Albert Arnold Gore Jr. is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th vice president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Gore was Bill Clinton's running mate in their successful campaign in 1992, the pair was re-elected in 1996. Near the end of Clinton's second term, Gore was selected as the Democratic nominee for the 2000 presidential election but lost the election in a close race after a Florida recount. After his term as vice-president ended in 2001, Gore remained prominent as an author and environmental activist, whose work in climate change activism earned him the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007. Gore was an elected official for 24 years, he was a representative from 1985 to 1993 served as one of the state's senators. He served as vice president during the Clinton administration from 1993 to 2001; the 2000 presidential election was one of the closest presidential races in history. Gore won the popular vote, but after a controversial election dispute over a Florida recount, he lost the election to Republican opponent George W. Bush in the Electoral College.
Gore is the founder and current chair of the Alliance for Climate Protection, the co-founder and chair of Generation Investment Management and the now-defunct Current TV network, a member of the Board of Directors of Apple Inc. and a senior adviser to Google. Gore is a partner in the venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, heading its climate change solutions group, he has served as a visiting professor at Middle Tennessee State University, Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, Fisk University, the University of California, Los Angeles. He served on the Board of Directors of World Resources Institute. Gore has received a number of awards that include the Nobel Peace Prize, a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for his book An Inconvenient Truth, a Primetime Emmy Award for Current TV, a Webby Award. Gore was the subject of the Academy Award-winning documentary An Inconvenient Truth in 2006. In 2007, he was named a runner-up for Time's 2007 Person of the Year. Gore was born on March 31, 1948, in Washington, D.
C. the second of two children of Albert Gore Sr. a U. S. Representative who served for 18 years as a U. S. Senator from Tennessee, Pauline Gore, one of the first women to graduate from Vanderbilt University Law School. Gore is a descendant of Scots-Irish immigrants who first settled in Virginia in the mid-17th-century and moved to Tennessee after the Revolutionary War, his older sister Nancy LaFon Gore died of lung cancer. During the school year he lived with his family in The Fairfax Hotel in the Embassy Row section in Washington D. C. During the summer months, he worked on the family farm in Carthage, where the Gores grew tobacco and hay and raised cattle. Gore attended St. Albans School, an independent college preparatory day and boarding school for boys in Washington, D. C. from 1956 to 1965, a prestigious feeder school for the Ivy League. He was the captain of the football team, threw discus for the track and field team, participated in basketball and government, he applied to Harvard and was accepted.
Gore met Mary Elizabeth "Tipper" Aitcheson at his St. Albans senior prom in 1965, she was from the nearby St. Agnes School. Tipper followed Gore to Boston to attend college, they married at the Washington National Cathedral on May 19, 1970, they have four children—Karenna Gore, Kristin Carlson Gore, Sarah LaFon Gore, Albert Arnold Gore III. In June 2010, the Gores announced in an e-mail to friends that after "long and careful consideration", they had made a mutual decision to separate. In May 2012, it was reported. Gore enrolled in Harvard College in 1965. On his second day on campus, he began campaigning for the freshman student government council and was elected its president. Gore was an avid reader who fell in love with scientific and mathematical theories, but he did not do well in science classes and avoided taking math. During his first two years, his grades placed him in the lower one-fifth of his class. During his sophomore year, he spent much of his time watching television, shooting pool, smoking marijuana.
In his junior and senior years, he became earning As and Bs. In his senior year, he took a class with oceanographer and global warming theorist Roger Revelle, who sparked Gore's interest in global warming and other environmental issues. Gore earned an A on his thesis, "The Impact of Television on the Conduct of the Presidency, 1947–1969", graduated with an A. B. cum laude in June 1969. Gore was in college during the era of anti-Vietnam War protests, he was against that war. He thought that it was silly and juvenile to use a private university as a venue to vent anger at the war, he and his friends did not participate in Harvard demonstrations. John Tyson, a former roommate, recalled that "We distrusted these movements a lot... We were a pretty traditional bunch of guys, positive for civil rights and women's rights but formal, transformed by the social revolution to some extent but not buying into something we considered detrimental to our country." Gore helped his father write an anti-war address to the Democratic National Convention of 1968 but stayed with hi
David Lyle Boren is an American university administrator and politician from the state of Oklahoma. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as the 21st governor of Oklahoma from 1975 to 1979 and three terms in the United States Senate from 1979 to 1994, as of 2019, is the last Democrat to have served as a U. S. Senator from Oklahoma, he was the 13th and second-longest serving president of the University of Oklahoma from 1994 to 2018. He was the longest serving chairman of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. On September 20, 2017, Boren announced his retirement as president of the University of Oklahoma, effective June 30, 2018. Boren is under investigation for alleged sexual harassment of male aides at the university, though the university and the OU Board of Regents have declined to confirm whether or not this is the case, referring to it only broadly as an ongoing "personnel investigation". Boren was born in Washington, D. C. the son of Christine and Lyle Hagler Boren. He graduated in 1963 from Yale University, where he majored in American history, graduated in the top one percent of his class and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa.
He was a member of the Yale Conservative Party, elected president of the Yale Political Union and is a member of Skull and Bones. He was selected as a Rhodes Scholar and earned a master's degree in Philosophy and Economics from University of Oxford, serving as a member of the Rhodes Scholarship selection committee. In 1966 Boren defeated fellow Democrat William C. Wantland in a primary election and Clifford Conn Jr. in the general election to win a seat in the Oklahoma House of Representatives, where he served four terms, 1967 to 1975. In 1968, he received a J. D. degree from the University of Oklahoma College of Law. While serving in the House, Boren was a member of the committee that investigated the University of Oklahoma after the school allowed black militant Paul Boutelle, a socialist and anti-Vietnam War activist, to give a speech there. During his House tenure Boren was a professor at Oklahoma Baptist University. Boren served in the Oklahoma Army National Guard from 1963 to 1974, he attained the rank of captain and served as commander of the 2120th Supply & Service Company in Wewoka.
In 1974, Boren ran for governor. In keeping with the anti-establishment movements of that Watergate scandal-era campaign season, Boren's effort included the "Boren Broom Brigade" to demonstrate his pledge to "sweep out the Old Guard" and bring fundamental reforms to state government. Boren and Clem McSpadden defeated incumbent David Hall in the primary election and moved into a runoff for the Democratic nomination. Boren beat McSpadden in the runoff and subsequently defeated Republican Jim Inhofe in the general election. Coincidentally, Inhofe would go on to be his successor in the United States Senate in the 1994 special election after his resignation. During his tenure Boren worked on: eliminating the inheritance tax for property left by one spouse to another. Boren attracted national attention during the Energy Crisis when he advocated nationwide deregulation of natural gas prices. Boren opted not to run for reelection in 1978, instead running for the United States Senate seat held by the retiring Dewey Bartlett.
He won a multi-candidate primary with 46 percent of the vote to second-place finisher Ed Edmondson's 28 percent. Boren defeated Edmondson in the runoff, Republican Robert Kamm, former President of Oklahoma State University, in the general election. During his 1978 gubernatorial campaign, Boren's opponent Anthony Points accused Boren of being gay. Following his victory, Boren swore an oath on a family Bible, declaring "I know what homosexuals and bisexuals are. I further swear that I am not a bisexual, and I further swear that I have never been a homosexual or bisexual." In the U. S. Senate, Boren was known as a centrist or conservative Democrat, was a protégé of Texas Sen. Lloyd Bentsen and was aligned with southern Democrats Sam Nunn of Georgia and Howell Heflin of Alabama, he was a strong advocate of tax cuts across the board as the cornerstone of economic policy. He opposed the Windfall profit tax on the domestic oil industry, repealed in 1988. At one point, the tax was generating no revenue, yet still required oil companies to comply with reporting requirements and the IRS to spend $15 million to collect the tax.
Of the tax, Boren said: "As long as the tax is not being collected, the accounting requirements are needless. They result in heavy burdens for the private sector and unnecessary cost to the taxpayer."Sen. Barry Goldwater, who served with him, publicly stated that Boren should be elected president. Boren's chief of staff was a respected Capitol Hill insider, Charles Ward, a former longtime administrative assistant to Speaker Albert. Boren served on the Senate Committee on Finance and the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, he served as chairman of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence from 1987 to 1993. His six years is the longest tenure of any Senate Intelligence Committee chairman. Boren sponsored the National Security Education Act of 1991, which established the National Security Education Program. Boren was one of only two Democratic senators to vote in favor of the controversial nomination of Robert Bork to the Supreme Court, in 1987. Boren decided in 1991 to vote against the Persian Gulf War.
Boren was one of the President Bill Clinton's top choices to replace Les Aspin as a U. S. Secretary of Defense in 1994. However, Clinton sel
United States congressional conference committee
A conference committee is a committee of the United States Congress appointed by the House of Representatives and Senate to resolve disagreements on a particular bill. A conference committee is composed of senior Members of the standing committees of each House that considered the legislation; the use of the conference committee process has declined in recent decades. 67 conference reports were produced as as the 104th Congress, falling to just 3 conference reports in the 113th Congress. Conference committees operate after the House and the Senate have passed different versions of a bill. Conference committees exist to draft a compromise bill. Both houses of Congress must pass identical legislation for the bill to be presented to the President; the two houses can reach that point through the process of amendments between Houses, where the House passes the Senate bill with a House amendment, or vice versa, but this process can be cumbersome. Thus, some bills pass both Houses through the use of a conference committee.
After one house passes a bill, the second house passes the same bill, with an amendment representing the second house's work product. The second house sends a message to the first house, asking the first house to concur with the second house's amendment. If the first house does not like the second house's amendment the first house can disagree with the amendment of the second house, request a conference, appoint conferees, send a message to that effect to the second house; the second house insists on its amendment, agrees to a conference, appoints conferees. Each house determines the number of conferees from its house; the number of conferees need not be equal. To conclude its business, a majority of both House and Senate delegations to the conference must indicate their approval by signing the conference report; the authority to appoint conferees lies in the entire House, the entire Senate can appoint conferees by adopting a debatable motion to do so. But leadership have exercised authority in the appointment of conferees.
The House and Senate may instruct conferees. Conference committees can be contentious if the houses are controlled by different parties. House rules require that one conference meeting be open to the public, unless the House, in open session, votes to close a meeting to the public. Apart from this one open meeting, conference committees meet in private, are dominated by the chairs of the House and Senate committees. House and Senate rules forbid conferees from inserting in their report matter not committed to them by either House, but conference committees sometimes do introduce new matter. In such a case, the rules of each House let a member object through a point of order, though each House has procedures that let other members vote to waive the point of order; the House provides a procedure for striking the offending provision from the bill. The Senate required a Senator to object to the whole bill as reported by the conference committee. If the objection was well-founded, the Presiding Officer ruled, a Senator could appeal the ruling of the Chair.
If the appeal was sustained by a majority of the Senate, it had precedential effect, eroding the rule on the scope of conference committees. From fall 1996 through 2000, the Senate had no limit on the scope of conference reports, some argued that the majority abused the power of conference committees. In December 2000, the Senate reinstated the prohibition of inserting matters outside the scope of conference; the rule changed again with the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, enacted in September 2007. Now any single Senator may raise a point of order against subject matter newly inserted by the conference committee without objecting to the rest of the bill. Proponents of the measure may move to waive the rule; the affirmative vote of 60 Senators is required to waive the rule. If the point of order is not waived and the Chair rules that the objection is well-founded, only the offending provision is stricken from the measure, the Senate votes on sending the balance of the measure back to the House.
Most times, the conference committee produces a conference report melding the work of the House and Senate into a final version of the bill. A conference report proposes legislative language as an amendment to the bill committed to conference; the conference report includes a joint explanatory statement of the conference committee. This statement provides one of the best sources of legislative history on the bill. Chief Justice William Rehnquist once observed that the joint conference report of both Houses of Congress is considered reliable legislative history when interpreting a statute. Once a bill has been passed by a conference committee, it goes directly to the floor of both houses for a vote, is not open to further amendment. In the first house to consider the conference report, a Member may move to recommit the bill to the conference committee, but once the first house has passed the conference report, the conference committee is dissolved, the second house to act can no longer recommit the bill to conference.
Conference reports are privileged. In the Senate, a motion to proceed to a conference report is not debatable, although Senators can filibuster the conference report itself; the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 limits debate on conference reports on budget resolutions and budget reconciliation bills to ten hours in the Senate, so Senators cannot filibuster those conference reports. The conference report must be approved by both the House and the Senate before the final bill is sent to the President; the use of the formal conference
Robert Bernard Reich is an American political commentator and author. He served in the administrations of Presidents Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton, he was Secretary of Labor from 1993 to 1997. He was a member of President-elect Barack Obama's economic transition advisory board. Reich has been the Chancellor's Professor of Public Policy at the Goldman School of Public Policy at UC Berkeley since January 2006, he was a professor at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government and professor of social and economic policy at the Heller School for Social Policy and Management of Brandeis University, he has been a contributing editor of The New Republic, The American Prospect, Harvard Business Review, The Atlantic, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal. Reich is a political commentator on programs including Erin Burnett OutFront, CNN Tonight, Anderson Cooper's AC360, Hardball with Chris Matthews, This Week with George Stephanopoulos, CNBC's Kudlow & Company, APM's Marketplace.
In 2008, Time magazine named him one of the Ten Best Cabinet Members of the century, The Wall Street Journal in 2008 placed him sixth on its list of Most Influential Business Thinkers. He was appointed a member of President-elect Barack Obama's economic transition advisory board; until 2012, he was married to British-born lawyer Clare Dalton, with whom he has two sons and Adam. He has published 18 books, including the best-sellers The Work of Nations, Saving Capitalism, Aftershock: The Next Economy and America's Future, a best-selling e-book, Beyond Outrage, he is chairman of Common Cause and writes his own blog about the political economy at Robertreich.org. The Robert Reich–Jacob Kornbluth film Saving Capitalism was selected to be a Netflix Original, debuted in November 2017, their film Inequality for All won a U. S. Documentary Special Jury Award for Achievement in Filmmaking at the 2013 Sundance Film Festival in Utah. Reich was born in Scranton, the son of Mildred Dorf and Edwin Saul Reich, who owned a women's clothing store.
His family is Jewish. As a child, he was diagnosed with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia known as Fairbank's disease, a bone disorder that results in short stature among other symptoms; this condition made him a target for bullies and he sought out the protection of older boys. Reich cites this event as an inspiration to "fight the bullies, to protect the powerless, to make sure that the people without a voice have a voice", he attended John Jay High School in Cross River, New York, Dartmouth College, graduating with an A. B. summa cum laude in 1968 and winning a Rhodes Scholarship to study Philosophy and Economics at University College, Oxford. While at Dartmouth, Reich went on a date with Hillary Rodham, the future Hillary Clinton an undergraduate at Wellesley College. While a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford, Reich first met Bill Clinton a Rhodes Scholar. Although he was drafted to serve in the Vietnam War, he did not pass the physical as he was under the required minimum height of five feet. Reich subsequently earned a J.
D. from Yale Law School, where he was an editor of the Yale Law Journal. At Yale, he was classmates with Bill and Hillary Clinton, Clarence Thomas, Michael Medved, Richard Blumenthal. From 1973 to 1974, he served as law clerk to Judge Frank M. Coffin, Chief Judge of the U. S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit. S. Solicitor General, Robert Bork. In 1977, President Jimmy Carter appointed him Director of the Policy Planning Staff at the Federal Trade Commission. From 1980 until 1992, Reich taught at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, where he wrote a series of influential books and articles, including The Next American Frontier and The Work of Nations. In The Next American Frontier he blamed the nation's lagging economic growth on "paper entrepreneurialism", the financial and legal gamesmanship that drained the economy of resources needed for better products and services. In The Work of Nations, he argues that a nation's competitiveness depends on the education and skills of its people and the infrastructure that connects them, rather than on the profitability of companies headquartered within it.
Private capital, he says, is global and footloose—while a nation's people—its human capital—constitutes the one resource on which a nation's future standard of living uniquely depends. He urges policy makers to make such public investments the cornerstone of economic policy. Bill Clinton incorporated Reich's thinking into his 1992 campaign platform, "Putting People First", after being elected invited Reich to head his economic transition team. Reich joined the administration as Secretary of Labor. During his tenure, he implemented the Family and Medical Leave Act lobbied to increase the minimum wage, lobbied to pass the School-to-Work Jobs Act, to integrate all job-training and job-displacement programs so workers who lost their jobs could get access to all the help they needed to get new ones that paid at least as much as the old. In addition, Reich used the office as a platform for focusing national attention on the need to help American workers to adapt to the new economy, he popularized the term "corporate welfare"—arguing that the nation could get the money it needed to retrain people and move them from welfare to work by cutting "aid for dependent corporations".
He advocated that the country provide more opportunities for workers to
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Revenue Act of 1926
The United States Revenue Act of 1926, 44 Stat. 9, reduced inheritance and personal income taxes, cancelled many excise imposts, eliminated the gift tax and ended public access to federal income tax returns. Passed by the 69th Congress, it was signed into law by President Calvin Coolidge; the act was applicable to incomes for 1925 and thereafter. A rate of 13.5 percent was levied on the net income of corporations. A normal tax and a surtax were levied against the net income of individuals as shown in the following table. Exemption of $1,500 for single filers and $3,500 for married couples and heads of family. A $400 exemption for each dependent under 18