The prefix paleo- comes from the Greek adjective palaios, meaning old or ancient. The term Paleo-Indians applies specifically to the period in the Western Hemisphere and is distinct from the term Paleolithic. Evidence suggests big-animal hunters crossed the Bering Strait from Eurasia into North America over a land and ice bridge, small isolated groups of hunter-gatherers migrated alongside herds of large herbivores far into Alaska. From c. 16,500 – c. 13,500 BCE, ice-free corridors developed along the Pacific coast and this allowed animals, followed by humans, to migrate south into the interior. The people went on foot or used primitive boats along the coastline, the precise dates and routes of the peopling of the New World are subject to ongoing debate. Stone tools, particularly projectile points and scrapers, are the evidence of the earliest human activity in the Americas. Crafted lithic flaked tools are used by archaeologists and anthropologists to classify cultural periods, scientific evidence links Indigenous Americans to Asian peoples, specifically eastern Siberian populations.
There is evidence for at least two separate migrations, between 8000–7000 BCE the climate stabilized, leading to a rise in population and lithic technology advances, resulting in more sedentary lifestyle. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research. These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets, another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific coast to South America. Evidence of the latter would since have been covered by a sea rise of hundreds of meters following the last ice age. Archaeologists contend that Paleo-Indians migration out of Beringia, ranges from c. 40,000 – c. 16,500 years ago and this time range is a source of debate and promises to continue as such for years to come. However, alternative theories about the origins of Paleoindians exist, including migration from Europe, the Paleo-Indian would eventually flourish all over the Americas.
These peoples were spread over a geographical area, thus there were regional variations in lifestyles. However, all the groups shared a common style of stone tool production, making knapping styles. Food would have been plentiful during the few months of the year. Lakes and rivers were teeming with many species of fish, nuts and edible roots could be found in the forests and marshes. The fall would have been a time because foodstuffs would have to be stored
National Geographic Society
The National Geographic Society, headquartered in Washington, D. C. United States, is one of the largest nonprofit scientific and educational institutions in the world and its interests include geography and natural science, the promotion of environmental and historical conservation, and the study of world culture and history. In partnership with 21st Century Fox, the Society operates the magazine, TV channels, a website that features extra content and worldwide events, the National Geographic Society was founded in 1888 to increase and diffuse geographic knowledge. The Society believes in the power of science and storytelling to change the world, National Geographic is governed by a board of trustees, whose 21 members include distinguished educators, business executives, former government officials and conservationists. The organization sponsors and funds research and exploration. National Geographic maintains a museum for the public in its Washington and its Education Foundation gives grants to education organizations and individuals to improve geography education.
Its Committee for Research and Exploration has awarded more than 11,000 grants for scientific research, National Geographic has retail stores in Washington, D. C. The locations outside of the United States are operated by Worldwide Retail Store S. L and it publishes other magazines, school products and Web and film products in numerous languages and countries. National Geographics various media properties reach more than 280 million people monthly, the National Geographic Society began as a club for an elite group of academics and wealthy patrons interested in travel. After preparing a constitution and a plan of organization, the National Geographic Society was incorporated two weeks on January 27, Gardiner Greene Hubbard became its first president and his son-in-law, Alexander Graham Bell, succeeded him in 1897. Bell and Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor devised the successful marketing notion of Society membership, the current National Geographic Society president and CEO is Gary E. Knell. The chairman of the board of trustees is John Fahey, the editor-in-chief of National Geographic magazine is Susan Goldberg.
Gilbert Melville Grosvenor, a chairman of the Society board of trustees received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2005 for his leadership in geography education. In 2004, the National Geographic Society headquarters in Washington, D. C. was one of the first buildings to receive a Green certification from Global Green USA. The National Geographic received the prestigious Prince of Asturias Award for Communication and Humanities in October 2006 in Oviedo, in 2013 the society was investigated for possible violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act relating to their close association with an Egyptian government official responsible for antiquities. This new, for-profit corporation, will own National Geographic and other magazines, as reported by The Guardian, a spokesman for National Geographic in a November 2,2015 e-mail statement, briefly discussed the rationale for the staff reductions as part of the. Process of reorganizing in order to move forward following the closing the National Geographic Partners deal.
Additional specifics were provided to Photo District News by M. J. Jacobsen, National Geographic’s SVP of communications, similar to the contents of a formal announcement by the two companies
Prince of Wales Island (Alaska)
Prince of Wales Island is one of the islands of the Alexander Archipelago in the Alaska Panhandle. It is the fourth-largest island in the United States and the 97th-largest island in the world. The island is 135 miles long,45 miles wide and has an area of 2,577 sq mi, about 1/10 the size of Ireland, approximately 4,000 people live on the island. Craig is the largest community, founded as a saltery in the early 20th century, some 750 people live in Klawock, a long-established village that grew with the fishing industry. Hollis was a boom and bust mining town from 1900 to about 1915, abandoned, it was re-established as a logging camp in the 50s. It now has a population of 100 and is the location of the ferry terminal, Mountain peaks, all but the tallest of which were buried by Pleistocene glaciation, reach over 3,000 feet. Fjords, steep-sided mountains, and dense forests characterize the island, extensive tracts of limestone include karst features such as El Capitan Pit, at 598.3 feet, possibly the deepest vertical shaft in the United States.
Moist, maritime conditions dominate the weather, the Tongass National Forest covers most of the island. Within the forest and on the island are the Karta River Wilderness, many of its wildlife, such as the Prince of Wales flying squirrel, are found nowhere else. The island is in the Prince of Wales-Hyder Census Area, Prince of Wales Island is the homeland of the Kaigani Haida people. Kaigani is a mispronunciation of the Tlingit word xaax aani which translates to crabapple country, the Tlingit name for the island is Taan, meaning sea lion. The island is traditional Tlingit territory with the Haida moving into the area in the late 18th century and it was not until 1774 that Juan Pérez led a Spanish expedition sailing in a 39-foot boat from La Paz, Mexico reached Sumez Island off of Prince of Wales west coast. A British expedition in 1779, under Captain James Cook, passed Prince of Wales Island, comte de La Perouse led a French expedition to the area in 1786. Karta Bay is the site of the first salmon saltery in Alaska, mining of gold and other metals on the island began in the late 19th century.
Uranium was mined at Bokan Mountain in the 1950s and 1970s, logging was the mainstay of the collective Prince of Wales economy, the recent decline in the industry leaves only a few small-scale sawmills operating. In 1975, the Point Baker Association and others sued the United States Forest Service to prevent logging 400,000 acres on the portion of the island. Zieske v. Butz,406 F. Supp, in March 1976, the United States Congress responded to the suit by passing the National Forest Management Act, which removed the injunction. Still, only half of the timber was cut on the north end of the island
A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone. Although stone tool-dependent societies and cultures still exist today, most stone tools are associated with prehistoric, archaeologists often study such prehistoric societies, and refer to the study of stone tools as lithic analysis. Ethnoarchaeology has been a research field in order to further the understanding and cultural implications of stone tool use. Stone has been used to make a variety of different tools throughout history, including arrow heads, spearpoints. Stone tools may be made of ground stone or chipped stone. Chipped stone tools are made from materials such as chert or flint, chalcedony, basalt. One simple form of reduction is to strike stone flakes from a nucleus of material using a hammerstone or similar hard hammer fabricator, if the goal of the reduction strategy is to produce flakes, the remnant lithic core may be discarded once it has become too small to use. In some strategies, however, a flintknapper reduces the core to a rough unifacial or bifacial preform, more complex forms of reduction include the production of highly standardized blades, which can be fashioned into a variety of tools such as scrapers, knives and microliths.
Archaeologists classify stone tools into industries that share distinctive technological or morphological characteristics and he assigned to them relative dates, Modes 1 and 2 to the Lower Palaeolithic,3 to the Middle Palaeolithic,4 to the Advanced and 5 to the Mesolithic. They were not to be conceived, however, as either universal—that is, they did not account for all lithic technology, Mode 1, for example, was in use in Europe long after it had been replaced by Mode 2 in Africa. Clarkes scheme was adopted enthusiastically by the archaeological community, one of its advantages was the simplicity of terminology, for example, the Mode 1 / Mode 2 Transition. The transitions are currently of greatest interest, Kenya Stone tools found from 2011 to 2014 at Lake Turkana in Kenya, are dated to be 3.3 million years old, and predate the genus Homo by half million years. The oldest known Homo fossil is 2.8 million years old compared to the 3.3 million year old stone tools. Dating of the tools was by dating volcanic ash layers in which the tools were found, Oldowan tools were characterised by their simple construction, predominantly using core forms.
The blunt end is the surface, the sharp, the distal. Grasping the proximal surface, the hominid brought the surface down hard on an object he wished to detach or shatter. The earliest known Oldowan tools yet found date from 2.6 million years ago, during the Lower Palaeolithic period, and have been uncovered at Gona in Ethiopia. Homo habilis was the hominin who used the tools for most of the Oldowan in Africa, more complex, Mode 2 tools began to be developed through the Acheulean Industry, named after the site of Saint-Acheul in France
The Tlingit are an indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America. Their language is Lingít, meaning People of the Tides, the Russian name Koloshi or the related German name Koulischen may be encountered referring to the people in older historical literature, such as Shelikhovs 1796 map of Russian America. The Tlingit have a kinship system, with children considered born into the mothers clan. Their culture and society developed in the temperate rainforest of the southeast Alaska coast, the Tlingit maintained a complex hunter-gatherer culture based on semi-sedentary management of fisheries. An inland group, known as the Inland Tlingit, inhabits the far part of the province of British Columbia. With regular travel up rivers, the Tlingit developed extensive trade networks with Athabascan tribes of the interior. They overlap in territory with various Athabascan peoples, such as the Tahltan, Kaska, in Canada, the modern communities of Atlin, British Columbia, Teslin and Carcross, Yukon have reserves and are the representative Interior Tlingit populations.
The territory occupied by the modern Tlingit people in Alaska is not restricted to particular reservations, the corporation in the Tlingit region is Sealaska Corporation, which serves the Tlingit as well as the Haida and Tsimshian in Alaska. Tlingit people as a participate in the commercial economy of Alaska. As a consequence, they live in typically American nuclear family households with private ownership of housing, many possess land allotments from Sealaska or from earlier distributions predating ANCSA. Despite the legal and political complexities, the territory occupied by the Tlingit can be reasonably designated as their modern homeland. Tlingit people today consider the land from around Yakutat south through the Alaskan Panhandle, and including the lakes in the Canadian interior, as being Lingít Aaní, the Land of the Tlingit. Northern Tinglit live north of Frederick Sound to Cape Spencer, and including Glacier Bay and their territory can be battered by Pacific storms. These academic classifications are supported by similar self-identification among the Tlingit, the Tlingit culture is multifaceted and complex, a characteristic of Northwest Pacific Coast people with access to easily exploited rich resources.
In Tlingit culture a heavy emphasis is placed upon family and kinship and economic power are important indicators of rank, but so is generosity and proper behavior, all signs of good breeding and ties to aristocracy. Tlingit society is divided into two moieties, the Raven and the Eagle and these in turn are divided into numerous clans, which are subdivided into lineages or house groups. They have a kinship system, with descent and inheritance passed through the mothers line. These groups have heraldic crests, which are displayed on poles, feast dishes, house posts, jewelry
University of Colorado Boulder
The University of Colorado Boulder is a public research university located in Boulder, United States. It is the university of the University of Colorado system and was founded five months before Colorado was admitted to the Union in 1876. In 2015, the university consisted of nine colleges and schools and offered over 150 academic programs, twelve Nobel Laureates, nine MacArthur Fellows, and 20 astronauts have been affiliated with CU Boulder as students, researchers, or faculty members in its history. The university received nearly $454 million in sponsored research in 2010 to fund programs like the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, the Colorado Buffaloes compete in 17 varsity sports and are members of the NCAA Division I Pac-12 Conference. The Buffaloes have won 28 national championships,20 in skiing, seven total in mens and womens cross country, approximately 1,500 students participate in 34 intercollegiate club sports annually as well. Two cities competed for the site of the University of Colorado, the consolation prize for the losing city was to be home of the new Colorado State Prison.
Cañon City was at a disadvantage as it was already the home of the Colorado Territorial Prison, the cornerstone of the building that became Old Main was laid on September 20,1875. The doors of the university opened on September 5,1877, at the time, there were few high schools in the state that could adequately prepare students for university work, so in addition to the University, a preparatory school was formed on campus. In the fall of 1877, the student body consisted of 15 students in the proper and 50 students in the preparatory school. There were 38 men and 27 women, and their ages ranged from 12–23 years, during World War II, Colorado was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a navy commission. The main CU Boulder campus is located south of the Pearl Street Mall and it consists of academic and residential buildings as well as research facilities. The East Campus is about a mile from the main campus and is composed mainly of athletic fields.
CU Boulders distinctive architecture style, known as Tuscan Vernacular Revival, was designed by architect Charles Klauder. A month or so after approval, Klauder updated his design by sketching in a new wrap of rough, textured sandstone walls with sloping, multi-leveled red-tiled roofs and Indiana limestone trim. This formed the basis of a style which was used in the design of fifteen other buildings between 1921 and 1939. The sandstone used in the construction of all the buildings on campus was selected from a variety of front range mountain quarries. In 2011, Travel+Leisure named the Boulder campus as one of the most beautiful campuses in the United States. Currently Freshmen and others attending the University of Colorado Boulder have an option of 24 on-, Residence halls have 17 varieties of room types from singles to four-person rooms and others with apartment style amenities
JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of journals, it now includes books and primary sources. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries have access to JSTOR, most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term, online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution, JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its sites.
Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear, with the success of this limited project and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665, the work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially, until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers, the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service.
This site offers a facility with graphical indication of the article coverage. Users may create focused sets of articles and request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and they are notified when the dataset is ready and may download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request that from JSTOR, JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site. The materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative and are only to JSTOR
University of Alaska Fairbanks
The University of Alaska Fairbanks is a public research university in Fairbanks, United States. It is a campus of the University of Alaska System. UAF is a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant institution, UAF was established in 1917 and opened for classes in 1922. UAF was originally named Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines, located just 200 miles south of the Arctic Circle, the Fairbanks campus unique location is situated favorably for arctic and northern research. The campus several lines of research are renowned worldwide, most notably arctic biology, arctic engineering, supercomputing, the University of Alaska Museum of the North is on the Fairbanks campus. Fairbanks is the home of the eLearning and Distance Education, in fall 2013, UAF enrolled 10,214 students. Of those students,59.3 percent were female and 40.7 percent were male,88 percent were undergraduates, as of May 2013,1,288 students had graduated during the immediately preceding summer and spring semesters. The station set the tone for the strongly research-oriented university that developed later, in the spring of 1915, the U. S.
Congress approved legislation that reserved about 2,250 acres of land for a campus around the research station. However, because most of the land in Tanana Valley remained unsurveyed for years, in 1929, Congress attempted to remedy the situation by granting the college an additional 100,000 acres anywhere in Alaska, but those rights were extinguished in 1959 when Alaska became a state. The ridge, which the indigenous Athabaskan people called Troth Yeddha, Charles E. Bunnell was appointed the university’s chief executive and served the university for 28 years. The new institution had its first opening day on September 18,1922, in 1923, the first commencement produced one graduate, John Sexton Shanly. In 1935, the Alaska Legislature passed a bill that changed the name of the college to the University of Alaska. From that point on, both the student population and research mission grew tremendously. The two other primary UA institutions are the University of Alaska Anchorage and the University of Alaska Southeast in Juneau, the Alaska Constitutional Convention was held in the freshly constructed Student Union Building on the Fairbanks campus from November 1955 to February 1956.
While the convention progressed, the became known as Constitution Hall. The campus’ old library and gymnasium was renamed Signers’ Hall after the Alaska Constitution was signed there in February 1956, elmer E. Mather Library UAF is Alaskas primary research university, conducting more than 90 percent of UA system research. The International Arctic Research Center, researches the circumpolar North and the causes, the Institute of Northern Engineering, an arm of the College of Engineering and Mines, conducts research in many different areas of engineering. The Institute of Arctic Biology conducts research focused on biological systems
National Speleological Society
The National Speleological Society is an organization formed in 1941 to advance the exploration, conservation and understanding of caves in the United States. Originally headquartered in Washington D. C. its current offices are in Huntsville, the organization engages in the research and scientific study, restoration and protection of caves. It has more than 10,000 members in more than 250 grottos, the Speleological Society of the District of Columbia was formed on May 6,1939 by Bill Stephenson. In the fall of 1940, the officers of the SSDC drafted a constitution that would transform the SSDC into the National Speleological Society. On January 24,1941, Bill Stephenson sent a letter to all members of the SSDC announcing that on January 1 the Society was reorganized as a national organization, the New England Grotto was the first NSS Grotto. It was chartered in 1941 with Clay Perry as president and Ned Anderson as vice-president, on February 6,1974, a pioneering cave diver named Sheck Exley became the first chairman of the Cave Diving Section of the National Speleological Society.
The new section began with 21 members in 10 different states, the NSS produces a number of publications, including, NSS News, monthly Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, formerly NSS Bulletin. The grottos carry out the local recreational and conservation-related business of the NSS. They generally function as the local NSS chapter/club, many Grottos however, operate in areas outside of their local area, with many operating in several states. Most Grottos participate in Regions which are loose associations of Grottos, Regions are an internal organization of the National Speleological Society. Grottos are required to meet certain requirements as outlined by the National Speleological Society. These include, A constitution and bylaws that are submitted to, and approved by, a minimum of at least five members of the Society. It is NSS policy that full membership in a Grotto requires NSS membership, however, in practice, this is often not the case. A full list of grottos can be found on the NSS website, the NSS hosts a yearly convention, which is generally held in the month of June.
Grottos take turns hosting the convention, caving Speleology Cave diving The National Speleological Society Journal of Cave and Karst Studies
Tongass National Forest
The Tongass National Forest /ˈtɒŋɡəs/ in Southeast Alaska is the largest national forest in the United States at 17 million acres. The Tongass, which is managed by the United States Forest Service, encompasses islands of the Alexander Archipelago and glaciers, an international border with Canada runs along the crest of the Boundary Ranges of the Coast Mountains. The forest is administered from Forest Service offices in Ketchikan, there are local ranger district offices located in Craig, Juneau, Petersburg, Thorne Bay and Yakutat. The Alexander Archipelago Forest Reserve was established by Theodore Roosevelt in a proclamation of 20 August 1902. Another presidential proclamation made by Roosevelt, on 10 September 1907, on 1 July 1908, the two forests were joined, and the combined forest area encompassed most of Southeast Alaska. Further presidential proclamations of 16 February 1909 and 10 June, an early supervisor of the forest was William Alexander Langille. Timber harvest in Southeast Alaska consisted of individual handlogging operations up until the 1950s, focusing on lowlying areas and beach fringe areas.
In the 1950s, in part to aid in Japanese recovery from World War II and these contracts were scheduled to last 50 years, and originally intended to complement independent sawlog operations in the region. However, the two conspired to drive log prices down, put smaller logging operations out of business. Ultimately, virtually all timber sales in the Tongass were purchased by one of two companies. In 1974, the KPC contract for Northern Prince of Wales was challenged by the Point Baker Association led by Alan Stein, Chuck Zieske and Herb Zieske. Federal District Court judge James von der Heydt ruled in their favor in December 1975 and March 1976, the suit threatened to halt clearcutting in the United States. In 1976, Congress removed the injunction in passing the National Forest Management Act, over half the old growth timber was removed there by the mid 1990s. Much of the power of these lay in the long-term contracts themselves. The contracts guaranteed low prices to the pulp companies — in some cases resulting in trees being given away for less than the price of a hamburger, the Tongass Timber Reform Act, enacted in 1990, significantly reshaped the logging industrys relationship with the Tongass National Forest.
However, the Forest Service conducts NEPA analyses and administrative operations to support these sales, and as such, logging operations are not the only deficit-run programs, however. High-grading has been prevalent in the Tongass throughout the era of industrial-scale logging there, for example, the forest type with the largest concentration of big trees—volume class 7—originally comprised only 4% of the forested portion of the Tongass, and over two-thirds of it has been logged. Other high-grading has concentrated on stands of Alaska cedar and red cedar, the karst terrain often produces large trees and has fewer muskeg bogs, and has been preferentially logged
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimal crystal growth, Obsidian is commonly found within the margins of rhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows, where the chemical composition induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava. The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal growth. Obsidian is hard and brittle, it therefore fractures with very sharp edges, which were used in the past in cutting and piercing tools, among the various forms of glass we may reckon Obsidian glass, a substance very similar to the stone found by Obsidius in Ethiopia. Obsidian is the rock formed as a result of quickly cooled lava, tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions, though few scientists now adhere to this hypothesis. Obsidian is mineral-like, but not a true mineral because as a glass it is not crystalline, in addition and it is sometimes classified as a mineraloid.
Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt, Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2, usually 70% or more. Crystalline rocks with obsidians composition include granite and rhyolite, because obsidian is metastable at the Earths surface, no obsidian has been found that is older than Cretaceous age. This breakdown of obsidian is accelerated by the presence of water, having a low water content when newly formed, typically less than 1% water by weight, obsidian becomes progressively hydrated when exposed to groundwater, forming perlite. Pure obsidian is usually dark in appearance, though the color varies depending on the presence of impurities and other transition elements may give the obsidian a dark brown to black color. Very few samples are nearly colorless, in some stones, the inclusion of small, radially clustered crystals of cristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern. Obsidian may contain patterns of gas bubbles remaining from the lava flow and these bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen.
An iridescent, rainbow-like sheen is caused by inclusions of magnetite nanoparticles, Obsidian can be found in locations which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions. Obsidian can be found in the eastern U. S. states of Virginia, as well as Pennsylvania, there are only four major deposit areas in the central Mediterranean, Pantelleria and Monte Arci. Ancient sources in the Aegean were Milos and Gyali, acıgöl town and the Göllü Dağ volcano were the most important sources in central Anatolia, one of the more important source areas in the prehistoric Near East. Use of obsidian in pottery of the Neolithic in the area around Lipari was found to be less at a distance representing two weeks journeying. Anatolian sources of obsidian are known to have been the used in the Levant. The first attested civilized use is from excavations at Tell Brak dated the late fifth millennia, Obsidian was valued in Stone Age cultures because, like flint, it could be fractured to produce sharp blades or arrowheads