World Food Programme
The World Food Programme is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security. According to the WFP, it provides food assistance to an average of 91.4 million people in 83 countries each year. From its headquarters in Rome and from more than 80 country offices around the world, the WFP works to help people who cannot produce or obtain enough food for themselves and their families, it is part of its executive committee. WFP was first established in 1961 after the 1960 Food and Agriculture Organization Conference, when George McGovern, director of the US Food for Peace Programmes, proposed establishing a multilateral food aid programme; the WFP was formally established in 1963 by the FAO and the United Nations General Assembly on a three-year experimental basis. In 1965, the programme was extended to a continuing basis; the WFP strives to eradicate hunger and malnutrition, with the ultimate goal in mind of eliminating the need for food aid itself.
The objectives that the WFP hopes to achieve are to: "Save lives and protect livelihoods in emergencies" "Support food security and nutrition and build livelihoods in fragile settings and following emergencies" "Reduce risk and enable people and countries to meet their own food and nutrition needs" "Reduce under-nutrition and break the inter-generational cycle of hunger" "Zero Hunger in 2030"WFP food aid is directed to fight micronutrient deficiencies, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat disease, including HIV and AIDS. Food-for-work programmes help promote environmental and economic stability and agricultural production; the WFP operations are funded by voluntary donations from governments of the world and private donors. The organization's administrative costs are only seven percent—one of the lowest and best among aid agencies. From 2008-2012, private voluntary donors donated around $500 million. In 2016, WFP received from donors in total US$5,933,529,247; the USA was the major donor of WFP with 2 billion US$, followed by the European Commission and Germany.
The WFP is governed by an executive board. David Beasley, from South Carolina, United States, is the current executive director, appointed jointly by the UN Secretary General and the director-general of the FAO for a five-year term, he heads the secretariat of the WFP. The European Union is a permanent observer in the WFP and, as a major donor, participates in the work of its executive board, its vision is a "world in which every man and child has access at all times to the food needed for an active and healthy life." The WFP has a staff of the majority of whom work in remote areas. The Logistics Cluster is an Inter-Agency Standing Committee humanitarian coordination mechanism whose primary role is supporting emergency responses. One of eleven sectoral coordination bodies, it was set by UN General Assembly resolution 46/182 in December 1991 and extended in the Humanitarian Reform of 2005, with new elements adopted to improve capacity, accountability and partnership; the Logistics Cluster provides coordination and information management services to support operational decision-making and improve the predictability and efficiency of humanitarian emergency responses.
Where necessary, the Logistics Cluster facilitates access to common logistics services. Due to its expertise in the field of humanitarian logistics, the World Food Programme was chosen by the IASC as the lead agency for the Logistics Cluster. WFP hosts the Global Logistics Cluster support team in its headquarters in Rome. WFP acts as a ‘provider of last resort’ offering common logistics services, when critical gaps hamper the humanitarian response. In 2013, the WFP reached 80.9 million people in 75 countries and provided 3.1 million tonnes of food, including nutritionally enriched Ready-to-use therapeutic foods. 7.8 million malnourished children received special nutritional support in 2013, 18.6 million children received school meals or take-home rations. In 2015, the WFP reached 76.7 million people in 81 countries. In emergencies, more than 50 million people were reached in order to improve their nutrition and food security. School meals were provided to 17.4 million children helping retain children in schools, supporting uninterrupted access to education.
The WFP has scaled up its use of cash and vouchers as food assistance tools. 7.9 million people received assistance through cash or voucher programmes in 2013. In the same year, the WFP purchased food in 91 countries. Among its other activities, the WFP has coordinated the five-year Purchase for Progress pilot project. Launched in September 2008, P4P assists smallholder farmers by offering them opportunities to access agricultural markets and to become competitive players in the marketplace; the project spanned across 20 countries in Africa and Latin America and trained 800,000 farmers in improved agricultural production, post-harvest handling, quality assurance, group marketing, agricultural finance and contracting with the WFP. The project resulted in 366,000 metric tons of food produced and generated more than $148 million in income for its smallholder farmers; the WFP focuses its food assistance on those who are most vulnerable to hunger, which most means women, the sick and the elderly. In fact, part of the response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake consisted of distributing food aid only to women as experience built up over 5 decades of working in emergency situations has demonstrated that
Lagos is a city in the Nigerian state of Lagos. The city, with its adjoining conurbation, is the most populous in Nigeria and on the African continent, it is one of the fastest growing cities in the world and one of the most populous urban agglomerations. Lagos is a major financial centre in Africa. Lagos emerged as a port city that originated on a collection of islands, which are contained in the present day Local Government Areas of Lagos Island, Eti-Osa, Amuwo-Odofin and Apapa. Due to rapid urbanization, the city expanded to the west of the lagoon to include areas in the present day Lagos Mainland, Ajeromi-Ifelodun and Surulere; this led to the classification of Lagos into two main areas: the Island, the initial city of Lagos, before it expanded into the area known as the Mainland. This city area was governed directly by the Federal Government through the Lagos City Council, until the creation of Lagos State in 1967, which led to the splitting of Lagos city into the present day seven Local Government Areas, an addition of other towns from the Western Region, to form the state.
Lagos, the capital of Nigeria since its amalgamation in 1914, went on to become the capital of Lagos State after its creation. However, the state capital was moved to Ikeja in 1976, the federal capital moved to Abuja in 1991. Though Lagos is still referred to as a city, the present day Lagos known as "Metropolitan Lagos", as "Lagos Metropolitan Area" is an urban agglomeration or conurbation, consisting of 20 LGAs, 32 LCDAs including Ikeja, the state capital of Lagos State; this conurbation makes up 37% of Lagos State's total land area, but houses about 85% of the state's total population. The exact population of Metropolitan Lagos is disputed. In the 2006 federal census data, the conurbation had a population of about 8 million people. However, the figure was disputed by the Lagos State Government, which released its own population data, putting the population of Lagos Metropolitan Area at 16 million; as at 2015, unofficial figures put the population of "Greater Metropolitan Lagos", which includes Lagos and its surrounding metro area, extending as far as into Ogun State, at 21 million.
Lagos was inhabited by the Awori subgroup of the Yoruba people in the 15th century. Under the leadership of the Oloye Olofin, the Awori moved to an island now called Iddo and to the larger Lagos Island. In the 16th century, the Awori settlement was conquered by the Benin Empire and the island became a Benin war-camp called "Eko" under Oba Orhogbua, the Oba of Benin at the time. Eko is still the native name for Lagos. Lagos, which means "lakes", was a name given to the settlement by the Portuguese; the present-day Lagos state has a high percentage of Awori clan, who migrated to the area from Isheri along the Ogun river. Throughout history, it was home to a number of warring ethnic groups. Following its early settlement by the Awori nobility, its conquest by the Bini warlords of Benin, the state first came to the attention of the Portuguese in the 15th century. Portuguese explorer Rui de Sequeira visited the area in 1472, naming the area around the city Lago de Curamo. Another explanation is that Lagos was named for Lagos, Portugal—a maritime town that, at the time, was the main centre of Portuguese expeditions down the African coast.
In Britain's early 19th century fight against the transatlantic slave trade, its West Africa Squadron or Preventative Squadron as it was known, continued to pursue Portuguese, American and Cuban slave ships and to impose anti-slavery treaties with West African coastal chiefs with so much doggedness that they created a strong presence along the West African coast from Sierra Leone all the way to the Niger Delta and as far south as Congo. In 1849, Britain appointed John Beecroft Consul of the Bights of Benin and Biafra, a position he held until his death in 1854. John Duncan was located at Wydah. At the time of Beecroft's appointment, the Kingdom of Lagos was in the western part of the Consulate of the Bights of Benin and Biafra and was a key slave trading port. In 1851 and with pressure from liberated slaves who now wielded political and business influence, Britain intervened in Lagos in what is now known as the Bombardment of Lagos or Capture of Lagos resulting in the installation of Oba Akitoye and the ouster of Oba Kosoko.
Oba Akitoye signed the Treaty between Great Britain and Lagos abolishing slavery. The signing of the 1852 treaty ushered in the Consular Period in Lagos' history wherein Britain provided military protection to Lagos. Following threats from Kosoko and the French who were positioned at Wydah, a decision was made by Lord Palmerston who noted in 1861, "the expediency of losing no time in assuming the formal Protectorate of Lagos". William McCoskry, the Acting Consul in Lagos with Commander Bedingfield convened a meeting with Oba Dosunmu on 30 July 1861 aboard HMS Prometheus where Britain's intent was explained and a response to the terms were required by August 1861. Dosunmu resisted the terms of the treaty but under the threat to unleash violence on Lagos by Commander Bedingfield, Dosunmu relented and signed the Lagos Treaty of Cession on 6 August 1861. Lagos was declared a colony on 5 Marc
The Young Men's Christian Association, sometimes regionally called the Y, is a worldwide organization based in Geneva, with more than 64 million beneficiaries from 120 national associations. It was founded on 6 June 1844 by Sir George Williams in London and aims to put Christian principles into practice by developing a healthy "body and spirit". From its inception, it grew and became a worldwide movement founded on the principles of muscular Christianity. Local YMCAs deliver projects and services focused on youth development through a wide variety of youth activities, including providing athletic facilities, holding classes for a wide variety of skills, promoting Christianity, humanitarian work. YMCA globally operates on a federation model, with each independent local YMCA voluntarily affiliated to their national organizations; the national organizations, in turn, are part of both an Area Alliance and the World Alliance of YMCAs. With regard to the history and purpose of the founding, this "organization and its female counterpart were established to provide low-cost housing in a safe Christian environment for rural young men and women journeying to the cities."
It was associated with the movement of young people to cities to work. The YMCA "combined preaching in the streets and the distribution of religious tracts with a social ministry. Philanthropists saw them as places for wholesome recreation that would preserve youth from the temptations of alcohol and prostitution and that would promote good citizenship." The YMCA was founded by three men, led by George Williams, a London draper, typical of the young men drawn to the cities by the Industrial Revolution. His co-founders included Rev John Stewart FEIS who served as the association's first Secretary under Williams' chairmanship; the three were concerned about the lack of healthy activities for young men in major cities. Williams's idea grew out of meetings he held for prayer and Bible-reading among his fellow-workers in a business in the city of London, on 6 June 1844, he founded the first YMCA in London with the purpose of "the improving of the spiritual condition of young men engaged in the drapery and other trades."
By 1851, there were YMCAs in the United Kingdom, Belgium, France, the Netherlands and the United States. In 1855, 99 YMCA delegates from Europe and North America met in Paris at the First World Conference of YMCAs, held before the 1855 Paris World Exposition of the same year, they discussed joining together in a federation to enhance cooperation amongst individual YMCA societies. This marked the beginning of the World Alliance of YMCAs; the conference adopted a common mission for all present and future national YMCAs. Its motto was taken from the Bible, "That they all may be one". Other ecumenical bodies, such as the World YWCA, the World Council of Churches, the World Student Christian Federation have reflected elements of the Paris Basis in their founding mission statements. In 1865 The Fourth World Conference of YMCAs, held in Germany, affirmed the importance of developing the whole individual in spirit and body; the concept of physical work through sports, a new concept for the time, was recognized as part of this "muscular Christianity".
Two themes resonated during the council: the need to respect the local autonomy of YMCA societies, the purpose of the YMCA: to unite all young, male Christians for the extension and expansion of the Kingdom of God. The former idea is expressed in the preamble: The delegates of various Young Men's Christian Associations of Europe and America, assembled in Conference at Paris, the 22nd August, 1855, feeling that they are one in principle and in operation, recommend to their respective Societies to recognize with them the unity existing among their Associations, while preserving a complete independence as to their particular organization and modes of action, to form a Confederation of secession on the following fundamental principle, such principle to be regarded as the basis of admission of other Societies in future; the YMCA was influential during the 1870s and 1930s, during which times they most promoted "evangelical Christianity in weekday and Sunday services, while promoting good sportsmanship in athletic contests in gyms and swimming pools."
In this period, continuing on through the 20th century, the YMCA had "become interdenominational and more concerned with promoting morality and good citizenship than a distinctive interpretation of Christianity." Today the YMCA is more focused on their families to exercise and be healthy. In 1878, World Alliance of YMCAs offices were established in Switzerland. In 1900, North American YMCAs, in collaboration with the World Alliance, set up centres to work with emigrants in European ports, as millions of people were leaving for the USA. In 1880, the YMCA became the first national organization to adopt a strict policy of equal gender representation in committees and national boards, with Norway being the country that first adopted it. In 1885, Camp Baldhead, the first residential camp in the United States and North America, was established by A. Sanford and Sumner F. Dudley, both of whom worked for the YMCA; the camp located near Orange Lake in New Jersey, moved to Lake Wawayanda in Sussex County the following year, to the shore of Lake Champlain near Westport, New York, in 1891.
Doha is the capital and most populous city of the State of Qatar. Doha has a population of 1,850,000 in the city proper with the population close to 2.4 million. The city is located on the coast of the Persian Gulf in the east of the country, it is Qatar's fastest growing city, with over 80% of the nation's population living in Doha or its surrounding suburbs, it is the economic centre of the country. Doha was founded in the 1820s as an offshoot of Al Bidda, it was declared as the country's capital in 1971, when Qatar gained independence from being a British Protectorate. As the commercial capital of Qatar and one of the emergent financial centres in the Middle East, Doha is considered a world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Doha accommodates an area devoted to research and education; the city was host to the first ministerial-level meeting of the Doha Development Round of World Trade Organization negotiations. It was selected as host city of a number of sporting events, including the 2006 Asian Games, the 2011 Pan Arab Games and most of the games at the 2011 AFC Asian Cup.
In December 2011, the World Petroleum Council held the 20th World Petroleum Conference in Doha. Additionally, the city hosted the 2012 UNFCCC Climate Negotiations and is set to host a large number of the venues for the 2022 FIFA World Cup; the city will host the 140th Inter-Parliamentary Union Assembly in April 2019. In May 2015, Doha was recognized as one of the New7Wonders Cities together with Vigan, La Paz, Havana and Kuala Lumpur. According to the Ministry of Municipality and Environment, the name "Doha" originated from the Arabic term dohat, meaning "roundness" — a reference to the rounded bays surrounding the area's coastline; the city of Doha was formed seceding from another local settlement known as Al Bidda. The earliest documented mention of Al Bidda was made in 1681, by the Carmelite Convent, in an account which chronicles several settlements in Qatar. In the record, the ruler and a fort in the confines of Al Bidda are alluded to. Carsten Niebuhr, a German explorer who visited the Arabian Peninsula, created one of the first maps to depict the settlement in 1765 in which he labelled it as'Guttur'.
David Seaton, a British political resident in Muscat, wrote the first English record of Al Bidda in 1801. He describes the geography and defensive structures in the area, he stated that the town had been settled by the Sudan tribe, whom he considered to be pirates. Seaton attempted to bombard the town with his warship, but returned to Muscat upon finding that the waters were too shallow to position his warship within striking distance. In 1820, British surveyor R. H. Colebrook, who visited Al Bidda, remarked on the recent depopulation of the town, he wrote: Guttur – Or Ul Budee, once a considerable town, is protected by two square Ghurries near the sea shore. This could contain two hundred men. There are remaining at Ul Budee about 250 men, but the original inhabitants, who may be expected to return from Bahrein, will augment them to 900 or 1,000 men, if the Doasir tribe, who frequent the place as divers, again settle in it, from 600 to 800 men; the same year, an agreement known as the General Maritime Treaty was signed between the East India Company and the sheikhs of several Persian Gulf settlements.
It sought to end piracy and the slave trade. Bahrain became a party to the treaty, it was assumed that Qatar, perceived as a dependency of Bahrain by the British, was a party to it. Qatar, was not asked to fly the prescribed Trucial flag; as punishment for alleged piracy committed by the inhabitants of Al Bidda and breach of treaty, an East India Company vessel bombarded the town in 1821. They razed the town, forcing between 300 and 400 natives to flee and temporarily take shelter on the islands between the Qatar and the Trucial Coast. Doha was founded in the vicinity of Al Bidda sometime during the 1820s. In January 1823, political resident John MacLeod visited Al Bidda to meet with the ruler and initial founder of Doha, Buhur bin Jubrun, the chief of the Al-Buainain tribe. MacLeod noted. Following the founding of Doha, written records conflated Al Bidda and Doha due to the close proximity of the two settlements; that year, Lt. Guy and Lt. Brucks mapped and wrote a description of the two settlements.
Despite being mapped as two separate entities, they were referred to under the collective name of Al Bidda in the written description. In 1828, Mohammed bin Khamis, a prominent member of the Al-Buainain tribe and successor of Buhur bin Jubrun as chief of Al Bidda, was embroiled in controversy, he had murdered a native of Bahrain. In response, the Al-Buainain tribe revolted, provoking the Al Khalifa to destroy the tribe's fort and evict them to Fuwayrit and Ar Ru'ays; this incident allowed the Al Khalifa additional jurisdiction over the town. With no effective ruler, Al Bidda and Doha became a sanctuary for pirates and outlaws. In November 1839, an outlaw from Abu Dhabi named Ghuleta took refuge in Al Bidda, evoking a harsh response from the British. A. H. Nott, a British naval commander, demanded that Salemin bin Nasir Al-Suwaidi, chief of the Sudan tribe in Al Bidda, take Ghuleta into custody and warned
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf is a Liberian politician who served as the 24th President of Liberia from 2006 to 2018. Sirleaf was the first elected female head of state in Africa. Born in Monrovia to a Gola father and Kru-German mother, Sirleaf was educated at the College of West Africa before moving to the United States, where she studied at Madison Business College and Harvard University, she returned to Liberia to work in William Tolbert's government as Deputy Minister of Finance from 1971 to 1974 and went to work for the World Bank in the Caribbean and Latin America. She returned to work for the late president Tolbert's government again as deputy minister of Finance before being promoted to the post of Minister of Finance from 1979 to 1980. After Samuel Doe seized power in a coup d'état and executed Tolbert, Sirleaf fled to the United States, she worked for Citibank and the Equator Bank before returning to Liberia to contest a senatorial seat for Montserrado county in the disputed 1985 elections.
After returning to Liberia, Sirleaf ran for office, finished in second place at the 1997 presidential election won by Charles Taylor. She won the 2005 presidential election and took office on 16 January 2006, she was re-elected in 2011. In June 2016, she was elected as the Chair of the Economic Community of West African States, making her the first woman to hold the position since it was created. In 2011, Sirleaf was jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize with Leymah Gbowee of Liberia and Tawakkol Karman of Yemen; the three women were recognized "for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work."Sirleaf was conferred the Indira Gandhi Prize by Indian President Pranab Mukherjee on 12 September 2013. In 2016, she was listed as the 83rd-most powerful woman in the world by Forbes magazine. Sirleaf's father was Gola and her mother had mixed Kru and German ancestry. While not Americo-Liberian in terms of ancestry, because of her education in the West, Sirleaf is considered culturally Americo-Liberian by some observers, or assumed to be Americo-Liberian.
Sirleaf does not identify as such. Sirleaf's father, Jahmale Carney Johnson, was born into a Gola family in an impoverished rural region, he was the son of a minor Gola chief named Jahmale and one of his wives, Jenneh, in Julijuah, Bomi County. Her father was sent to Monrovia, where he changed his surname to Johnson due to his father's loyalty to President Hilary R. W. Johnson, Liberia's first native-born president, he grew up in Monrovia. Sirleaf's father became the first Liberian from an indigenous ethnic group to be elected to the country's national legislature. Sirleaf's mother was born into poverty, in Greenville, her grandmother, Juah Sarwee, sent Sirleaf's mother to Monrovia when Sirleaf's German grandfather had to flee the country after Liberia declared war on Germany during World War I. A member of a prominent Americo-Liberian family, Cecilia Dunbar and raised Sirleaf's mother. Sirleaf was born in Monrovia in 1938, she attended the College of West Africa, a preparatory school, from 1948 to 1955.
She married James Sirleaf. The couple had four sons together, she was occupied as a homemaker. Early on in their marriage, James worked for the Department of Agriculture, Sirleaf worked as a bookkeeper for an auto-repair shop, she traveled with her husband to the United States in 1961 to continue her education and earned an associate degree in Accounting at Madison Business College, in Madison, Wisconsin. When they returned to Liberia, James continued his work in the Agriculture Department and Sirleaf pursued a career in the Treasury Department, they divorced in 1961 because of James' abuse. Sirleaf returned to college to finish her bachelor's degree. In 1970, she earned a BA in economics from the Economics Institute of the University of Colorado Boulder, where she spent a summer preparing for graduate studies. Sirleaf studied economics and public policy at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government from 1969 to 1971, gaining a Master of Public Administration, she returned to her native Liberia to work in the administration of William Tolbert, where she was appointed as Assistant Minister of Finance.
Whilst in that position, she attracted attention with a "bombshell" speech to the Liberian Chamber of Commerce that claimed that the country's corporations were harming the economy by hoarding or sending their profits overseas. Sirleaf served as Assistant Minister from 1972 to 1973 in the Tolbert administration, she resigned after a disagreement about government spending. Subsequently, she was appointed as Minister of Finance a few years serving from 1979 to April 1980. Master Sergeant Samuel Doe, a member of the indigenous Krahn ethnic group, seized power in a military coup on 12 April 1980; the People's Redemption Council took control of the country and led a purge against the previous government. Sirleaf accepted a post in the new government as President of the Liberian Bank for Development and Investment, she fled the country in November 1980 after publicly criticising Doe and the People's Redemption Council for their management of the country. Sirleaf moved to Washington, D. C. and worked for the World Bank.
In 1981, she moved to Nairobi, Kenya to serve as Vice President of the African Regional Office of Citibank. She resigned from Citibank in 1985 following her involvement at the 1985 general election in Liberia, she went to work for Equator Bank, a subsidiary of HSBC. In 1992, Sirleaf was appointed as the Director of the United
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Michelle LaVaughn Robinson Obama is an American lawyer, university administrator and writer, First Lady of the United States from 2009 to 2017. She is married to the 44th U. S. President, Barack Obama, was the first African-American First Lady. Raised on the South Side of Chicago, Obama is a graduate of Princeton University and Harvard Law School. In her early legal career, she worked at the law firm Sidley Austin, she subsequently worked in non-profits and as the Associate Dean of Student Services at the University of Chicago and the Vice President for Community and External Affairs of the University of Chicago Medical Center. Michelle married Barack in 1992 and they have two daughters. Obama campaigned for her husband's presidential bid throughout 2007 and 2008, delivering a keynote address at the 2008 Democratic National Convention, she returned to speak for him at the 2012 Democratic National Convention. During the 2016 Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia, she delivered a speech in support of the Democratic presidential nominee, Hillary Clinton, a former First Lady.
As First Lady, Obama served as a role model for women, worked as an advocate for poverty awareness, nutrition, physical activity and healthy eating. She was considered a fashion icon. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson was born on January 17, 1964, in Chicago, Illinois, to Fraser Robinson III, a city water plant employee and Democratic precinct captain, Marian Shields Robinson, a secretary at Spiegel's catalog store, her mother was a full-time homemaker. The Robinson and Shields families trace their roots to pre-Civil War African Americans in the American South. On her father's side, she is descended from the Gullah people of South Carolina's Low Country region, her paternal great-great grandfather, Jim Robinson, was born into slavery in 1850 on Friendfield Plantation, near Georgetown, South Carolina. He became a freedman at age 15 after the war; some of Obama's paternal family still reside in the Georgetown area. Her grandfather Fraser Robinson, Jr. built his own house in South Carolina. He and his wife LaVaughn returned to the Low Country from Chicago after retirement.
Among her maternal ancestors was her great-great-great-grandmother, Melvinia Shields, born into slavery in South Carolina but sold to Henry Walls Shields, who had a 200-acre farm in Clayton County, Georgia near Atlanta. Melvinia's first son, Dolphus T. Shields, was biracial and born into slavery about 1860. Based on DNA and other evidence, in 2012 researchers said his father was 20-year-old Charles Marion Shields, son of Melvinia's master, they may have had a continuing relationship, as she had two more mixed-race children and lived near Shields after emancipation, taking his surname. As was the case, Melvinia did not talk to relatives about Dolphus' father. Dolphus Shields with his wife Alice moved to Alabama after the Civil War, they were great-great-grandparents of Michelle Robinson. Other of their children's lines migrated to Ohio in the 20th century. All four of Robinson's grandparents had multiracial ancestors, reflecting the complex history of the U. S, her extended family has said that people did not talk about the era of slavery when they were growing up.
Her distant ancestry includes Irish and Native American roots. Among her contemporary extended family is rabbi Capers Funnye. Funnye converted to Judaism after college, he is a paternal first cousin once-removed. Robinson's childhood home was on the upper floor of 7436 South Euclid Avenue in Chicago's South Shore community area, which her parents rented from her great-aunt, who had the first floor, she was raised in what she describes as a "conventional" home, with "the mother at home, the father works, you have dinner around the table". Her elementary school was down the street, she and her family enjoyed playing games such as Monopoly and saw extended family on both sides. She played piano, learning from her great-aunt, a piano teacher; the Robinsons attended services at nearby South Shore United Methodist Church. They used to vacation in a rustic cabin in Michigan, she and her 21-month older brother, skipped the second grade. Her father suffered from multiple sclerosis, which had a profound emotional effect on her as she was growing up.
She was determined to stay out of trouble and be a good student, what her father wanted for her. By sixth grade, Michelle joined a gifted class at Bryn Mawr Elementary School, she attended Whitney Young High School, Chicago's first magnet high school, established as a selective enrollment school, where she was a classmate of Jesse Jackson's daughter Santita. The round-trip commute from the Robinsons' South Side home to the Near West Side, where the school was located, took three hours. Michelle recalled being fearful of how others would perceive her, but disregarded any negativity around her and used it "to fuel me, to keep me going", she recalled facing gender discrimination growing up, for example, that rather than asking her for her opinion on a given subject, people tended to ask what her older brother thought. She was on the honor roll for four years, took advanced placement classes, was a member of the National Honor Society, served as student council treasurer, she graduated in 1981 as the salutatorian of her class.
She was inspired to follow her brother to Prince