Holinshed's Chronicles known as Holinshed's Chronicles of England and Ireland, is a collaborative work published in several volumes and two editions, the first edition in 1577, the second in 1587. It was a comprehensive description of British history published in three volumes; the Chronicles have traditionally been a source of interest to many because of their extensive links to Shakespeare's history plays, as well as King Lear and Cymbeline. Recent studies of the Chronicles have focused on a inter-disciplinary approach; the Chronicles would have been a primary source for many other literary writers of the Renaissance such as Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser, George Daniel. In 1548, Reginald Wolfe, a London printer, conceived the idea of creating a "Universal Cosmography of the whole world, therewith certain particular histories of every known nation", he wanted the work to be printed in English and he wanted maps and illustrations in the book as well. Wolfe acquired many of John Leland's works, with these he constructed chronologies and drew maps that were up-to-date.
When Wolfe realised he could not complete this project on his own, he hired Raphael Holinshed and William Harrison to assist him. Wolfe died with the work still uncompleted in 1573, the project—changed to a work about the British Isles—was run by a consortium of three members of the London stationers, they retained Holinshed, who employed Richard Stanyhurst, Edmund Campion and John Hooker. In 1577, the work was published in two volumes after some censorship by the Privy Council of some of Stanyhurst's contribution on Ireland; the Chronicles narrative is characterised by a set of rhetorical figures and thematic paradigms that establish the national, royal and heroic ideals that define a state, its monarch, its leaders, the political role of the common people. Shakespeare is believed to have used the revised second edition of the Chronicles as the source for most of his history plays, the plot of Macbeth, for portions of King Lear and Cymbeline. Several other playwrights, such as Christopher Marlowe, used the Chronicles as a source.
Shakespeare used Holinshed's work in modified form. An instance is the Three Witches, whom Holinshed describes as "creatures of the elderwood... nymphs or fairies". Nymphs and fairies are viewed as beautiful and youthful, but Shakespeare's three witches in Macbeth are ugly and bizarre, it is believed. However, the Chronicles lacked any descriptions of Macbeth's character, so Shakespeare improvised on several points; the characters Banquo and Fleance were taken from Holinshed’s works, but they are now considered to be inventions of the 16th century. The primary difference in the Chronicles is through characterisation; the character of Macbeth is depicted as a good ruler, a king, fair and just for 17 years. The plot displays King Duncan as a weak king, it is possible that the reading of Shakespeare's King Duncan was inspired by the tale of King Duffe contained within the Chronicle. This story follows a similar narrative, King Duffe and his murderer Donwald mirror the narrative of King Duncan and Macbeth.
The bad omens following the murder of Duffe are mirrored in Shakespeare's narrative. The Chronicles tale of Macbeth differs from Shakespeare's version in numerous ways; the play features a scene in which Banquo and Macbeth encounter three women and each spoke of a prophecy that would contribute to the characterisation of these women as ‘other worldly’. The first woman said ‘All hayle Makbeth Thane of Glammis’. Two of the women said ‘All hayle Macbeth, Thane of Cawder’; the third said ‘All hayle Makbeth that hereafter shall be king of Scotland’. Just as soon as they had appeared, the three women ‘vanished out of theyr sight’. In the Chronicles version, Macbeth is a much more sympathetic character. King Duncan is depicted as a weak ruler and had violated the Scottish laws of succession by failing to consult with the "Thanes," or Lords, before naming his son, a mere child named Malcolm, to rule after him. Macbeth and many other Thanes were enraged by this action. Spurred on by the words of the three women he encountered, he is encouraged to attempt to usurp the kingdom by force.
He is spurred on by his wife, ambitious and desired the title of queen for herself. In Holinshed's Chronicles, Banquo is shown as a scheming character: he is an accomplice in Macbeth’s murder of Duncan. In comparison to Shakespeare's version, which has Duncan murdered in his sleep, Duncan is slain in battle and his death is not detailed. In the Chronicles, Macbeth ruled Scotland not but for 17 years, he was a capable and wise monarch who implemented commendable laws. Fearing that Banquo will seize the kingdom, Macbeth invites him to a supper where he intends to kill Banquo and his son, he succeeds in killing Banquo but his son,Macduffe, flees to Wales. Macbeth, convinced by the witches of his invincibility, commits outrageous acts against his subjects becoming a cruel and paranoid ruler; the tale ends when Macbeth is slain by Macduff who brings his head to the son of the original King, Duncan. It is believed that Shakespeare would have used the revised second edition of the Chro
An essay is a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument — but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a paper, an article, a pamphlet, a short story. Essays have traditionally been sub-classified as informal. Formal essays are characterized by "serious purpose, logical organization, length," whereas the informal essay is characterized by "the personal element, graceful style, rambling structure, unconventionality or novelty of theme," etc. Essays are used as literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life and reflections of the author. All modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays. While brevity defines an essay, voluminous works like John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Thomas Malthus's An Essay on the Principle of Population are counterexamples. In some countries, essays have become a major part of formal education. Secondary students are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills.
The concept of an "essay" has been extended to other media beyond writing. A film essay is a movie that incorporates documentary filmmaking styles and focuses more on the evolution of a theme or idea. A photographic essay covers a topic with a linked series of photographs that may have accompanying text or captions. An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse", it is difficult to define the genre into. Aldous Huxley, a leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject, he notes that "the essay is a literary device for saying everything about anything", adds that "by tradition by definition, the essay is a short piece". Furthermore, Huxley argues that "essays belong to a literary species whose extreme variability can be studied most within a three-poled frame of reference"; these three poles are: The personal and the autobiographical: The essayists that feel most comfortable in this pole "write fragments of reflective autobiography and look at the world through the keyhole of anecdote and description".
The objective, the factual, the concrete particular: The essayists that write from this pole "do not speak directly of themselves, but turn their attention outward to some literary or scientific or political theme. Their art consists of setting forth, passing judgment upon, drawing general conclusions from the relevant data"; the abstract-universal: In this pole "we find those essayists who do their work in the world of high abstractions", who are never personal and who mention the particular facts of experience. Huxley adds that the most satisfying essays "...make the best not of one, not of two, but of all the three worlds in which it is possible for the essay to exist." The word essay derives from the French infinitive essayer, "to try" or "to attempt". In English essay first meant "a trial" or "an attempt", this is still an alternative meaning; the Frenchman Michel de Montaigne was the first author to describe his work as essays. Inspired in particular by the works of Plutarch, a translation of whose Œuvres Morales into French had just been published by Jacques Amyot, Montaigne began to compose his essays in 1572.
For the rest of his life, he continued revising published essays and composing new ones. Francis Bacon's essays, published in book form in 1597, 1612, 1625, were the first works in English that described themselves as essays. Ben Jonson first used the word essayist in English in 1609, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. English essayists included Sir Thomas Browne. In France, Michel de Montaigne's three volume Essais in the mid 1500s contain over 100 examples regarded as the predecessor of the modern essay. In Italy, Baldassare Castiglione wrote about courtly manners in his essay Il Cortigiano. In the 17th century, the Jesuit Baltasar Gracián wrote about the theme of wisdom. During the Age of Enlightenment, essays were a favored tool of polemicists who aimed at convincing readers of their position. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Edmund Burke and Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote essays for the general public; the early 19th century, in particular, saw a proliferation of great essayists in English – William Hazlitt, Charles Lamb, Leigh Hunt and Thomas de Quincey all penned numerous essays on diverse subjects.
In the 20th century, a number of essayists tried to explain the new movements in art and culture by using essays. Virginia Woolf, Edmund Wilson, Charles du Bos wrote literary criticism essays; as with the novel, essays existed in Japan several centuries before they developed in Europe with a genre of essays known as zuihitsu — loosely connected essays and fragmented ideas. Zuihitsu have existed since the beginnings of Japanese literature. Many of the most noted early works of Japanese literature are
Macbeth (2006 film)
Macbeth is a 2006 Australian adaptation of William Shakespeare's Macbeth. It was directed by Geoffrey Wright and features an ensemble cast led by Sam Worthington in the title role. Macbeth, filmed in Melbourne and Victoria, was released in Australia on 21 September 2006. Wright and Hill wrote the script, which—although it uses a modern-day Melbourne gangster setting—largely maintains the language of the original play. Macbeth was selected to screen at the Toronto International Film Festival in September 2006. In a cemetery the Weird Sisters, three school girl witches, are destroying and defacing headstones and statues, while close by Lady Macbeth weeps beside a headstone marked "beloved son" and Macbeth stands by; the three witches plan to meet with Macbeth and leave the cemetery. Macbeth leads Duncan's gang to a drug deal with his men. In a gunfight between the gangs, all of Macdonwald's gang are killed. While chasing two gunmen and Macbeth are led to the Cawdor Club, they kill the owner. Duncan hands the club over to Macbeth, Macbeth and Banquo celebrate by drinking the club's alcohol and taking pills found on a table.
During this drug trip Macbeth meets the three witches, who prophesy that he will soon be in Duncan's position with control over the gang. He tells his wife this; when she learns that Duncan will be dining and staying at their house, she plots with her husband to kill him. Lady Macbeth drugs Duncan's bodyguards, while they sleep Macbeth takes their knives and kills Duncan, framing the guards. Macduff finds Duncan murdered in his bed. Before the bodyguards can profess their innocence Macbeth shoots them. Malcolm, Duncan's son suspects Macbeth as having something to do with his father's death and flees. After Macbeth is hailed as the new leader by most of Duncan's gang Macbeth sends two murderers to kill Banquo and his son, Fleance; the murderers kill Banquo. Macbeth holds a celebratory dinner, after learning that Banquo has been killed, sees a vision of Banquo's ghost at the dining table. Macbeth is becoming shaken by his desire for power. Lennox and others suspect Macbeth of killing Duncan and Banquo.
Macbeth finds the three witches in his house that evening and, after drinking a foul potion and engaging in an orgiastic sexual encounter with them, asks the witches of his future. He is told to fear Macduff, but no man "of woman born shall kill you", it is revealed that Macduff is not a natural birth, but a caesarean section, not "of woman born". He is shown a vision of Fleance being hailed as gang leader; these prophecies enrage Macbeth, as does the witches' quick disappearance, he has the murderers go to Macduff's home and brutally kill Lady Macduff and her son. Lennox and Ross go to tell Macduff. Malcolm convinces him that Macbeth has gone much too far in his quest for power and must be stripped of his leader status. Lady Macbeth has become more insane, re-imagining the evening of Duncan's killing and tries to wash off his blood from her hands. A doctor sedates her, Macbeth appears indifferent to her instability, he prepares for the impending attack from Macduff and Ross. Lady Macbeth commits suicide in a bath tub by slashing her wrists.
The two murderers, realising the unlikeliness of surviving the attack, swiftly flee Dunsinane leaving Macbeth with only Seyton, his main bodyguard, two others. The murderers are shot. Malcolm leads his men to Dunsinane where they ambush a gunfight ensues. Macbeth is chased to the cellar where he is stabbed in the stomach, he stumbles upstairs to his bedroom, where the body of Lady Macbeth lies, dies at her side. As Macduff leads Fleance, now the inherited gang leader, from the house Macbeth's "tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow" speech is heard. Sam Worthington as Macbeth Victoria Hill as Lady Macbeth Lachy Hulme as Macduff Gary Sweet as Duncan Steve Bastoni as Banquo Mick Molloy as Murderer in Brown Matt Doran as Malcolm Bob Franklin as Siward Hanna Griffiths as Angel Craig Stott as Fleance 2006 Australian Film Institute Awards: Best Production Design, Best Costume Design Nominations: 2006 Australian Film Institute Awards: Best Cinematography, Best Original Music Score, Best Sound Macbeth grossed $232,994 at the box office in Australia.
Macbeth William Shakespeare Melbourne gangland killings Scotland, PA, another modern take on the play Macbeth official web site at the Wayback Machine Macbeth on IMDb Macbeth on Rotten Tomatoes Macbeth at the National Film and Sound Archive Wright, Geoffrey. "Writers' note on the adaptation". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2010. Macbeth Reference of Jesse Del Valle
Malcolm III of Scotland
Malcolm III was King of Scots from 1058 to 1093. He was nicknamed "Canmore". Malcolm's long reign of 35 years preceded the beginning of the Scoto-Norman age. Henry I of England and Eustace III of Boulogne were his sons-in-law, making him the maternal grandfather of Empress Matilda, William Adelin and Matilda of Boulogne. All three of them were prominent in English politics during the 12th century. Malcolm's kingdom did not extend over the full territory of modern Scotland: the north and west of Scotland remained under Scandinavian rule following the Norse invasions. Malcolm III fought a series of wars against the Kingdom of England, which may have had as its objective the conquest of the English earldom of Northumbria; these wars did not result in any significant advances southward. Malcolm's primary achievement was to continue a lineage that ruled Scotland for many years, although his role as founder of a dynasty has more to do with the propaganda of his youngest son David I and his descendants than with history.
Malcolm's second wife, St. Margaret of Scotland, is Scotland's only royal saint. Malcolm himself had no reputation for piety. Malcolm's father Duncan I became king in late 1034, on the death of Malcolm II, Duncan's maternal grandfather and Malcolm's great-grandfather. According to John of Fordun, whose account is the original source of part at least of William Shakespeare's Macbeth, Malcolm's mother was a niece of Siward, Earl of Northumbria, but an earlier king-list gives her the Gaelic name Suthen. Other sources claim that either a daughter or niece would have been too young to fit the timeline, thus the relative would have been Siward's own sister Sybil, which may have translated into Gaelic as Suthen. Duncan's reign was not successful and he was killed in battle with the men of Moray, led by Macbeth, on 15 August 1040. Duncan was young at the time of his death, Malcolm and his brother Donalbane were children. Malcolm's family attempted to overthrow Macbeth in 1045, but Malcolm's grandfather Crínán of Dunkeld was killed in the attempt.
Soon after the death of Duncan his two young sons were sent away for greater safety—exactly where is the subject of debate. According to one version, Malcolm was sent to England, his younger brother Donalbane was sent to the Isles. Based on Fordun's account, it was assumed that Malcolm passed most of Macbeth's seventeen-year reign in the Kingdom of England at the court of Edward the Confessor. Today's British Royal family can trace their family history back to Malcolm III via his daughter Matilda. According to an alternative version, Malcolm's mother took both sons into exile at the court of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Earl of Orkney, an enemy of Macbeth's family, Duncan's kinsman by marriage. An English invasion in 1054, with Siward, Earl of Northumbria in command, had as its goal the installation of one "Máel Coluim, son of the king of the Cumbrians"; this Máel Coluim has traditionally been identified with the Malcolm III. This interpretation derives from the Chronicle attributed to the 14th-century chronicler of Scotland, John of Fordun, as well as from earlier sources such as William of Malmesbury.
The latter reported that Macbeth was killed in the battle by Siward, but it is known that Macbeth outlived Siward by two years. A. A. M. Duncan argued in 2002 that, using the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry as their source writers innocently misidentified "Máel Coluim" with the Scottish king of the same name. Duncan's argument has been supported by several subsequent historians specialising in the era, such as Richard Oram, Dauvit Broun and Alex Woolf, it has been suggested that Máel Coluim may have been a son of Owain Foel, British king of Strathclyde by a daughter of Malcolm II, King of Scotland. In 1057 various chroniclers report the death of Macbeth at Malcolm's hand, on 15 August 1057 at Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire. Macbeth was succeeded by his stepson Lulach, crowned at Scone on 8 September 1057. Lulach was killed by Malcolm, "by treachery", near Huntly on 23 April 1058. After this, Malcolm became king being inaugurated on 25 April 1058, although only John of Fordun reports this. If Orderic Vitalis is to be relied upon, one of Malcolm's earliest actions as king was to travel to the court of Edward the Confessor in 1059 to arrange a marriage with Edward's kinswoman Margaret, who had arrived in England two years before from Hungary.
If a marriage agreement was made in 1059, it was not kept, this may explain the Scots invasion of Northumbria in 1061 when Lindisfarne was plundered. Malcolm's raids in Northumbria may have been related to the disputed "Kingdom of the Cumbrians", reestablished by Earl Siward in 1054, under Malcolm's control by 1070; the Orkneyinga saga reports that Malcolm married the widow of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Ingibiorg, a daughter of Finn Arnesson. Although Ingibiorg is assumed to have died shortly before 1070, it is possible that she died much earlier, around 1058; the Orkneyinga Saga records that Malcolm and Ingibiorg had a son, Duncan II, king. Some Medieval commentators, following William of Malmesbury, claimed that Duncan was illegitimate, but this claim is propaganda reflecting the need of Malcolm's descendants by Margaret to undermine the claims of Duncan's descendants, the Meic Uilleim. Malcolm's son Domnall, whose death is reported in 1085, is not mentioned by the author of the Orkneyinga Sa
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Samuel Taylor Coleridge was an English poet, literary critic and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets. He wrote the poems The Rime of the Ancient Mariner and Kubla Khan, as well as the major prose work Biographia Literaria, his critical work on William Shakespeare, was influential, he helped introduce German idealist philosophy to English-speaking culture. Coleridge coined many familiar phrases, including suspension of disbelief, he had a major influence on American transcendentalism. Throughout his adult life Coleridge had crippling bouts of depression, he was physically unhealthy, which may have stemmed from a bout of rheumatic fever and other childhood illnesses. He was treated for these conditions with laudanum. Coleridge was born on 21 October 1772 in the town of Ottery St Mary in England. Samuel's father was the Reverend John Coleridge, the well-respected vicar of St Mary's Church, Ottery St Mary and was headmaster of the King's School, a free grammar school established by King Henry VIII in the town.
He had been master of Hugh Squier's School in South Molton and lecturer of nearby Molland. John Coleridge had three children by his first wife. Samuel was the youngest of ten by the Reverend Mr. Coleridge's second wife, Anne Bowden the daughter of John Bowden, Mayor of South Molton, Devon, in 1726. Coleridge suggests that he "took no pleasure in boyish sports" but instead read "incessantly" and played by himself. After John Coleridge died in 1781, 8-year-old Samuel was sent to Christ's Hospital, a charity school, founded in the 16th century in Greyfriars, where he remained throughout his childhood and writing poetry. At that school Coleridge became friends with Charles Lamb, a schoolmate, studied the works of Virgil and William Lisle Bowles. In one of a series of autobiographical letters written to Thomas Poole, Coleridge wrote: "At six years old I remember to have read Belisarius, Robinson Crusoe, Philip Quarll – and I found the Arabian Nights' Entertainments – one tale of which made so deep an impression on me that I was haunted by spectres whenever I was in the dark – and I distinctly remember the anxious and fearful eagerness with which I used to watch the window in which the books lay – and whenever the sun lay upon them, I would seize it, carry it by the wall, bask, read."
However, Coleridge seems to have appreciated his teacher, as he wrote in recollections of his school days in Biographia Literaria: I enjoyed the inestimable advantage of a sensible, though at the same time, a severe master At the same time that we were studying the Greek Tragic Poets, he made us read Shakespeare and Milton as lessons: and they were the lessons too, which required most time and trouble to bring up, so as to escape his censure. I learnt from him, that Poetry that of the loftiest, that of the wildest odes, had a logic of its own, as severe as that of science. In our own English compositions he showed no mercy to phrase, metaphor, or image, unsupported by a sound sense, or where the same sense might have been conveyed with equal force and dignity in plainer words... In fancy I can hear him now, exclaiming Harp? Harp? Lyre? Pen and ink, you mean! Muse, Muse? Your Nurse's daughter, you mean! Pierian spring? Oh aye! the cloister-pump, I suppose! Be this as it may, there was one custom of our master's, which I cannot pass over in silence, because I think it... worthy of imitation.
He would permit our theme exercises... to accumulate, till each lad had four or five to be looked over. Placing the whole number abreast on his desk, he would ask the writer, why this or that sentence might not have found as appropriate a place under this or that other thesis: and if no satisfying answer could be returned, two faults of the same kind were found in one exercise, the irrevocable verdict followed, the exercise was torn up, another on the same subject to be produced, in addition to the tasks of the day, he wrote of his loneliness at school in the poem Frost at Midnight: "With unclosed lids had I dreamt/Of my sweet birthplace." From 1791 until 1794, Coleridge attended Cambridge. In 1792, he won the Browne Gold Medal for an ode. In December 1793, he left the college and enlisted in the 15th Light Dragoons using the false name "Silas Tomkyn Comberbache" because of debt or because the girl that he loved, Mary Evans, had rejected him, his brothers arranged for his discharge a few months under the reason of "insanity" and he was readmitted to Jesus College, though he would never receive a degree from the university.
At Jesus College, Coleridge was introduced to political and theological ideas considered radical, including those of the poet Robert Southey. Coleridge joined Southey in a plan, soon abandoned, to found a utopian commune-like society, called Pantisocracy, in the wilderness of Pennsylvania. In 1795, the two friends married sisters Sara and Edith Fricker, in St Mary Redcliffe, but Coleridge's marriage with Sara proved unhappy, he grew to detest his wi
Macbeth is a tragedy by William Shakespeare. It dramatises the damaging physical and psychological effects of political ambition on those who seek power for its own sake. Of all the plays that Shakespeare wrote during the reign of James I, patron of Shakespeare's acting company, Macbeth most reflects the playwright's relationship with his sovereign, it was first published in the Folio of 1623 from a prompt book, is Shakespeare's shortest tragedy. A brave Scottish general named Macbeth receives a prophecy from a trio of witches that one day he will become King of Scotland. Consumed by ambition and spurred to action by his wife, Macbeth murders King Duncan and takes the Scottish throne for himself, he is wracked with guilt and paranoia. Forced to commit more and more murders to protect himself from enmity and suspicion, he soon becomes a tyrannical ruler; the bloodbath and consequent civil war swiftly take Macbeth and Lady Macbeth into the realms of madness and death. Shakespeare's source for the story is the account of King of Scotland.
The events of the tragedy are associated with the execution of Henry Garnet for complicity in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605. In the backstage world of theatre, some believe that the play is cursed, will not mention its title aloud, referring to it instead as "The Scottish Play". Over the course of many centuries, the play has attracted some of the most renowned actors to the roles of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, it has been adapted to film, opera, novels and other media. The play opens amid thunder and lightning, the Three Witches decide that their next meeting will be with Macbeth. In the following scene, a wounded sergeant reports to King Duncan of Scotland that his generals Macbeth, the Thane of Glamis, Banquo have just defeated the allied forces of Norway and Ireland, who were led by the traitorous Macdonwald, the Thane of Cawdor. Macbeth, the King's kinsman, is praised for his fighting prowess. In the following scene and Banquo discuss the weather and their victory; as they wander onto a heath, the Three Witches greet them with prophecies.
Though Banquo challenges them first, they address Macbeth, hailing him as "Thane of Glamis," "Thane of Cawdor," and that he will "be King hereafter." Macbeth appears to be stunned to silence. When Banquo asks of his own fortunes, the witches respond paradoxically, saying that he will be less than Macbeth, yet happier, less successful, yet more, he will father a line of kings, though he himself will not be one. While the two men wonder at these pronouncements, the witches vanish, another thane, Ross and informs Macbeth of his newly bestowed title: Thane of Cawdor; the first prophecy is thus fulfilled, Macbeth sceptical begins to harbour ambitions of becoming king. King Duncan welcomes and praises Macbeth and Banquo, declares that he will spend the night at Macbeth's castle at Inverness. Macbeth sends a message ahead to Lady Macbeth, telling her about the witches' prophecies. Lady Macbeth suffers none of her husband's uncertainty and wishes him to murder Duncan in order to obtain kingship; when Macbeth arrives at Inverness, she overrides all of her husband's objections by challenging his manhood and persuades him to kill the king that night.
He and Lady Macbeth plan to get Duncan's two chamberlains. They will be defenceless. While Duncan is asleep, Macbeth stabs him, despite his doubts and a number of supernatural portents, including a hallucination of a bloody dagger, he is so shaken. In accordance with her plan, she frames Duncan's sleeping servants for the murder by placing bloody daggers on them. Early the next morning, Lennox, a Scottish nobleman, Macduff, the loyal Thane of Fife, arrive. A porter opens the gate and Macbeth leads them to the king's chamber, where Macduff discovers Duncan's body. Macbeth murders the guards to prevent them from professing their innocence, but claims he did so in a fit of anger over their misdeeds. Duncan's sons Malcolm and Donalbain flee to England and Ireland fearing that whoever killed Duncan desires their demise as well; the rightful heirs' flight makes them suspects and Macbeth assumes the throne as the new King of Scotland as a kinsman of the dead king. Banquo reveals this to the audience, while sceptical of the new King Macbeth, he remembers the witches' prophecy about how his own descendants would inherit the throne.
Despite his success, Macbeth aware of this part of the prophecy, remains uneasy. Macbeth invites Banquo to a royal banquet, where he discovers that Banquo and his young son, will be riding out that night. Fearing Banquo's suspicions, Macbeth arranges to have him murdered, by hiring two men to kill them sending a Third Murderer; the assassins succeed in killing Banquo. Macbeth becomes furious: he fears that his power remains insecure as long as an heir of Banquo remains alive. At a banquet, Macbeth invites Lady Macbeth to a night of drinking and merriment. Banquo's ghost sits in Macbeth's place. Macbeth raves fearfully, as the ghost is only visible to him; the others panic at the sight of Macbeth ragi
Macbeth (1960 American film)
Macbeth is a 1960 television film adaptation of the William Shakespeare play presented as the November 20, 1960 episode of the American anthology series Hallmark Hall of Fame. The series' second production of the play was, like the 1954 live telecast directed by George Schaefer, again starred English-born American actor Maurice Evans and Australian actress Judith Anderson; the supporting cast, was different, consisting of British actors, was filmed on location in Scotland. Filmed in color, the program was described in a contemporary publication as the "ost expensive TV show of all time, costing $1,200,000."Internationally, this version was treated as a feature film, was released theatrically in Europe. It was entered into the 11th Berlin International Film Festival; this television film won five Primetime Emmy Awards at the 13th annual award ceremony, held in 1961. Maurice Evans – Macbeth Judith Anderson – Lady Macbeth Michael Hordern – Banquo Ian Bannen – Macduff Malcolm Keen - King Duncan At the 13th Primetime Emmy Awards ceremony, the top show of the night was the NBC anthology Hallmark Hall of Fame for this production of Macbeth.
It won in all of its nominated categories. Outstanding Program Achievement in the Field of Drama The Program of the Year Outstanding Single Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role Outstanding Single Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Drama 13th Primetime Emmy Awards Macbeth on IMDb