Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument
Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument is a U. S. National Monument that includes the area around Mount St. Helens in Washington, it was established on August 27, 1982 by U. S. President Ronald Reagan following the 1980 eruption; the 110,000 acre National Volcanic Monument was set aside for research and education. Inside the Monument, the environment is left to respond to the disturbance. Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument was the United States' first such monument managed by the U. S. Forest Service. At dedication ceremonies on May 18, 1983, Max Peterson, head of the USFS, said, "we can take pride in having preserved the unique episode of natural history for future generations." Since many trails, information stations and picnic areas have been established to accommodate the increasing number of visitors each year. Beginning in 1983, visitors have been able to drive to Windy Ridge, only 4 miles northeast of the crater. Mountain climbing to the summit of the volcano has been allowed since 1986.
The Mount St. Helens Visitor Center at Silver Lake, about 30 miles west of Mount St. Helens and five miles east of Interstate 5, opened in 1987 and has been operated by the Washington State Park System since October 2000. Exhibits include the area's culture and history, the natural history and geology of the volcano and the eruption, including the recovery of the area's vegetation and animal life; the Center includes a gift shop and outdoor trails. By the end of 1989, the Center had hosted more than 1.5 million visitors. A small admission fee is charged; the Center was operated by the U. S. Forest Service; the Johnston Ridge Observatory is located 52 miles east of Castle Rock, Washington, at the end of Washington State Route 504, four miles from the mountain. Exhibits focus on the geologic history of the volcano, eyewitness accounts of the explosion, the science of monitoring volcanic activity. Two movies and ranger-led programs are available every hour. A half-mile paved trail provides views of the lava dome, pumice plain, landslide deposit, with access to hiking trails in the restricted area.
The observatory is located near the site of volcanologist David A. Johnston's camp on the morning of May 18, 1980, opened in 1993; the Coldwater Ridge Visitor Center in the Coldwater Lake area opened in 1993, operated by the Forest Service, but closed in November 2007 due to a lack of funding. The center reopened as the Science and Learning Center at Coldwater in May 2013, operating as an educational facility and conference center in cooperation with the Mount St. Helens Institute, it is open to the public on weekends from 10am to 6pm. Many of the exhibits have been removed, but the gift shop and some signage still exist; the Winds of Change Trail #232, a short, barrier-free interpretive trail, departs from the Science and Learning Center. The southern and eastern sides of Mount St. Helens are accessible only by U. S. Forest Service roads; the main roads are: U. S. Forest Service Road 25 – Monument entrance from U. S. Route 12 to Road 90. U. S. Forest Service Road 26 – Road 99 to Norway Pass to Road 25.
U. S. Forest Service Road 81 – SR 503/Road 90 to Merrill Lake, Kalama Horse Camp, Climber's Bivouac. U. S. Forest Service Road 83 – Road 90 to Ape Cave, Ape Canyon, Lava Canyon lahar, Smith Creek. U. S. Forest Service Road 90 – Monument entrance from State Route 503. U. S. Forest Service Road 99 – Road 25 to Bear Meadows, Meta Lake and Miner's Car, Windy Ridge. Bear Meadows is an alpine viewpoint northeast of Mt. St. Helens, it is located on U. S. Forest Service Road 99. Gary Rosenquist camped here with friends on May 17–18, 1980, he started taking his famous eruption photographs from this location. The sequence of eruption photos show give a time lapse view of the developing eruption; as the lateral blast developed, he and his friends abandoned their campsite fearing for their lives. He continued taking photos; the eruption's lateral blast narrowly missed the site as it was deflected by a ridge just west of the meadow. In an interview with KIRO-TV in 1990, a friend called that ridge "the line of death."
Windy Ridge is the closest view point accessible to the general public. Beginning in the summer of 1983, visitors have been able to drive to Windy Ridge, on U. S. Forest Service Road 99, only 4 miles northeast of the crater. From this vantage point overlooking Spirit Lake, people see not only the evidence of a volcano's destruction, but the remarkable, gradual recovery of the land as revegetation proceeds and wildlife returns. Ape Cave is a lava tube located in Gifford Pinchot National Forest just to the south of Mount St. Helens in Washington state, its passageway is the longest continuous lava tube in the continental United States and the third longest lava tube in North America at 2.5 miles. Ape Cave is a popular hiking destination with beautiful views of the Mount St. Helens lahar region. Lava tubes are an unusual formation in this region, as volcanoes of the Cascade Range are stratovolcanos and do not erupt with pahoehoe; the cave was discovered circa 1951 by Lawrence Johnson, a logger, when he noticed a tree that "looked wrong."
After investigating the tree, he discovered. A few days Johnson brought the Reese family back to the cave, Harry Reese was lowered to the floor and became the first person to explore the interior. Subsequent explorations were conducted by members of the Mount St. Helens Apes, a local Boy Scout troop. Ape Cave Trail No. 239, which runs along the interior of the cave, is a National Recreatio
North Cascades National Park
North Cascades National Park is an American national park in the state of Washington. At more than 500,000 acres, North Cascades National Park is the largest of the three National Park Service units that comprise the North Cascades National Park Complex. North Cascades National Park consists of a northern and southern section, bisected by the Skagit River that flows through Ross Lake National Recreation Area. Lake Chelan National Recreation Area lies on the southern border of the south unit of the park. In addition to the two national recreation areas, other protected lands including several national forests and wilderness areas, as well as Canadian provincial parks in British Columbia, nearly surround the park. North Cascades National Park features the rugged mountain peaks of the North Cascades Range, the most expansive glacial system in the contiguous United States, the headwaters of numerous waterways, vast forests with the highest degree of flora biodiversity of any American national park.
The region was first settled by Paleo-Indian Native Americans. By the early 19th century, the region was visited by fur trappers and several British and American companies vied for control over the fur trade. After the international boundary between Canada and the United States was set at the 49th parallel in 1846, explorers came to chart potential routes through the mountains for roads and railroads. Limited mining and logging occurred from the late 19th century to the early 20th century; the first significant human impact in the region occurred in the 1920s, when several dams were built in the Skagit River valley to generate hydroelectric power. Environmentalists campaigned to preserve the remaining wilderness, culminating on October 2, 1968, with the designation of North Cascades National Park. Heavy snows and a high risk of avalanches due to the steep terrain on the western slopes limit visitation in the winter. Most access to the park is from State Route 20, which follows the Skagit River, though this road is closed for months at a time in the winter.
Most of the plant and animal species native to the park region are still found there, though climate change and pollutants from industrialized regions to the west pose risks to the environment. The park has one of the earliest and longest lasting research programs dedicated to studying climate change through examining the effects of glacial retreat. North Cascades National Park is entirely protected as wilderness, so the park has few structures, roads or other improvements. Visitors wishing to drive to a campground must do so in the adjacent national forests or national recreation areas. Camping inside the park requires hiking in by trail, horseback or boat, camping is regulated by a permit system to ensure the wilderness is not over-exploited. Mountaineering is only unobtrusive clean climbing is allowed. Human history in North Cascades National Park and the surrounding region begins 8–10,000 years ago, after the end of the last glacial period. Paleo-Indians advanced from Puget Sound into the interior mountain region as the glacial ice retreated.
Archaeological evidence from other sites hundreds of miles away from the park indicate that Hozomeen chert, a type of rock well-suited to the fabrication of implements, was mined from near Hozomeen Mountain, just east of the park border, for the last 8,400 years. Tools such as microblades made from Hozomeen chert are part of the archaeological record throughout the Skagit River Valley, west of the park and in regions to the east. Prehistoric micro blades 9,600 years old have been discovered at Cascade Pass, a mountain pass that connects the western lowlands to the interior regions of the park and the Stehekin River Valley; the microblades are part of an archaeological assemblage that includes five distinct cultural periods, indicating that people were traveling into the mountains nearly 10,000 years ago. As well as the archaeological excavation at Cascade Pass, there are another 260 prehistoric sites that have been identified in the park; when white explorers first entered the area in the late 18th century a thousand Native American Skagits lived in the park and surrounding areas.
Residing to the west of the park near Puget Sound, the Skagits lived in settlements, culling their needs from the waterways and traveling by canoe. Skagits formed a loose confederation of tribes that united if threatened by outside tribes such as the Haidas, who lived to the north, they erected large houses or lodges that could house multiple families, each with their own partitioned area and entrance. The lodges were 100 feet in length and 20 to 40 ft in width, the roofs were shed-styles, with a single pitch; the Skagits were lowlanders, who only ventured into the North Cascades during the summer months, structures in the mountains were more modest, consisting of temporary buildings erected with poles and covered with branches. The Skagits erected totem poles and participated in potlatch ceremonies, similar to the Haidas, but with less complexity and extravagance. By 1910, only about 56 Skagits remained in the region, but their numbers have since rebounded to several hundred. Inland and residing to the north and east of the Skagits, the Nlaka'pamux, Chelan and Wenatchi tribes lived or year-round in the eastern sections of the North Cascades.
The Skagits and Thompsons had disputes, raided one another's camps in search of slaves or to exact retribution. Like the coastal-based Skagits, inland tribes cons
Olympic National Park
Olympic National Park is an American national park located in the State of Washington, on the Olympic Peninsula. The park has four regions: the Pacific coastline, alpine areas, the west side temperate rainforest and the forests of the drier east side. Within the park there are three distinct ecosystems which are subalpine forest and wildflower meadow, temperate forest, the rugged Pacific coast. President Theodore Roosevelt designated Mount Olympus National Monument on 2 March 1909; the monument was redesignated as a national park by Congress and President Franklin Roosevelt on June 29, 1938. In 1976, Olympic National Park was designated by UNESCO as an International Biosphere Reserve, in 1981 as a World Heritage Site. In 1988, Congress designated 95 percent of the park as the Olympic Wilderness; the coastal portion of the park is a sandy beach along with a strip of adjacent forest. It is just a few miles wide, with native communities at the mouths of two rivers; the Hoh River has the Hoh people and at the town of La Push at the mouth of the Quileute River live the Quileute.
The beach has unbroken stretches of wilderness ranging from 10 to 20 miles. While some beaches are sand, others are covered with heavy rock and large boulders. Bushy overgrowth, slippery footing and misty rain forest weather all hinder foot travel; the coastal strip is more accessible than the interior of the Olympics. The most popular piece of the coastal strip is the 9-mile Ozette Loop; the Park Service runs a reservation program to control usage levels of this area. From the trailhead at Ozette Lake, a 3-mile leg of the trail is a boardwalk-enhanced path through near primal coastal cedar swamp. Arriving at the ocean, it is a 3-mile walk supplemented by headland trails for high tides; this area has traditionally been favored by the Makah from Neah Bay. The third 3-mile leg is enabled by a boardwalk. There are thick groves of trees adjacent to the sand, which results in chunks of timber from fallen trees on the beach; the unaltered Hoh River, toward the south end of the park, discharges large amounts of eroded timber and other drift, which moves north, enriching the beaches.
The removal of driftwood – logs, dead-heads and root-wads from streams and beaches was a major domestication measure across North America. Today driftwood deposits form a commanding presence, biologically as well as visually, giving a taste of the original condition of the beach viewable to some extent in early photos. Drift-material comes from a considerable distance; the smaller coastal portion of the park is separated from the larger, inland portion. President Franklin D. Roosevelt had supported connecting them with a continuous strip of park land; the park is known for its unique turbidites. It has exposed turbidities with white calcite veins. Turbidites are rocks or sediments that travel into the ocean as suspended particles in the flow of water, causing a sedimentary layering effect on the ocean floor. Over time the sediments and rock compact and the process repeats as a constant cycle; the park is known for its tectonic mélanges that have been deemed'smell rocks' by the locals due to its strong petroleum odor.
Mélanges are large individual rocks that are large enough that they are accounted for in map drawings. The Olympic mélanges can be as large as a house. Within the center of Olympic National Park rise the Olympic Mountains whose sides and ridgelines are topped with massive, ancient glaciers; the mountains themselves are products of accretionary wedge uplifting related to the Juan De Fuca Plate subduction zone. The geologic composition is a curious mélange of oceanic sedimentary rock; the western half of the range is dominated by the peak of Mount Olympus. Mount Olympus receives a large amount of snow, has the greatest glaciation of any non-volcanic peak in the contiguous United States outside of the North Cascades, it has several glaciers, the largest of, Hoh Glacier at 3.06 miles in length. Looking to the east, the range becomes much drier due to the rain shadow of the western mountains. Here, there are craggy ridges; the tallest summit of this area is Mount Deception, at 7,788 feet. The western side of the park is mantled by temperate rainforests, including the Hoh Rainforest and Quinault Rainforest, which receive annual precipitation of about 150 inches, making this the wettest area in the continental United States.
As opposed to tropical rainforests and most other temperate rainforest regions, the rainforests of the Pacific Northwest are dominated by coniferous trees, including Sitka Spruce, Western Hemlock, Coast Douglas-fir and Western redcedar. Mosses coat the bark of these trees and drip down from their branches in green, moist tendrils. Valleys on the eastern side of the park have notable old-growth forest, but the climate is notably drier. Sitka Spruce is absent, trees on average are somewhat smaller, undergrowth is less dense and different in character. Northeast of the park is a rather small rainshadow area where annual precipitation averages about 16 inches; because the park sits on an isolated peninsula, with a high mountain range dividing it from the land to the south, it developed many endemic plant and animal species (like the Olympic Marmot
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, the atmosphere. NOAA warns of dangerous weather, charts seas, guides the use and protection of ocean and coastal resources, conducts research to provide understanding and improve stewardship of the environment. NOAA was formed in 1970 and in 2017 had over 11,000 civilian employees, its research and operations are further supported by 321 uniformed service members who make up the NOAA Commissioned Corps. Since October 2017, NOAA has been headed by Timothy Gallaudet, as acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and NOAA interim administrator. NOAA plays several specific roles in society, the benefits of which extend beyond the US economy and into the larger global community: A Supplier of Environmental Information Products. NOAA supplies to its customers and partners information pertaining to the state of the oceans and the atmosphere.
This is clear through the production of weather warnings and forecasts via the National Weather Service, but NOAA's information products extend to climate and commerce as well. A Provider of Environmental Stewardship Services. NOAA is a steward of U. S. coastal and marine environments. In coordination with federal, local and international authorities, NOAA manages the use of these environments, regulating fisheries and marine sanctuaries as well as protecting threatened and endangered marine species. A Leader in Applied Scientific Research. NOAA is intended to be a source of accurate and objective scientific information in the four particular areas of national and global importance identified above: ecosystems, climate and water, commerce and transportation; the five "fundamental activities" are: Monitoring and observing Earth systems with instruments and data collection networks. Understanding and describing Earth systems through research and analysis of that data. Assessing and predicting the changes of these systems over time.
Engaging and informing the public and partner organizations with important information. Managing resources for the betterment of society and environment. NOAA traces its history back to multiple agencies, some of which were among the oldest in the federal government: United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, formed in 1807 Weather Bureau of the United States, formed in 1870 Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, formed in 1871 Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps, formed in 1917Another direct predecessor of NOAA was the Environmental Science Services Administration, into which several existing scientific agencies such as the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Weather Bureau and the uniformed Corps were absorbed in 1965. NOAA was established within the Department of Commerce via the Reorganization Plan No. 4 and formed on October 3, 1970 after U. S. President Richard Nixon proposed creating a new agency to serve a national need for "better protection of life and property from natural hazards …for a better understanding of the total environment… for exploration and development leading to the intelligent use of our marine resources."
In 2007, NOAA celebrated 200 years of service in its role as successor to the United States Survey of the Coast. In 2013, NOAA closed 600 weather stations. Since October 25, 2017 Timothy Gallaudet, Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, has served as acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere at the US Department of Commerce and NOAA's interim administrator. Gallaudet succeeded Benjamin Friedman, who served as NOAA's interim administrator since the end of the Obama Administration on January 20, 2017. In October 2017, Barry Lee Myers, CEO of AccuWeather, was proposed to be the agency's administrator by the Trump Administration. NOAA works toward its mission through six major line offices, the National Environmental Satellite and Information Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the National Ocean Service, the National Weather Service, the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research and the Office of Marine & Aviation Operations, and in addition more than a dozen staff offices, including the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology, the NOAA Central Library, the Office of Program Planning and Integration.
The National Weather Service is tasked with providing "weather and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its territories, adjacent waters and ocean areas, for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy." This is done through a collection of national and regional centers, 13 river forecast centers, more than 120 local weather forecast offices. They are charged with issuing weather and river forecasts, advisories and warnings on a daily basis, they issue more than 734,000 weather and 850,000 river forecasts, more than 45,000 severe weather warnings annually. NOAA data is relevant to the issues of global warming and ozone depletion; the NWS operates NEXRAD, a nationwide network of Doppler weather radars which can detect precipitation and their velocities. Many of their products are broadcast on NOAA Weather Radio, a network of radio transmitters that broadcasts weather forecasts, severe weather statements and warnings 24 hours a day; the National Ocean Service focuses on ensuring that ocean and coastal areas are safe and productive.
NOS scientists, natural resource managers, specialists serve America by ensuring safe and efficient marine transportation, promoting innovative solutions to protect coastal communities, conserving mari
San Juan Island National Historical Park
San Juan Island National Historical Park known as American and English Camps, San Juan Island, is a U. S. National Historical Park owned and operated by the National Park Service on San Juan Island in the state of Washington; the park is made up of the sites of the British and U. S. Army camps during the Pig War, a boundary dispute over the ownership of the island. Both of these camps were set up in 1859 as response to a border controversy triggered by the killing of a pig; the camps were occupied for 12 years, until the islands were awarded to the United States by Kaiser Wilhelm I in an arbitration agreed by the parties in the 1872 Treaty of Washington. The British abandoned their camp in November 1872, while the American camp was disbanded in July 1874; the camp sites were designated a National Historic Landmark in 1961, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966. The park was created by an Act of Congress in 1966. San Juan Island is located in Puget Sound, the westernmost of the main islands of the San Juan Islands group.
This island group is separated from Vancouver Island by the Haro Strait, from the Washington mainland by the Rosario Strait. These two channels defined the competing territorial claims of the United States and Great Britain after the Oregon Treaty of 1846 settled most of the northwestern border. Both sides pursued their territorial claims, with Americans homesteading on San Juan Island, the British Hudson's Bay Company establishing a farm on the southern tip of the island. In 1859, an American killed a stray British-owned pig, sparking the international dispute known as the Pig War; the American homesteaders requested military protection, resulting in the establishment of the American camp, while the British sent Royal Navy ships. Cooler heads prevailed, an agreement was reached whereby both sides would maintain camps on the island until the dispute could be resolved through diplomacy. From 1860 to 1872, British Royal Marines occupied a camp on the northwestern part of the island; the period of military occupation was peaceful.
In 1871, the two countries negotiated the Treaty of Washington, in which the matter of the islands was to arbitrated by the German Kaiser. His decision the following year declared the boundary to be the Haro Strait, thus awarding the islands to the United States; the British withdrew from their camp soon after, the American camp was reduced in size and scope. The buildings and properties were abandoned; the British camp was homesteaded in 1876 by William Crook, a farmer and carpenter, whose son built a house in the camp area in the early 20th century. The Crooks donated their property to the state beginning in the 1950s, the state acquired land around the American camp beginning in 1951; these properties formed the core what became this park in 1966. The British Camp site is on Garrison Bay on the islands northwestern shore. Today the Union Jack still flies there, being raised and lowered daily by park rangers, making it one of the few places without diplomatic status where US government employees hoist the flag of another country.
Surviving buildings from the British occupation include a commissary, barracks and hospital. The American Camp site is on the islands southernmost peninsula, overlaps the original Hudson's Bay Company farm; the park property includes the original site of San Juan village on the north shore of the peninsula, abandoned after the dispute ended and was burned in 1890. The camp site includes two surviving buildings from the American military occupation: an officers' quarters, the house and working quarters of the camp laundress. National Park Service's San Juan Island National Historical Park website