians celebrated the Seventy-fifth Olympiad, that in which Astylus of Syracuse won the stadion. It was in this year that king Xerxes made his campaign against Greece." Jerome, in his Latin translation of the Chronicle of Eusebius, dates the birth of Jesus Christ to year 3 of Olympiad 194, the 42nd year of the reign of the emperor Augustus, which equates to the year 2 BC. An Olympiad started with the holding of the games, which occurred on the first or second full moon after the summer solstice, in what we call July or August; the games were therefore a new years festival. In 776 BC this occurred on either July 23 or August 21.. Though the games were held without interruption, on more than one occasion they were held by others than the Eleians; the Eleians declared such games Anolympiads, but it is assumed the winners were recorded.
During the 3rd century AD, records of the games are so scanty that historians are not certain whether after 261 they were still held every four years. During the early years of the Olympiad, any physical benefit deriving from a sport was banned; some winners were recorded though, until the last Olympiad of 393AD. In 394, Roman Emperor Theodosius. Though it would have been possible to continue the reckoning by just counting four-year periods, by the middle of the 5th century AD reckoning by Olympiads had become disused; the modern Olympiad is a period of four years, beginning at the opening of the Olympic Summer Games and ending at the opening of the next. The Olympiads are numbered consecutively from the first Games of the Olympiad celebrated in Athens in 1896; the XXXI Olympiad began on August 5, 2016 and will end on July 24, 2020. The Summer Olympics are more referred to as the Games of the Olympiad; the first poster to announce the games using this term was the one for the 1932 Summer Olympics, in Los Angeles, using the phrase: Call to the games of the Xth Olympiad Note, that the official numbering of the Winter Olympics does
Winter Olympic Games
The Winter Olympic Games is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years for sports practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympic Games, the 1924 Winter Olympics, were held in France; the modern Olympic Games were inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Greece in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The original five Winter Olympic sports were bobsleigh, ice hockey, Nordic skiing, skating; the Games were held every four years from 1924 to 1936, interrupted in 1940 and 1944 by World War II, resumed in 1948. Until 1992, the Summer Olympic Games and the Winter Olympic Games were held in the same year, in accordance with the 1986 decision by the IOC to place the Summer Olympic Games and the Winter Olympic Games on separate four-year cycles in alternating even-numbered years, the next Winter Olympic Games after 1992 were held in 1994.
The Winter Olympic Games have evolved since their inception. Sports and disciplines have been added and some of them, such as Alpine skiing, short track speed skating, freestyle skiing and snowboarding, have earned a permanent spot on the Olympic programme; some others, including curling and bobsleigh, have been discontinued and reintroduced. Still others, such as speed skiing and skijoring, were demonstration sports but never incorporated as Olympic sports; the rise of television as a global medium for communication enhanced the profile of the Games. It generated income via the sale of broadcast rights and advertising, which has become lucrative for the IOC; this allowed outside interests, such as television companies and corporate sponsors, to exert influence. The IOC has had to address numerous criticisms over the decades like internal scandals, the use of performance-enhancing drugs by Winter Olympians, as well as a political boycott of the Winter Olympic Games. Countries have used the Winter Olympic Games as well as the Summer Olympic Games to proclaim the superiority of their political systems.
The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted on three continents by twelve different countries. They have been held four times in the United States, three times in France and twice each in Austria, Japan, Italy and Switzerland; the Winter Olympic Games have been held just once each in Germany and Herzegovina, Russia and South Korea. The IOC has selected Beijing, China, to host the 2022 Winter Olympics, the host of the 2026 Winter Olympics will be selected on June 23, 2019; as of 2018, no city in the Southern Hemisphere has applied to host the cold-weather-dependent Winter Olympic Games, which are held in February at the height of the Southern Hemisphere's summer. To date, twelve countries have participated in every Winter Olympic Games – Austria, Finland, Great Britain, Italy, Poland, Sweden and the United States. Six of these countries have won medals at every Winter Olympic Games – Austria, Finland, Norway and the United States; the only country to have won a gold medal at every Winter Olympic Games is the United States.
Germany leads the all-time medal table of the Winter Olympic Games both on number of gold and overall medals won, followed by Norway and the United States. A predecessor, the Nordic Games, were organised by General Viktor Gustaf Balck in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1901 and were held again in 1903 and 1905 and every fourth year thereafter until 1926. Balck was a charter member of the IOC and a close friend of Olympic Games founder Pierre de Coubertin, he attempted to have winter sports figure skating, added to the Olympic programme but was unsuccessful until the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom. Four figure skating events were contested, at which Ulrich Salchow and Madge Syers won the individual titles. Three years Italian count Eugenio Brunetta d'Usseaux proposed that the IOC stage a week of winter sports included as part of the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden; the organisers opposed this idea because they desired to protect the integrity of the Nordic Games and were concerned about a lack of facilities for winter sports.
The idea was resurrected for the 1916 Games, which were to be held in Germany. A winter sports week with speed skating, figure skating, ice hockey and Nordic skiing was planned, but the 1916 Olympics was cancelled after the outbreak of World War I; the first Olympics after the war, the 1920 Summer Olympics, were held in Antwerp and featured figure skating and an ice hockey tournament. Germany, Hungary and Turkey were banned from competing in the games. At the IOC Congress held the following year it was decided that the host nation of the 1924 Summer Olympics, would host a separate "International Winter Sports Week" under the patronage of the IOC. Chamonix was chosen to host this "week" of events; the games proved to be
Olympic-class ocean liner
The Olympic-class ocean liners were a trio of British ocean liners built by the Harland & Wolff shipyard for the White Star Line during the early 20th century. They were Olympic and Britannic. All three were designed to be the largest and most luxurious passenger ships in the world, designed to give White Star an advantage in the transatlantic passenger trade. Two were lost early in their careers: Titanic sank in 1912 on her maiden voyage, after hitting an iceberg in the North Atlantic Ocean, Britannic in 1916, after hitting a mine laid by the minelayer submarine U-73 in a barrier off Kea in the Aegean Sea during World War I. Olympic, the lead vessel, had a career spanning 24 years and was retired and sold for scrapping in 1935. Although the two younger vessels did not have successful careers, they are among the most famous ocean liners built. Both Olympic and Titanic enjoyed the distinction of being the largest ships in the world. Titanic's story has been adapted into many films. Britannic has inspired a film of the same name.
The Olympic class had its origins in the intense competition between the United Kingdom and Germany in the construction of the liners. The Norddeutscher Lloyd and HAPAG, the two largest German companies, were indeed involved in the race for speed and size in the late 19th century; the first in service for the Norddeutscher Lloyd was SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, which won the Blue Riband in 1897 before being beaten by Deutschland of HAPAG in 1900. Followed the three vessels of the Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse: SS Kronprinz Wilhelm, SS Kaiser Wilhelm II and SS Kronprinzessin Cecilie all of whom were part of a "Kaiser class". In response to this, the Cunard Line of the UK ordered two vessels whose speed earned them the nickname "greyhounds of the seas:" Lusitania and Mauretania. Mauretania kept the Blue Riband for more than twenty years, from 1909 to 1929; the White Star Line knew that their Big Four, a quartet of ships built for size and luxury were no match for the Cunard's new liners in terms of speed.
In 1907, J. Bruce Ismay, president of White Star and William J. Pirrie, director of the shipyard Harland & Wolff decided to build three vessels, and so, the Olympic-class ships were built to surpass rival Cunard's largest ships and Mauretania, in size and luxury. Olympic, along with Titanic and the soon to be built Britannic, were intended to be the largest and most luxurious ships to operate on the North Atlantic, but not the fastest, as the White Star Line had switched from high speed to size and luxury; the three vessels were designed by Alexander Carlisle. Construction of Olympic started in December 1908 and Titanic in March 1909; the two ships were built side by side. The construction of Britannic began in 1911 after the commissioning of Titanic's launch. Following the sinking of Titanic, the two remaining vessels underwent many changes in their safety provisions. All three of the Olympic-class ships had nine decks. From top to bottom, the decks were: The Boat Deck was the topmost deck of the ship, where the deck housing and funnels were installed.
The bridge and wheelhouse were in front of the captain's and officers' quarters. The bridge was flanked by two observations platforms on the Starboard and Port sides so that the ship could be maneuvered more delicately while docking; the wheelhouse stood within the Bridge. The entrance to the First Class Grand Staircase and Gymnasium were located midships along with the raised roof of the First Class Lounge, while at the rear of the deck were the roof of the First Class smoke room, a deck house for the ship's engineers, a modest Second Class entrance; the wood-covered deck was divided into four segregated promenades: for officers, First Class passengers and Second Class passengers respectively. Lifeboats lined the side of the deck on both sides except in the First Class area, where there was a gap so that the view would not be blocked. A Deck called the Promenade Deck, ran the entire 546 feet length of the superstructure, it was for First and Second Class passengers and contained First Class cabins all the way forward, the First Class lounge, Smoke Room and Writing Room and Palm Court.
The promenade on Olympic was unenclosed along its whole length, whereas on Titanic and Britannic, the forward half was enclosed by a steel screen with sliding windows. B Deck known as the Bridge Deck, was entirely devoted to First-Class staterooms; the finest suites could be found on this deck the two "Deluxe" Parlour Suites with their own private 50 ft long promenades. All three ships had À la Carte Restaurants positioned aft on B-Deck, as well as the Second-Class Smoking Rooms and Entrances. Olympic was built with an encircling First-Class promenade which soon proved to be redundant given the ample promenade space on A-Deck. Titanic added enlarged additional staterooms to occupy the space and a Café Parisien built as an annex to an enlarged Restaurant; this arrangement proved so popular that Olympic would adopt the same additions during its 1913 refit. On the exterior of each ship, B-Deck is defined by rectangular sliding windows. C Deck, the Shelter Deck, was the uppermost deck to run uninterrupted from the ships' bow to stern.
It included the two well decks. Each well deck contained large cranes for loading cargo into the interior holds. Crew cabins were located under the forecastle and Third Class public rooms were situated under the Poop Deck; the superstructure of C Deck between the
For the 19th century New Orleans sports venue, see: Olympic Club, New Orleans The Olympic Club is an athletic club and private social club in San Francisco, California. First named the "San Francisco Olympic Club", it is the oldest athletic club in the United States. Established on May 6, 1860, its first officers were President, G. W. Bell, Secretary, E. Bonnell, Treasurer, H. G. Hanks, Leader, Arthur Nahl, its main "City Clubhouse" is located in San Francisco's Union Square district, its three golf courses are in the southwestern corner of the city, at the border with Daly City. The "Lakeside Clubhouse" is located just north of the Daly City border; the three golf courses are named Lake and Cliffs. Lake and Ocean are 18-hole par-71 courses, the Cliffs is a nine-hole par-3 course in the bluffs overlooking the Pacific Ocean. All three venues are lined with many trees and offer views of the Golden Gate Bridge and Golden Gate Park; the United States Golf Association recognizes the Olympic Club as one of the first 100 golf clubs established in the United States.
In November 2017, it was announced. First named the "San Francisco Olympic Club", it is the oldest athletic club in the United States. Established on May 6, 1860, its first officers were President, G. W. Bell, Secretary, E. Bonnell, Treasurer, H. G. Hanks, Leader, Arthur Nahl. James J. Corbett, the heavyweight boxing champion from 1892 to 1897, joined the club in 1884, he went on to coach boxing at the club for many years. On January 2, 1893 the club opened its first permanent clubhouse on Post Street; that building did not survive the San Francisco earthquake. Women who could not join the men-only Olympic Club built their own modest athletic club a few doors down, named the Women's Athletic Club of San Francisco. Begun in 1912 and completed in 1917, it provided many of the same facilities as the Olympic Club. In 1966, the Club changed its name to the Metropolitan Club of San Francisco, it may be found on Sutter St. in back of the Olympic Club's parking garage. In 1987, San Francisco City Attorney Louise Renne filed suit against the Olympic Club for discrimination against women and against minorities.
Renne contended that the Club's lease of City-owned land upon which fell one hole of the Lake Course and two holes of the Ocean Course required them to conform to the City's anti-discrimination policies. Rather than face a protracted legal case with an uncertain outcome, the board voted to accept women as members in 1990; the allegation involving minorities was withdrawn. In 1918, the club took over the Lakeside Golf Club, which had just opened in 1917 but was struggling financially. Lakeside had one 18-hole golf course designed by Wilfrid Reid, but following additional land purchases the club decided to replace it with two courses; these were designed by Willie Watson, a well-known Scottish architect, the Lake and Ocean courses opened in 1924. The Ocean course was shortly thereafter damaged by landslides, Sam Whiting remodeled and rebuilt both courses in 1927. In 1953, the Lake course was modified by Robert Trent Jones in preparation for the 1955 U. S. Open; the Ocean course was altered several times over the years, following heavy storm damage in 1996 was redesigned by Tom Weiskopf and reopened in 2000.
The Cliffs Course opened in 1994 with Tom Weiskopf as the course architects. The Olympic Club hosted the 2004 U. S. Junior Amateur and the U. S. Amateur in 1958 and 1981; the Lake and Ocean Courses were used for the 2007 U. S. Amateur, won by Colt Knost of Dallas, who earned a 2-and-1 victory over Michael Thompson of Tucson, Arizona. In 1909, Olympian and club member Ralph Rose set. In 1915, the club's amateur basketball team won the Amateur Athletic Union Basketball Championship. In 1934, club member Fred Apostoli won the National Amateur Middleweight boxing title. In 1937, the Olympic Club track and field team won the Field National Championships. In 1941, club member Hank Luisetti helped lead the Olympic Club basketball team to win the AAU Basketball Championships again. In 1950, Olympic Club member Arthur Larsen won the U. S. Open of tennis in Forest Hills, New York; the Olympic Club water polo team won the 1959 Water Polo National Championship. Cycling is one of the sports with the longest tradition at the Olympic Club.
From 1893 to 1903, the Olympic Club Cycling Team was one of the club's premier teams. Although the sanctioned cycling team disbanded in 1903, many Olympians participated in cycling on an individual basis; the most illustrious of these was Ernest Ohrt. Ohrt capped his cycling career by being named coach of the United States Olympic Games cycling team in 1924. Beginning in the mid-1990s, a revived Olympic Club cycling team supported several cyclists who went on to become professional road cyclists. Former Olympic Club cyclists who turned professional include Skyler Bishop, Nick Kelez, James Hibbard, Jackson Stewart, Mike Tillman and Zach Walker. In addition to being a springboard for aspiring professional cyclists, the modern cycling team boasts some of the finest masters-age cyclists in the nation, including Brian McGuire, Hal Johnson, Cynthia Mommsen and Lisa Hunt. Club member Maureen O'Toole won a silver medal in water polo at the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney, Australia. At least five Olympic Club members have won the Dipsea Race, founded by OC members: Oliver Millard in 1910 and 1913, Mason Hartwell in 1917, Norman Bright in 1970
The Olympic Class ferries are the newest vessels to the Washington State Ferries fleet. The ferries are intended to allow the agency to retire the aging Evergreen State-class ferries in service; the ferry design is based on the Issaquah-class ferries which have proven to be the most reliable and versatile in the fleet. The Olympic Class ferries are designed to serve all terminals in the WSF system. All vessels were built in Washington. Ferries in this class include: MV Tokitae MV Samish MV Chimacum MV Suquamish In the early 2000s, WSF began planning a replacement for their aging Steel Electric-class ferries, which were built in 1927 and were WSF's oldest ferries, they were the only vessels in WSF's fleet that were able to run on the Port Townsend-Keystone route as no other vessel could be used in the small, shallow Keystone Harbor. WSF planned to move the ferry terminal out of Keystone Harbor and build a 144-car vessel to replace the 60-car Steel Electrics used on the route; some local residents opposed this plan, so no new ferries were built.
When the Steel Electrics were retired in 2007 due to hull corrosion, the WSF had no auto ferries able to serve the Port Townsend - Keystone route. WSF replaced the Steel Electrics with three smaller Kwa-di Tabil class ferries that carry 64 cars and entered service between November 2010 and January 2012, it was announced on June 20, 2012 in The Seattle Times that State of Washington Transportation Secretary Paula Hammond had selected the name "Olympic Class" from more than 130 suggestions from department employees. On November 13, 2012 the Washington State Transportation commission named the first ferry MV Tokitae and the second MV Samish; the Tokitae's hull was rolled out of the construction building onto a drydock on Saturday, March 2, 2013. It was joined by the superstructure from Nichols Brothers Boatbuilders of Freeland, Whidbey Island on Sunday, March 3, 2013. On Tuesday, March 5, 2013, the superstructure was on top of the hull; the keel laying of the Samish happened on Friday, March 8, 2013.
Washington State Governor Jay Inslee was the one to strike the first weld on the Samish. The Samish was accepted by Washington State Ferries on April 10, 2015 and christened on May 20 in Anacortes; the ship underwent two months of sea trials and crew training before entering service on the Anacortes/San Juan Islands route at the start of the Summer 2015 sailing season on June 14. Funding for a third Olympic class was authorized in the Spring 2014 session of the Washington State Legislature and the keel laying and first weld took place on December 9, 2014; the name Chimacum was picked for the third ferry by the Washington State Transportation Commission in November 2014 after a public outreach process. The Chimacum joined the fleet on 7 April 2017. Funding for a fourth Olympic class was authorized in the 2015 session of the Washington State Legislature with construction beginning on January 4, 2016. WSF took delivery of the Suquamish in July 2018 and first sailed on the Mukilteo/Clinton run on October 4, 2018.
While the Suquamish is the final planned Olympic class ferry, the state plans to build a new fleet of vessels to replace existing ferries that are reaching the 60-year-old threshold for retirement. At least five ferries are slated for replacement by 2028 and thirteen by 2042. 144 Auto Ferry Plans Washington State Ferries class information