Press Your Luck
Press Your Luck is an American television daytime game show created by Bill Carruthers and Jan McCormack. It premiered on CBS on September 19, 1983, ended on September 26, 1986. In the show, contestants collected spins by answering trivia questions and used the spins on an 18-space game board to win cash and prizes; the contestant who amassed the highest total in cash and prizes kept his/her winnings for the day and became the champion. Peter Tomarken was the show's host, Rod Roddy was the primary announcer. John Harlan and Charlie O'Donnell filled in as substitute announcers for Roddy on different occasions. Press Your Luck was videotaped before a studio audience at CBS Television City, Studios 33 and 43, in Hollywood, California; the show was a retooling of the earlier Carruthers production Second Chance, hosted by Jim Peck and aired on ABC in 1977. The show was known for a red cartoon creature with a high-pitched, raspy voice. Landing on any Whammy space reset the contestant's score to zero, accompanied by an animation that showed the Whammy taking the loot, but being blown up or otherwise humiliated in the process.
The Whammies were created and animated by Savage Steve Holland and Bill Kopp, voiced by Carruthers. 85 different animations were used. Three contestants competed on each episode a returning champion and two new challengers; each game began with a trivia round where the contestants tried to earn spins, used on the show's gameboard, referred to as the Big Board. A question was posed to the contestants. Once a contestant gave an answer, the remaining opponents were given a choice of that answer or two additional answers provided by Tomarken and selected one. If the contestant that buzzed in gave the correct answer, it earned. A correct multiple choice answer was worth one spin. If none of the three contestants buzzed in with an answer within five seconds, three answers were given to the contestants and they earned one spin each if they chose correctly. If a contestant buzzed in but failed to give an answer, that contestant was locked out of the question and it was treated the same way as if nobody had buzzed in.
After four questions were asked, play moved over to the Big Board. The board consisted of 18 spaces arranged in a 6×5 rectangle, each of which had a screen in it that displayed one of three items which changed rather and a randomizer light which the contestants stopped by hitting their buzzer; the most common spaces offered cash, with an extra spin attached to some of them, prizes, with some being directional spaces that either allowed the contestant to choose between two or three squares, or moved their position to a different part of the board. Cash amounts and prize values were added to the contestant's score, while landing on any of several Whammy spaces reset the player's score to zero. In the first Big Board round, play started with the contestant with the fewest spins unless there was a tie, in which case the contestant seated furthest left started. For each square the contestant stopped the randomizer light on, the value of that square was added to the contestant's bank and that contestant kept playing until running out of spins or deciding to pass.
Any passed spins went to the contestant's opponent with the higher amount of money. A contestant receiving passed spins had to take them and could not pass until all the passed spins had been used. Spins awarded from hitting spaces offering them were placed in the earned column, hitting a Whammy caused the contestant's remaining passed spins to move to the earned column, allowing the contestant to pass. Play continued. If a contestant earned a total of four Whammies, they were eliminated from the game and their remaining spins were lost. Once all spins had been played, a second round of trivia questions followed with the same rules as before. A second Big Board round followed, with much higher stakes in play; this time, contestants played in order of their scores unless there was a tie between two or more contestants, in which case the contestant with the fewest spins started the round. Any passed spins, as before, went to the opponent with the higher score; the contestant in the lead at the end of the second Big Board round became the day's champion, kept his/her winnings, returned on the next show as long as the show's winnings limits were not reached.
If two or all three contestants finished the match tied, they returned on the next show. In the rare occurrence that two contestants Whammied out of the game and the remaining contestant had spins left, the remaining contestant was given a choice to end the game or keep spinning to try to win more money; the choice was given after each spin the contestant took, the game continued until all spins were exhausted, the contestant stopped the game, or the contestant Whammied out. If the contestant managed to Whammy out, the game ended with no winner and three new contestants played on the next show. In the first Big Board round, cash amounts ranged from $100 to $1,500 and prizes were worth no more than $2,000; the second round featured cash amounts from $500 to $5,000, prizes worth $6,000 or more. Three rare but special squares appeared throughout the course of the show; the first, Double Your $$, multiplied the contestant's dollar amount at the time by two. This square became Double Your $$ + One Spin, awardi
The Volkswagen Passat is a large family car manufactured and marketed by Volkswagen since 1973, now in its eighth generation. It has been marketed variously as the Dasher, Quantum, Magotan and Carat; the successive generations of the Passat carry B2, etc.. These designations paralleled those of the Audi 80 and A4 with which the Passat shared platforms, however it’s no longer the case anymore. In 2008, Volkswagen launched a "four-door coupé" variant of the Passat. Volkswagen markets two variants of the Passat globally. In January 2011, Volkswagen announced that the new mid-size sedan being built at the Volkswagen Chattanooga Assembly Plant for the North American market would be named the Passat. Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive manufactures the Passat NMS in its Nanjing factory; the NMS is sold in the North American, South Korean and Middle Eastern markets. The Volkswagen Passat NMS won the 2012 Motor Trend Car of the Year. A new Passat model entered production in Europe based on the MQB platform; the first generation Passat launched in 1973 in two- and four-door sedan and three- and five-door versions.
Externally all four shared styling by Giorgetto Giugiaro. The first generation Passat was a fastback variant of the mechanically identical Audi 80 sedan, introduced a year earlier. A five-door station wagon was introduced in 1974, which in North American markets was sold as an Audi Fox. In Europe, the Passat was equipped with two rectangular, two round 7-inch, or four round 5.5-inch headlights depending on specification. The Passat was one of the most modern European family cars at the time, was intended as a replacement for the ageing Volkswagen Type 3 and Type 4; the only other European cars of its size to feature front-wheel drive and a hatchback were the Renault 16 and Austin Maxi. The Passat featured the four-cylinder OHC 1.3-litre and 1.5-litre petrol engines used in the Audi 80—longitudinally mounted with front-wheel drive, in Audi tradition, with either a four-speed manual transmission or three-speed automatic. It had a MacPherson strut front suspension with a solid axle/coil spring setup at the rear.
The SOHC 1.5-litre was enlarged to 1.6-litre in August 1975 with unchanged power ratings and higher torque ratings. In July 1978, the Passat Diesel became available, equipped with the VW Golf's 1.5-litre diesel, followed in February 1979 by the Passat GLI with a fuel-injected version of the 1.6-litre engine. The range received a facelift in 1977 with revised interior and revised exterior with repositioned indicators and depending on model, either four round or two rectangular headlights. In North America, the car was marketed as the Volkswagen Dasher; the three- and five-door hatchback and a station wagon model launched in North America for and during the 1974 model year. Sole available engine was a carburetted 1.5-litre inline-four developing 75 hp, supplanted from model year 1976 by a Bosch fuel-injected 1.6-litre four 78 hp. North American cars were equipped with single DOT standard headlights. In 1978, the Dasher received a facelift along the lines of the European Passat, with quad sealed beam headlights and big polyurethane covered bumpers.
The trim was upgraded and the ride softened. 1979 saw the introduction of the 1.5-litre diesel engine, which produced just 48 PS in the 1,130 kg car. 0–100 km/h time for the Diesel was 19.4 seconds, 6.2 seconds slower than the gasoline engine. All gasoline engines were dropped in preparation for the next generation. In Brazil, the Passat B1 was produced from June 1974 until 1988. Since the Audi 80 was not marketed in Brazil, the Passat received the Audi's different front-end treatment after a facelift for 1979. With a 1.5-litre engine, during its long life cycle many improvements from the B2 platform were introduced, like its 1.6 and 1.8-litre engines, a Brazil-specific face-lift in 1985, a five-speed gearbox. A sports version, named Passat TS 1.6 and Passat GTS 1.8 Pointer was introduced. The second generation Passat launched in 1981; the platform, named B2, was once again based on the corresponding version of the Audi 80, launched in 1978. The B2 Passat was longer. In addition to the Passat hatchbacks and Variants, there was a conventional three-box saloon, which until the 1985 facelift was sold as the Volkswagen Santana in Europe.
In the USA, the Passat/Santana was sold as the Volkswagen Quantum, available in three-door hatchback, four-door sedan, a wagon model, but the five-door hatchback was never sold there and the three-door hatchback was dropped after less than two years. The four-wheel drive Syncro version was introduced in October 1984 only with the more powerful five-cylinder engine; the Passat/Santana was produced and commercialized in China, South America and South Africa, too. In Mexico, it was marketed from 1984 to 1988 as Corsar Variant. In Argentina, from 1987 to 1991 as the VW Carat. In Brazil, the wagon model was badged VW Quantum; the Passat saloon and estate were produced in South Africa for the local market until 1987. Like the previous generation, the B2 Passat was sold with four-cylinder petrol and diesel engines. Unlike its predecessor, top-of the line versions received five-cylinder Audi or VW engines of 1.9–2.2 litres. The 5-cylinder version was sold in the US as the Quantum GL-5. In addition to four- and five-speed manuals and three-speed automatic gearboxes
The Legally Prohibited from Being Funny on Television Tour
The Legally Prohibited from Being Funny on Television Tour was a comedy tour by American comedian and talk show host Conan O'Brien. Its title is a reference to the 2010 Tonight Show host and timeslot conflict, which resulted in O'Brien resigning from his position as host of The Tonight Show in January 2010. O'Brien reached a settlement with NBC that barred him from appearing on television until September 2010, but it did not bar him from performing before a live audience in a concert setting. From April through June 2010, O'Brien performed 42 shows in the United States and Canada. O'Brien announced on March 11, 2010 via his Twitter account that he would embark on a 30-city live tour beginning April 12. With the unconventional marketing campaign of a single Twitter announcement, many locations sold out within hours of the tweet and additional shows were added on to meet demand. During the tour, O'Brien announced that his new show, would debut on TBS in November 2010. A documentary following O'Brien during the tour, Conan O'Brien Can't Stop, was released in June 2011.
In January 2010, late-night talk show hosts Conan O'Brien and Jay Leno engaged in a public relations conflict over who should host The Tonight Show. Due to low ratings for The Jay Leno Show and The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien, NBC announced a schedule change, moving Leno from 10:00 pm to 11:30 pm, O'Brien from 11:30 pm to 12:00 am; this change resulted in a public outcry and public demonstrations in support of O'Brien. O'Brien indicated that he would quit his show and leave the network if NBC were to implement it, citing the "destruction" of the venerable franchise which had aired at or around 11:30 pm for over 60 years; as part of the deal between O'Brien and NBC, O'Brien was prohibited from appearing on television prior to September 1, 2010. He began to utilize social media to remain engaged with his fan base. O'Brien started a Twitter account on February 24, 2010. After about one hour, O'Brien's subscriber list had reached over 30,000 members and 30 minutes he was on the brink of passing 50,000 followers.
After 24 hours, O'Brien had well over 300,000 followers. In late May 2010, he surpassed the one million mark for number of Twitter followers. O'Brien announced via his Twitter account that he would embark on a 30-city live tour on March 11, 2010, beginning on April 12, 2010. On the same day, teamcoco.com, an official website, was launched. According to TMZ, O'Brien decided not to keep any of the proceeds from the tour, in order to employ his show's staff members. Several members of O'Brien's staff joined him for the tour, including sidekick Andy Richter, the former Tonight Show Band, temporarily renamed "The Legally Prohibited Band". Max Weinberg, the band leader, was unable to participate in the tour due to his recent heart surgery, although he did appear at one of the New York City shows. Signs at each venue encouraged audience members using Twitter during the show to use a unique hashtag. Reggie Watts served as the tour's opening act. In the video introduction to the show, Conan appeared as an obese and bearded version of himself struggling to cope with the loss of his talk show while Eric Carmen's "All By Myself" plays.
He transforms back into his thin self during his exercise montage after getting the call to go on tour. The tour differed from his television shows in that there was no desk or celebrity interviews, but presented as more of a variety show than a stand-up routine. Many elements from TV were incorporated into the show, including video bits and comic performers, cameo appearances by celebrities. Classic sketches were revived for the tour, albeit under different names due to legal issues over the ownership rights; the Masturbating Bear, for example, made a brief appearance before being transformed into the Self-Pleasuring Panda. The "Walker, Texas Ranger lever" was retitled the "Chuck Norris Rural Policeman Handle". Triumph the Insult Comic Dog mocked the city the tour was appearing in as himself in a prerecorded bit that inserts information about the city by dubbing over the original audio. O'Brien introduced a giant inflatable bat he claimed to have purchased during Meat Loaf's Bat Out of Hell tour and at one point walked onstage wearing a replica of Eddie Murphy's purple suit from his comedy special Eddie Murphy Raw.
In addition, O'Brien performed music throughout the show, including the disco hit "I Will Survive" and a personal parody of "On the Road Again". Reggie Watts Festivals and other miscellaneous performancesThis show is a part of the "Bonnaroo Music Festival" Just hours before the first show of the tour, O'Brien announced that he would host a new show on cable station TBS, titled Conan, which debuted in November 2010. In addition to the announcement of the television series, TBS announced a one-hour TBS Special, featuring several writers for Conan, as well Watts. With ticket prices starting at $40, The Legally Prohibited from Being Funny on Television Tour sold out. Footage of O'Brien's tour has been uploaded onto YouTube by fans in attendance and went viral. A clip of O'Brien's performance of "I Will Survive", for example, has received more than 320,000 views. Conan O'Brien Can't Stop, a behind-the-scenes documentary film shot during the tour, was released in June 2011, it focuses on the production of the tour, O'Brien's interactions with fans and his crew, O'Brien's thoughts on the Tonight Show conflict and legal injunction that inspired the tour.
The movie was filmed and produced by director Rodman Flender, a college friend of O'Brien. A Sarah Killen was chosen at random to be O'Brien's one follow on Twitter. B O'Brien performed two shows at the Borgata on May 30, 2010. Legally
Phish is an American rock band, founded at the University of Vermont in Burlington, Vermont in 1983. The band is known for musical improvisation, extended jams, blending of genres, a dedicated fan base; the band consists of guitarist Trey Anastasio, bassist Mike Gordon, drummer Jon Fishman, keyboardist Page McConnell, all of whom perform vocals, with Anastasio being the primary lead vocalist. The band was formed by Anastasio, Gordon and guitarist Jeff Holdsworth, who were joined by McConnell in 1985. Holdsworth departed the band in 1986, the quartet lineup has remained in place since then. Following the stabilization of their lineup, Phish performed together for 15 years, until they embarked on a hiatus in October 2000; the band regrouped in late 2002, but disbanded in August 2004 after a farewell performance at their Coventry Festival in Vermont. They reunited in March 2009 for a series of three consecutive concerts at Hampton Coliseum in Hampton and have since resumed performing regularly. Phish's music blends elements of a wide variety of genres, including funk, progressive rock, psychedelic rock, country, blues and pop.
The band was part of a movement of improvisational rock groups, inspired by the Grateful Dead and colloquially known as "jam bands", which gained considerable popularity as touring concert acts in the 1990s. Phish has developed a large and dedicated following by word of mouth, the exchange of live recordings, selling over 8 million albums and DVDs in the United States. In 1998, Rolling Stone described Phish as "the most important band of the'90s." The magazine wrote that the band helped to "...spawn a new wave of bands oriented around group improvisation and extended instrumental grooves". Phish was formed at the University of Vermont in 1983 by guitarists Trey Anastasio and Jeff Holdsworth, bassist Mike Gordon, drummer Jon Fishman. Anastasio and Fishman had met that October, after Anastasio overheard Fishman playing drums in his dormitory room, asked if he and Holdsworth could jam with him. Gordon met the trio shortly thereafter, after he answered a want-ad for a bass guitarist that Anastasio had posted around the university.
For their first gig, at Harris Millis Cafeteria at the University of Vermont on December 2, 1983, the band was billed as "Blackwood Convention". The band performed one more concert in 1983, did not perform again for nearly a year, stemming from Anastasio's suspension from the university following a prank he had pulled with a friend. Anastasio returned to his hometown of Princeton, New Jersey following the prank, attended Mercer County Community College. While there, he reconnected with his childhood friend Tom Marshall, the pair began a songwriting collaboration and recorded material that would appear on the Bivouac Jaun demo tape. Marshall and Anastasio have subsequently composed the majority of Phish's original songs throughout their career. Anastasio returned to Burlington in late 1984 and resumed playing with Blackwood Convention, which soon renamed themselves Phish, they played their first concert under that name on October 23 of that year; the band was named both after Fishman, whose nickname is "Fish," and phshhhh, an onomatopoeia of the sound of a brush on a snare drum.
Anastasio designed the band's logo. The band would collaborate with percussionist Marc Daubert in the fall of 1984, a time during which they promoted themselves as playing Grateful Dead songs. Keyboardist Page McConnell met Phish in early 1985, when he arranged for them to play a spring concert at Goddard College, the small university he attended in Plainfield, Vermont, he began performing with the band as a guest shortly thereafter, made his live debut during the third set of their May 3, 1985 concert at UVM's Redstone Campus. In the summer of 1985, Phish went on a short hiatus while Anastasio and Fishman vacationed in Europe. McConnell joined Phish as a full-time band member in September 1985. Phish performed with a five-piece lineup for about six months after McConnell joined, a period which ended when Holdsworth quit the group in March 1986 following a religious conversion. Holdsworth's departure from the band solidified its "Trey, Page and Fish" lineup, which remains in place to this day.
With the encouragement of McConnell and Fishman relocated in mid-1986 to Goddard College. Phish distributed at least six different experimental self-titled cassettes during this era, including The White Tape; this first studio recording was circulated in two variations: the first, mixed in a dorm room as late as 1985, received a higher distribution than the second studio remix of the original four tracks, c. 1987. The older version was released under the title Phish in August 1998. Jesse Jarnow's book Heads: A Biography of Psychedelic America details much of the band's early years at Goddard College, including their early relationship with fellow Goddard students Richard "Nancy" Wright and Jim Pollock. Pollock and Wright were musical collaborators who made experimental recordings on multi-track cassettes, had been introduced to Phish through McConnell, who co-hosted a radio program on WGDR with Pollock. Phish adopted a number of Nancy's songs into their own set, including "Halley's Comet", "I Didn't Know", "Dear Mrs. Reagan", the latter song being written by Nancy and Pollock.
In Heads, Jarnow argues that Wright and his music were influential to Phish's early style and experimental sound. Wright amicably ended his associatio
CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv