click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Omar Khayyam

Omar Khayyam was a Persian mathematician, astronomer and poet. He was born in Nishabur, in northeastern Iran, spent most of his life near the court of the Karakhanid and Seljuq rulers in the period which witnessed the First Crusade; as a mathematician, he is most notable for his work on the classification and solution of cubic equations, where he provided geometric solutions by the intersection of conics. Khayyam contributed to the understanding of the parallel axiom; as an astronomer, he designed the Jalali calendar, a solar calendar with a precise 33-year intercalation cycle. There is a tradition of attributing poetry to Omar Khayyam, written in the form of quatrains; this poetry became known to the English-reading world in a translation by Edward FitzGerald, which enjoyed great success in the Orientalism of the fin de siècle. Omar Khayyam was born in 1048 in Nishapur, a leading metropolis in Khorasan during medieval times that reached its zenith of prosperity in the eleventh century under the Seljuq dynasty.

Nishapur was a major center of the Zoroastrian religion, it is that Khayyam's father was a Zoroastrian who had converted to Islam. His full name, as it appears in the Arabic sources, was Abu’l Fath Omar ibn Ibrahim al-Khayyam. In medieval Persian texts he is simply called Omar Khayyam. Although open to doubt, it has been assumed that his forebears followed the trade of tent-making, since Khayyam means tent-maker in Arabic; the historian Bayhaqi, acquainted with Omar, provides the full details of his horoscope: "he was Gemini, the sun and Mercury being in the ascendant". This was used by modern scholars to establish his date of birth as 18 May 1048, his boyhood was spent in Nishapur. His gifts were recognized by his early tutors who sent him to study under Imam Muwaffaq Nishaburi, the greatest teacher of the Khorasan region who tutored the children of the highest nobility. Khayyam was taught by the Zoroastrian convert mathematician, Abu Hassan Bahmanyar bin Marzban. After studying science, philosophy and astronomy at Nishapur, about the year 1068 he traveled to the province of Bukhara, where he frequented the renowned library of the Ark.

In about 1070 he moved to Samarkand, where he started to compose his famous treatise on algebra under the patronage of Abu Tahir Abd al-Rahman ibn ʿAlaq, the governor and chief judge of the city. Omar Khayyam was kindly received by the Karakhanid ruler Shams al-Mulk Nasr, who according to Bayhaqi, would "show him the greatest honour, so much so that he would seat beside him on his throne". In 1073–4 peace was concluded with Sultan Malik-Shah I who had made incursions into Karakhanid dominions. Khayyam entered the service of Malik-Shah in 1074–5 when he was invited by the Grand Vizier Nizam al-Mulk to meet Malik-Shah in the city of Marv. Khayyam was subsequently commissioned to set up an observatory in Isfahan and lead a group of scientists in carrying out precise astronomical observations aimed at the revision of the Persian calendar; the undertaking began in 1076 and ended in 1079 when Omar Khayyam and his colleagues concluded their measurements of the length of the year, reporting it to 14 significant figures with astounding accuracy.

After the death of Malik-Shah and his vizier, Omar fell from favour at court, as a result, he soon set out on his pilgrimage to Mecca. A possible ulterior motive for his pilgrimage reported by Al-Qifti, was a public demonstration of his faith with a view to allaying suspicions of skepticism and confuting the allegations of unorthodoxy levelled at him by a hostile clergy, he was invited by the new Sultan Sanjar to Marv to work as a court astrologer. He was allowed to return to Nishapur owing to his declining health. Upon his return, he seems to have lived the life of a recluse. Omar Khayyam died at the age of 83 in his hometown of Nishapur on December 4, 1131, he is buried in what is now the Mausoleum of Omar Khayyam. One of his disciples Nizami Aruzi relates the story that some time during 1112–3 Khayyam was in Balkh in the company of Al-Isfizari when he made a prophecy that "my tomb shall be in a spot where the north wind may scatter roses over it". Four years after his death, Aruzi located his tomb in a cemetery in a large and well-known quarter of Nishapur on the road to Marv.

As it had been foreseen by Khayyam, Aruzi found the tomb situated at the foot of a garden-wall over which pear trees and peach trees had thrust their heads and dropped their flowers so that his tomb stone was hidden beneath them. Khayyam was famous during his life as a mathematician, his surviving mathematical works include: A commentary on the difficulties concerning the postulates of Euclid's Elements, On the division of a quadrant of a circle, On proofs for problems concerning Algebra. He furthermore wrote a treatise on the extracting binomial theorem and the nth root of natural numbers, lost. A part of Khayyam's commentary on Euclid's Elements deals with the parallel axiom; the treatise of Khayyam can be considered the first treatment of the axiom not based on petitio principii, but on a more intuitive postulate. Khayyam refutes the previous attempts by other mathematicians to prove the proposition on grounds that ea

Fortschritt ZT 300

ZT 300 is a series of 20 kN agricultural tractors, produced from 1 September 1967 to 1984 by the VEB Traktorenwerk Schönebeck. It succeeded the RS14 Famulus series, unlike the Famulus, the ZT 300 series was sold under the brand name Fortschritt. ZT 300 refers both to the initial ZT 300 model, the ZT 300 series. In total, 72,382 units of the ZT 300 series were made; the model with the highest production figure was the ZT 303, introduced in 1972. It features an automatic all-wheel-drive system. Starting in 1983, the ZT 300 series was succeeded by the ZT 320. In total, the ZT 300 series consisted of 6 series production models and one prototype: ZT 300: The base model with rear-wheel drive, meant for agricultural use ZT 303: All-wheel model, it shares its front axle with the IFA W50 LA ZT 304: A road tractor, no hydraulics, no PTO, no work lights, no powershift gearbox ZT 305: Like the ZT 303, with additional twin tyres and enhanced dual-circuit brakes ZT 300 GB: Based on the ZT 300, has rubber tracks instead of tyres ZT 403: An engine upgrade for the ZT 303, the four-cylinder engine was replaced with a six-cylinder engine producing 110 kW ZT 307: An engine upgrade for the ZT 305, the four-cylinder engine was replaced with a six-cylinder engine producing 110 kW.

This model was only built as a prototype. Some tractors were converted into road-rail-vehicles, they were used in small DDR-plants for shunting. The ZT 300 series tractors design is based on a combination of the frameless block construction for the rear part and a half frame for the front; this makes the rear axle an unsprung, rigid beam axle, whereas the front beam axle has a pivot point and allows wheel travel. The ZT 300 has a three-point-linkage with a lifting force of 17.65 kN and a PTO as well as a hydraulic system. Starting in 1974, an optimised hydraulic system was used, that automatically increased the weight on the rear axle by lifting the farm implement attached to the three-point linkage, if required; this resulted in better traction and therefore greater drawbar pull force. All ZT 300 tractors have a manual three-speed semi powerspeed gearbox with three forward and two reverse ranges, this results in a total of nine forward and six reverse gears, it ca. 30 km/h. A pneumatic two stage clutch of the type DK 80 is used to transmit the torque to the gearbox.

The first clutch stage connects the gearbox, the second stage connects the PTO shaft, hydraulic system and the load stage of the gearbox. The load stage increases the torque transmitted to the wheels, it can be switched without having to stop the tractor by moving the load stage lever and pressing the clutch pedal. The rear axle has a differential lock; the engine is the 4 VD 14,5/12-1 SRW, a straight four-cylinder, direct-injected, diesel engine with a displacement of 6560 cm3. It was detuned to produce 66 kW at 1500 min−1, but in 1973, the power output was increased to 68 kW, in 1978, to 74 kW at 1800 min−1; the maximum torque is 422 N·m at 1350 min−1. The specific fuel consumption is rated 238 g/kWh at 1350 min−1; the initial ZT 300 models have a rack-and-pinion steering, whereas models have a hydraulic steering system. Only the rear wheels have brakes. All tractors may pull trailers with a maximum payload of 24.000 kg, if the trailer has a pneumatic brake system. The all wheel drive system enables itself automatically using a roller-type overrunning clutch if the wheel slip is greater than 7–8 %.

The front axle is same as in the IFA W50 LA, this results in less ground clearance compared to the rear wheel drive ZT 300 tractors. Like the rear axle, the AWD front axle has a lockable differential; the ZT 305 has brakes for the front wheels, bigger tyres and rear twin tyres, it was developed for slopes with gradients of up to 45 %. The ZT 300 series tractors were made with four different paint colours: Vermillion/Grey-white/Squirrel-grey Azure/Grey-white/Squirrel-grey Reseda/Grey-white/Squirrel-grey TGL 21196 Achim Bischof: Traktoren in der DDR. Podszun, Brilon 2004, ISBN 3-86133-348-1. Klaus Tietgens: Fortschritt ZT 300. Typengeschichte und Technik. GeraMond, München 2014, ISBN 978-3-86245-575-1. Jan Welkerling: FORTSCHRITT in allen Ähren. DDR-Landmaschinen im Einsatz. 2005

Atar, Mauritania

Atar is a town in northwestern Mauritania, the capital of the Adrar Region and the main settlement on the Adrar Plateau. Situated on the oued Seguellil, it is home to an airport, a museum and a historic mosque, constructed in 1674. In 2013 it had a population of 25,190; the Adrar's mountains are from the primary era against the precambrian Tiris Zemmour. Near Atar, you can find stromatolites. In the North, you can find Choum with the train that goes to Zouerate. East of Atar, through Amojjar Pass, is the difficult way to Chinguetti and the astonishing Richat Structure. Atar has a hot desert climate typical of the Sahara Desert, south of the tropic of Cancer; the weather is very hot sunny and dry but it can be overcast sometimes. The annual average temperature is close to 30 °C, meaning; the annual mean rainfall amount is low, averaging no more than 35 mm and it falls in August and in September while the sunshine duration is high, at over 3,540 h of bright sunshine yearly. Today, the Atar is best known to outsiders as an entryway for tourists to visit the ruins of the ancient Moorish cities of Ouadane and Chinguetti.

It was a key stop in the Paris Dakar Rally, held every January. The "samaras" are well known in Mauritania. It's a leather sole with straps. In 2012, an air force school was founded in Atar to train pilots and crew for the Military of Mauritania. Med Hondo - film director Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya - 5th President of Mauritania Atar travel guide from Wikivoyage

List of aircraft of the Royal Thai Air Force

The following is a list of aircraft of the Royal Thai Air Force, past and future. Additional Saab JAS 39C/D Gripen fighters procurement – Royal Thai Air Force plans to purchase 6 additional Saab JAS 39C/D Gripen fighters. Lead-in fighter training procurement – Royal Thai Air Force expects to launch a US$400 million programme to acquire Lead-in fighter training aircraft to replace Northrop F-5 trainers and its fleet of Aero L-39 Albatros trainer/light attack aircraft procured in the early 1990s; the procurement programme has become pressing since the RTAF started operating a fleet of 12 Saab JAS 39C/D Gripen fighters, which were delivered from 2011–2013. Upgrade of F-16 – Royal Thai Air Force plans to upgrade 18 F-16A/B Block 15 aircraft with the Mid-Life Upgrade and associated parts and logistical support for a complete package worth $700 million. RTAF-6 – Royal Thai Air Force plans to produce 25 planes. Aircraft of the Royal Thai Air Force and its precursors, the Siamese Flying Corps, Royal Siamese Air Service and Royal Siamese Air Force.

Royal Thai Air Force Museum Military of Thailand Royal Thai Army Royal Thai Navy Notes Comments Bibliography RTAF Official website Royal Thai Air Force Museum Many Historical Aircraft Illustrated reports about the RTAF Globalsecurity.org

Marshall D. Moran

Marshall D. Moran was born in Chicago on May 29, 1906 and died April 14, 1992 in Delhi, India, he was an American Jesuit priest, missionary in India and Nepal where he founded several schools, amongst them the St. Xavier's High School and the Godavari St. Xavier's school of Kathmandu, he was an active radio amateur and used the call sign 9N1MM, pioneering amateur radio in Nepal. This location made him one of the most well-known Radio Amateurs of his time and visited many times by American and European Ham Radio magazines. Joining the Society of Jesus on 31 August 1924 he was on his way to India five years after completing his early spiritual training in his home country, his first job was to teach in the Saint Xavier's school of Bettiah, but went soon after to Saint Mary's College, Kurseong for the theological training that would prepare him to become a priest. His ordination to the priesthood took place on 21 November 1935; when the brand new St. Xavier's High School, Patna opened its door in 1940, the young Moran was its first principal.

He is considered as the founder of the school. Gifted with an excellent memory he remembered the names of the students and their parents and had good contacts with the Bihar state authorities. St Xavier's became in no time a'model school' with a students enrolment of about 700, a hundred and fifty of them living in the attached hostel; the hostel attracted people from all over the state, from neighbouring West-Bengal and Nepal as well. At the request of Mirza Ismael, a high official of the Jaipur state, he launched a similar St Xavier's School in Jaipur too; as member of the Patna University Senate Moran got an opportunity to visit Kathmandu in October 1949 to supervise exams at the Trichandra College. During the month-long trip, he met with Nepalese authorities, was granted audience with the Rana prime minister Mohan Samsher twice. On the second occasion, he requested the prime minister to consider establishing a Jesuit school in Nepal to modernise education in the country. A definitive reply from the Nepali government came in the fall of 1950.

House and land were given, some 10 miles outside the city of Kathmandu. In 1951 the Godavari St Xavier's school was opened. Classes began on July 1 of the same year; the school was the first Christian institution in the Hindu kingdom and Moran, the first Jesuit to enter Nepal since 1721. Moran was first licensed in 1947 in India with the callsign VU2SX. In 1951, after being transferred to Godavari St. Xavier school, south of Kathmandu, Moran set up a ham radio station with the callsign 9N1MM. In doing so he became the first ham radio operator in Nepal, in no time he was in touch with some 90.000 other operators all over the world. Not he was involved in several emergency communications events, including rescue work in time of earthquake and floods, saving climbers on Everest and the life of a young boy in a separate incident. For his efforts he received a decoration from King Birendra of Nepal and the International Humanitarian Award of the American Radio Relay League. Due to his being the only radio ham in Nepal for decades, many hams worldwide sought a two-way radio communication with him.

His call sign, 9N1MM, his rare location, his pleasant demeanor on the air made him one of the most famous radio hams of his time. When he traveled in the West, he was avidly sought as a guest speaker at meetings of ham operators. After communicating with Moran, hams eagerly sought to receive his QSL card as a souvenir, it is that Moran operated his radio in the absence of government permission for a time, may have died before the Nepali government had a legal mechanism to grant formal ham radio licenses, but he was given oral and written permission to conduct radio transmissions by the King of Nepal in recognition of his Everest safety work. Father Moran was loved in the worldwide ham radio community and was cited as an example of the best in amateur radio operation and on-air behavior. Moran was admitted to a hospital in Kathmandu in early April 1992, he was diagnosed with leukemia. and was transferred to New Delhi, India for more advanced treatment. He died soon after arrival in the Indian capital, on April 14, 1992.

His death was noted in amateur radio magazines around the world. Donald A. Messerschmidt: Moran of Kathmandu: Priest and Ham Radio'Voice of the Himalayas', White Orchid Press, Bangkok, 1997, 314pp. Biography from the Nepal Jesuit Society Biography stressing his radio amateur activity Father Moran's QSL card

Cwmaman

Cwmaman is a former coal mining village near Aberdare, Wales. The name is Welsh for "Aman Valley" and the River Aman flows through the village, it lies in the valley of several mountains. Within the village, there are playing fields. At the top of the village there are several reservoirs accessible from several footpaths along the river; the postal district is Aberdare. Cwmaman was a well-known coal-mining village; until the 19th century, the town was uninhabited, with around 40 farm workers living in and around the community by 1841. By the end of the 1840s, the first coal pits were sunk and Cwmaman began to transform into a thriving industrial settlement, in the years of the 19th century Cwmaman housed the workers of five surrounding coal mines - the Fforchaman, Bedwlwyn and the Cwmaman. Cwmaman Colliery was known as Shepherd’s Pit, in honour of its founder Thomas Shepherd, a name it shares with the village’s first public house, the Shepherd’s Arms, opened in 1850. There is an array of parallel roads in the east part of the village.

Burns Street and Spencer Street, along with the other streets collectively known as Poets' Corner, are amongst the steepest in the United Kingdom. The band Stereophonics comes from Cwmaman. On 14 December 2007, in association with Jo Whiley and her BBC Radio 1 Live Lounge Tour, the band returned to Cwmaman to play an exclusive acoustic gig at the Cwmaman Working Men's Club, the venue where the band first performed; the village is home to the war poet Alun Lewis, a plaque in Llanwonno Road marks the house where he lived. Born in 1915, Lewis was influenced by his formative years in the depression-era valley, he was influenced by local issues of his community in the then-called Aberdare Leader and this is demonstrated in his poem "The Mountain over Aberdare", which touches on the desperate poverty that beset the Cynon Valley and the country in this period. However, it was for his war poems, published in two volumes, Raiders Dawn and Ha! Ha! Among the Trumpets, that Lewis’s reputation was made; the village’s Cwrt Alun Lewis flats are named in his honour.

Cwmaman Public Hall & Institute is a community-owned enterprise consisting of a concert room, theatre / cinema and fitness suite St. Joseph's Church was renovated in 2007; this work included the installation of solar panels on one side of its roof with the aim to sell back energy to the National Grid. The Cwmaman Music Festival is held at the last weekend of September every year, it started in 2008 and has attracted artists such as Alabama 3, Mike Peters, Killing for Company and many unsigned artists from around the Cynon Valley Religion played a central role in the life of the village until the second half off the 20th century. Seion, Cwmaman remained an active place of worship until its closure, for financial reasons, in 2013; the congregation still meets at the former Moriah Aman Congregational Chapel, now an evangelical church. The third Welsh language chapel in the village was Soar, a Calvinistic Methodist church which closed in the late 1980s and which has now been demolished. Cwmaman was affected by the Religious Revival of 1904-05 which had an impact throughout the Cynon Valley.

In January 1905 it was reported that meetings were being held every evening at the various chapels and a number of secular organisations had abandoned their meetings for the time being. That month, another report stated that outdoor meetings were being held in relation to the revival, that prayer meetings were being held in the mornings at Cwmaman Colliery. Cwmaman is a Communities First area recognised as needing Welsh Assembly support to assist the community solve problems of social disadvantage; the Cwmaman Communities First Partnership was established in October 2001 aiming to bring individuals, voluntary groups and public and private sector organisations in the community together to help create a better future for the area. Many innovative environmental projects have taken place including the hosting of an environmental festival centred on St Joseph's Church, holding a sculpture exhibition, the development of a community woodland walk, establishing a Cwmaman Sculpture Trail. A range of sculptors have contributed to projects in the village, including Robert Koenig, Dai Edwards, Tom Harvey, Godfrey Phillips, Paul Clarke, Dave Lloyd, Dominic Claire and Peter Boyd.

On 25 September 2018, the much acclaimed Netflix Original show "the Crown" came to Cwmaman to film scenes for its second series. Local children were asked to volunteer as extras for the scenes, along with many houses and Glynhafod Junior School being used as significant parts of the set for the scenes filmed. Cwmaman was a traditional Labour Party stronghold, although in more recent times it has been challenged by Plaid Cymru and the Cynon Valley Party, it lies in the Aberaman South electoral ward represented by Councillor Tina Williams. Alun Lewis - poet Ron Jonessprinter Tyrone O'Sullivan – Chairman of Tower Colliery, lived in Cwmaman for many years John Derrick (1963–2017 – cricketer Stuart Cable – broadcaster and Stereophonics drummer with rock band Stereophonics Kelly Jones – Stereophonics lead singer Richard Jones – Stereophonics bassist Community Archives Wales Cwmaman Public Hall & Institute St Joseph's Church Cwmaman www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Cwmaman and surrounding area Cwmaman Music Festival