Dutch Low Saxon
Dutch Low Saxon are the Low Saxon dialects that are spoken in the northeastern Netherlands and are written there with local, unstandardised orthographies based on Standard Dutch orthography. The UNESCO Atlas of endangered languages lists the language as vulnerable. Between 1995 and 2011 the numbers of speakers of parents dropped from 34% in 1995 to 15% in 2011. Numbers of speakers of their children dropped in the same period from 8% to 2%; the classification of Dutch Low Saxon is not unanimous. From a diachronic point of view, the Dutch Low Saxon dialects are the West Low German dialects native to areas in the Netherlands, as opposed to areas beyond the national border with Germany; some Dutch Low Saxon dialects like Tweants show features of Westphalian, a West Low German dialect spoken in adjacent Northern Germany. From a synchronic point of view, some linguists classify Dutch Low Saxon as a variety of Dutch; as a practical matter, Dutch Low Saxon, since the 17th century, has been influenced by Standard Dutch, but the Low Saxon dialects in Germany are influenced by Standard German.
Recent studies have, shown that mutual intelligibility is not impaired and that the basis remains the same. Shortly after the Second World War, linguists claimed that speaking a dialect other than the standard language would impair children's learning abilities. In combination with a condescending attitude by the upper classes of Dutch society and the media towards speakers of Low Saxon varieties, that goaded many parents to stop passing the language on to their children, it brought about a general opinion among speakers of Low Saxon that having the slightest accent, in Dutch, would reduce job opportunities and social status. Throughout the 1960s, the language decline inspired many to form dialect preservation circles and groups, such as the Tweants Kreenk vuur de Twentse Sproake or the Drèents Huus van de Taol. Many of them were interested in preserving rather than promoting the language; the prevailing tone was one of nostalgia. Their focus was on preserving cultural traits considered typical to speakers of the language, such as rural life and traditional practices and costumes.
That confirmed many of the existing stereotypes about speakers of the language. Another tone was rather literary in nature. Though well-intended, it caused more estrangement with younger generations. At the same time, knowledge of and appreciation for related varieties was poor, which stifled cooperation between most of the dialect preservation groups. Instead of forming an organisation to stand together and help one another to improve the status for all the different varieties, fiery discussions arose about whether the sound of /ɒ/ should be written as either'oa' or'ao'; that resulted in no nationwide coordination. Other attempts to unite the different dialect circles were met with cynicism; the conception prevailed. In 1975, the rock'n' roll band Normaal boldly shook all perceptions of its speakers; until Low Saxon was restricted to traditional folklore music. Normaal denounced all Dutch disdain, praised farmers and local farm life and boldly used Achterhooks Low Saxon, voicing the opinion and feelings of many Dutchmen of non-Dutch-speaking origin.
Their hit song "Oerend Hard", a song about two bikers who lose their lives in an accident, took the charts by storm, it is now regarded a true evergreen of Dutch music. It garnered them a large fan base in non-Low Saxon areas, such as Fryslân and Limburg, they inspired many other young rock'n' roll artists to sing in Low Saxon, who now form a subgenre of their own in the Dutch music industry, becoming aware of the genres commercial potential. In 1996, Dutch Low Saxon was added to the European Charter for Minority Languages. Dutch provinces now receive minor funds for promoting the use of Low Saxon. A general rise in regional pride and appreciation for the Low Saxon identity made the earlier disdainful attitude towards Low Saxon seem to have subsided somewhat. Low Saxon is being used in popular culture and local politics; the Tweants municipality of Rijssen-Holten, for example, has adopted a bilingual status for their town hall desks, customers may opt for Dutch or Low Saxon help. In 2012, a radio presenter for national broadcasting station 3FM, Michiel Veenstra from Almelo, promised to present in Tweants for an hour if a Tweants song received more than €10,000 in the annual fundraising campaign Het Glazen Huis.
As the song received more than €17,000, Veenstra kept his promise. An increasing number of local political parties have used Low Saxon in their 2014 electoral campaigns. In 2014, a Facebook page called "Tukkers be like" gained more than 18,000 followers within a week; the page uses Twents cultural expressions in Twents. The idea of the page was based on the US Internet meme "Bitches be like", which gained enormous popularity in 2013, inspired many to create their own versions; the meme presents an image of a certain situation, to which a certain group would respond in a typical way. Dutch Low Saxon has long been removed from schools. People of older generations may relate numerous accounts of their childhood in which contemporaries were afraid to go to school for fear of being reprimanded, or purposely ignored, for not speaking Dutch; the similarities between the languages made Low Saxon be regarded a dialect
Westerwolde is a region in the province Groningen in the north of the Netherlands. The region is located alongside the German border, it is situated around the rivers Mussel Aa, Ruiten Aa, Westerwoldse Aa, it contains the villages Bellingwolde, Onstwedde, Ter Apel, Vlagtwedde and Wedde. The people in Westerwolde speak the West Low German dialect Westerwolds; the region is one of the Ommelanden, which are the regions around the city of Groningen. Media related to Westerwolde at Wikimedia Commons Westerwolde travel guide from Wikivoyage
Flag of Friesland
The Flag of the province of Friesland or Frisian flag, is the official flag of the Netherlands province of Friesland. It consists of three white diagonal stripes; the jerseys of the football club SC Heerenveen and the Blauhúster Dakkapel are modeled after this flag. The seven red seeblatts are a reference to the Frisian "sea countries" in the Middle Ages: independent regions along the coast from Alkmaar to the Weser who were allied against the Vikings. There were never seven distinct regions, but the number seven has the connotation "many." Some sources hold, that there have been seven Frisian lands: West Friesland, Eastergoa, Fivelingo and Jeverland. The pompeblêden are used in other related flags such as the flag of the Ommelanden in neighbouring Groningen Province, a Frisian area, for a proposed pan-Frisia flag put forth by the Groep fan Auwerk. In the 13th century a flag with pompeblêdden is described in an epic poem. Evidence for this lies within verses of the Gudrunlied. Round 1200 Scandinavian coats of arms reveal many traces of water-lilies and hearts, found in combination with images of lions.
15th century books on heraldry show that two armorial bearings were derived from the early ones: a coat of arms showing lions and seven pompeblêdden transformed into billets, the other being the arms with the seven now known lilies on stripes. The current design was approved in 1897 and was first used by the provincial government in 1927. Flags of Frisia Site of the province of Friesland
Groningen is the main municipality as well as the capital city of the eponymous province in the Netherlands. It is the largest city in the north of the Netherlands and has 230,000 inhabitants; the Groningen-Assen metropolitan area has about half a milion inhabitants. Groningen is an old city and was the regional power of the north of the Netherlands, a semi-independent city-state and member of the German Hanseatic League. Groningen is a university city, with an estimated 31,000 students at the University of Groningen, an estimated 29,000 at the Hanze University of Applied Sciences; the city was founded at the northernmost point of the Hondsrug area. The oldest document referring to Groningen's existence dates from 1040. However, the city existed long before then: the oldest archaeological traces found are believed to stem from the years 3950–3720 BC, although the first major settlement in Groningen has been traced back to the 3rd century AD. In the 13th century, when Groningen was an important trade centre, its inhabitants built a city wall to underline its authority.
The city made its dialect a common tongue. The most influential period of the city was the end of the 15th century, when the nearby province of Friesland was administered from Groningen. During these years, the Martinitoren 127 metres tall, was built; the city's independence ended in 1536, when it chose to accept Emperor Charles V, the Habsburg ruler of the other Netherlands, as its overlord. In 1594, until held by Spain, was captured by a Dutch and English force led by Maurice of Nassau. Soon afterwards the city and the province joined the Republic of the Seven United Provinces. In 1614, the University of Groningen was founded only for religious education. In the same period the city expanded and a new city wall was built; that same city wall was tested during the Third Anglo-Dutch War in 1672, when the city was attacked fiercely by the bishop of Münster, Bernhard von Galen. The city walls resisted, an event, still celebrated with music and fireworks on August 28; the city did not escape the devastation of World War II.
In particular, the main square, the Grote Markt, was destroyed in April 1945 in the Battle of Groningen. However, the Martinitoren, its church, the Goudkantoor, the city hall were not damaged; the battle lasted several days. Groningen has an oceanic temperate climate, like all of the Netherlands, although colder in winter than other major cities in the Netherlands due to its northeasterly position. Weather is influenced by the North Sea to the north-west and its prevailing north-western winds and gales. Summers are somewhat humid. Temperatures of 30 °C or higher occur sporadically. Rainy periods are common in spring and summer. Average annual precipitation is about 800 mm. Annual sunshine hours vary, but are below 1600 hours, giving much cloud cover similar to most of the Netherlands. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb".. Winters are cool: on average above freezing, although frosts are common during spells of easterly wind from Germany and Siberia.
Night-time temperatures of −10 °C or lower are not uncommon during cold winter periods. The lowest temperature recorded is −26.8 °C on February 16, 1956. Snow falls, but stays long due to warmer daytime temperatures, although white snowy days happen every winter; the municipality of Groningen has grown rapidly. In 1968 it expanded by mergers with Hoogkerk and Noorddijk, in 2019 it merged with Haren and Ten Boer. All historical data are for the original city limits, excluding Hoogkerk, Noorddijk and Ten Boer; until there were two large sugar refineries within the city boundaries. The Suiker Unie plant was outside Groningen, but it was swallowed by the expansion of the city. After a campaign to close the factory, it was shut down in 2008/2009. Before closing down, its sugar production amounted to 250,000 tonnes of beet sugar, with 250 employees; the only remaining sugar factory is CSM Vierverlaten in Hoogkerk, which produces 235,000 tonnes of beet sugar, with 283 employees. Well known companies from Groningen are publishing company Noordhoff Uitgevers, tobacco company Royal Theodorus Niemeyer, health insurance company Menzis, distillery Hooghoudt, natural gas companies GasUnie and GasTerra.
There is an increased focus on business services. In addition, the hotel and catering industry forms a significant part of the economy of Groningen; the city is nationally known as the "Metropolis of the North" and as "Martinistad" referring to the tower of the Martinitoren, named after its patron saint Martin of Tours. Although Groningen is not a large city, it does have an important role as the main urban centre of this part of the country in the fields of music and other arts and business; the large number of students living in Groningen contributes to a diverse cultural scene for a city of its size. Since 2016 Groningen is host of the International Cycling Film Festival, an annual film festival for bicycle related films, it takes place in the art house cinema of the old Roman Catholic Hospital. The most famous museum in Groningen is
The Saxons were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany. Earlier, in the late Roman Empire, the name was used to refer to Germanic inhabitants of what is now England, as a word something like the "Viking", as a term for raiders. In Merovingian times, continental Saxons were associated with the coast of what became Normandy. Though sometimes described as fighting inland, coming in conflict with the Franks and Thuringians, no clear homeland can be defined. There is a single classical reference to a smaller homeland of an early Saxon tribe, but it is disputed. According to this proposal, the Saxons' earliest area of settlement is believed to have been Northern Albingia; this general area is close to the probable homeland of the Angles. In contrast, the British "Saxons", today referred to in English as Anglo-Saxons, became a single nation bringing together Germanic peoples with the Romanized populations, establishing long-lasting post-Roman kingdoms equivalent to those formed by the Franks on the continent.
Their earliest weapons and clothing south of the Thames were based on late Roman military fashions, but immigrants north of the Thames showed a stronger North German influence. The term "Anglo-Saxon" came into use by the 8th century to distinguish English Saxons from continental Saxons, but the Saxons of Britain and those of Old Saxony continued to be referred to as'Saxons' in an indiscriminate manner in the languages of Britain and Ireland. However, while the English Saxons were no longer raiders, the political history of the continental Saxons is unclear until the time of the conflict between their semi-legendary hero Widukind and the Frankish emperor Charlemagne. While the continental Saxons are no longer a distinctive ethnic group or country, their name lives on in the names of several regions and states of Germany, including Lower Saxony, as well as the two states that make up Upper Saxony, known today as Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony; the latter have their names from dynastic history, not their ethnic history.
The Saxons may have derived their name from a kind of knife for which they were known. The seax has a lasting symbolic impact in the English counties of Essex and Middlesex, both of which feature three seaxes in their ceremonial emblem, their names, along with those of Sussex and Wessex, contain a remnant of the word "Saxon". The Elizabethan era play Edmund Ironside suggests the Saxon name derives from the Latin saxa: Their names discover what their natures are, More hard than stones, yet not stones indeed. In the Celtic languages, the words designating English nationality derive from the Latin word Saxones; the most prominent example, a loanword in English, is the Scottish word Sassenach, used by Scots- or Scottish English-speakers in the 21st century as a jocular term for an English person. The Oxford English Dictionary gives 1771 as the date of the earliest written use of the word in English, it derives from the Scottish Gaelic Sasannach. The Gaelic name for England is Sasann, Sasannach means "English" in reference to people and things, though not to the English Language, Beurla.
Sasanach, the Irish word for an Englishman, has the same derivation, as do the words used in Welsh to describe the English people and the language and things English in general: Saesneg and Seisnig. Cornish terms the English Sawsnek, from the same derivation. In the 16th century Cornish-speakers used the phrase Meea navidna cowza sawzneck to feign ignorance of the English language."England" in Scottish Gaelic is Sasann. Other examples include the Welsh Saesneg, Irish Sasana, Breton saoz, Cornish Sowson and Pow Sows for'Land of Saxons'; the label "Saxons" became attached to German settlers who migrated during the 13th century to southeastern Transylvania. From Transylvania, some of these Saxons migrated to neighbouring Moldavia, as the name of the town Sas-cut shows. Sascut lies in the part of Moldavia, today part of Romania. During Georg Friederich Händel's visit to Italy, much was made of his origins in Saxony; the Finns and Estonians have changed their usage of the root Saxon over the centuries to apply now to the whole country of Germany and the Germans.
The Finnish word sakset reflects the name of the old Saxon single-edged sword - seax - from which the name "Saxon" derives. In Estonian, saks means "a nobleman" or, colloquially, "a wealthy or powerful person"; the word survives as the surnames of Saß/Sass and Sachs. The Dutch female first name, Saskia meant "A Saxon woman". Following the downfall of Henry the Lion, the subsequent splitt
Nuphar lutea, the yellow water-lily, or brandy-bottle, is an aquatic plant of the family Nymphaeaceae, native to temperate regions of Europe, northwest Africa, western Asia. This aquatic plant grows in shallow water and wetlands, with its roots in the sediment and its leaves floating on the water surface, it is found in shallower water than the white water lily, in beaver ponds. Since the flooded soils are deficient in oxygen, aerenchyma in the leaves and rhizome transport oxygen to the rhizome. There is mass flow from the young leaves into the rhizome, out through the older leaves; the rhizomes are consumed by muskrats. The flower is solitary, held above the water surface. Flowering is from June to September, pollination is entomophilous, by flies attracted to the alcoholic scent; the flower is followed by a green bottle-shaped fruit, containing numerous seeds which are dispersed by water currents. The species is less tolerant of water pollution than water-lilies in the genus Nymphaea; some botanists have treated Nuphar lutea as the sole species in Nuphar, including all the other species in it as subspecies and giving the species a holarctic range, but the genus is now more divided into eight species.
The common name'brandy bottle' is derived from the aroma produced by the flowers, similar to stale alcohol. Stylized red leaves of the yellow water lily, known as seeblatts or pompeblêden are used as a symbol of Frisia; the flag of the Dutch province of Friesland features seven pompeblêden. Stone masons carved forms of the flowers on the roof bosses of Bristol Cathedral and Westminster Abbey, these are thought to encourage celibacy
Oldambt is a region in the northeast of the province Groningen in the Netherlands. It is located on the Dutch-German border