An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Wilt were an alternative rock band founded in Kilkenny, Ireland in 1998. Formed by ex-Kerbdog members Cormac Battle on vocals/guitar and Darragh Butler on drums, the line-up was completed with their friend Mick Murphy on bass. Wilt played their first gig at The Funnel in Dublin on 26 March 1998, their debut album, was released in July 2000. Wexford native Derren Dempsey joined on guitar/backing vocals as a live touring member in 2002 to promote their second album, My Medicine. Although Rock Sound magazine tipped them as being Ireland's version of Hüsker Dü and Weezer, Wilt broke up in 2003. Singles / E. P.s Albums Other Radio Sessions "April Skies" – Jesus And Mary Chain "Mercy Seat" – Ultra Vivid Scene "Mansion on the Hill" – Bruce Springsteen
Francis Edward "Frank" Turner is an English punk and folk singer-songwriter from Meonstoke, Hampshire. He began his career as the vocalist of post-hardcore band Million Dead embarked upon a acoustic-based solo career following the band's split in 2005. In the studio and during live performances, Turner is accompanied by his backing band, The Sleeping Souls, which consists of Ben Lloyd, Tarrant Anderson, Matt Nasir and Nigel Powell. To date, Turner has released seven solo albums, three rarities compilation albums, one split album and five EPs. Turner's seventh studio album, Be More Kind, was released on 4 May 2018. Frank Turner was born in Bahrain. Upon return to England, the family settled first in Winchester before moving to Meonstoke. Turner was educated at Summer Fields and subsequently on a scholarship at Eton College, where he studied alongside Prince William, he attended the London School of Economics. His father, Roger Cunliffe Turner, is the son of Sir Mark Turner, a merchant banker, the chairman of high street retailer BHS, had himself attended Eton before becoming a City investment banker.
He had married daughter of Sir Hereward Wake, 13th Baronet. Frank's mother, the daughter of Richard Fox Cartwright, Bishop of Plymouth, is a primary school head teacher. On August 29, 2018, Turner became engaged to actress Jessica Guise; the first record Turner owned was the album Killers by Iron Maiden. Metal was the first genre of music he fell in love with, he remains a passionate fan. Turner's musical career began with the short-lived alternative band Kneejerk; the band released three records and played several shows around the UK. The last record, their only full-length, was entitled The Half Life of Kissing and was released by Yorkshire DIY hardcore label Sakari Empire after the band had broken up. In 2001, Turner joined London post-hardcore band Million Dead at the invitation of former Kneejerk drummer Ben Dawson. In 2005, after four years and two albums, the band announced that they were parting ways, as "irreconcilable differences within the band mean that it would be impossible to continue."
Around that time Turner got a tape with Bruce Springsteen's Nebraska on it – he claimed that "that was a big moment for me hearing that record in terms of a turn around in my music career, from hardcore punk bands to what I’m doing now." Turner's first solo shows took place prior to the break-up of Million Dead, with a set at the Smalltown America all-dayer at 93 Feet East in London. After the band's split, Turner felt that "it seemed like the logical thing to do to try my hand at playing these songs more publicly and more concertedly than before". Turner states that "when Million Dead finished, I wanted to stay on tour, but I didn’t want the hassle of putting a band together."After a split EP with rock band Reuben, Turner's first solo EP, Campfire Punkrock, was released in May 2006 on Xtra Mile Recordings, with him being recorded and backed by Oxford band Dive Dive whom he had met while out on tour with Reuben. Band members Tarrant Anderson, Ben Lloyd and Nigel Powell would become his backing band from this point on, with most of his subsequent UK headline tours being full band shows.
After touring in support of American singer-songwriter Jonah Matranga, the two released a split EP in August 2006. In September, he was the last act to appear on Steve Lamacq's "Lamacq Live" show on BBC Radio 1. Turner's debut full-length studio album, Sleep Is for the Week was released in January 2007, again recorded at Dive Dive's studio, produced by their guitarist Ben Lloyd and featuring drummer Nigel Powell. After an extensive tour, including dates supporting yourcodenameis:milo and Biffy Clyro, an appearance at SXSW, Turner released an EP, The Real Damage, in May 2007. After a further tour with Jonah Matranga and Jacob Golden, the "All About The Destination" DVD was released in October, before returning to the studio in Hampshire to record his second album; the album, Love Ire & Song again saw Ben Lloyd from Dive Dive in the producer's seat, was released on 31 March 2008, followed by an extensive UK tour with Andy Yorke and Chris T-T. T-T joined the live lineup on keyboards through summer 2008.
During summer 2008, Turner made several festival appearances, including sets at Y Not Festival, Two Thousand Trees Festival, the Cambridge Folk Festival, Glastonbury, Jam By The Lake and the Reading and Leeds Festivals. In October/November, during his 2008 UK Tour for the Love and Song album, he became ill with gastroenteritis, was forced to leave the stage in Nottingham halfway through his set. All remaining shows, which included Nottingham and Ireland, were cancelled – the first time that Turner as a solo artist had cancelled any show in ten years, he went on to reschedule all cancelled shows in January 2009. In December 2008 Turner released The First Three Years, a compilation of demos, b-sides and covers that are not featured on either of his studio albums. In January 2009, he released a combined package of The First Three Years and Love Ire & Song, supported The Gaslight Anthem on their tour of the UK and Europe, demoing several new songs and announcing his plans to record a new album in May.
The album was produced by Alex Newport, as suggested in interview by Turner. His band at the time still consisted of Ben Lloyd, Tarrant Anderson and Nigel Powell from Dive Dive, with keyboardist Matt Nasir having been added on the Love and Song tour. Prior to recording Poetry of the Deed, Turner stated that: Turner was announced as the support act on The Offspring's su
End of Green (song)
"End of Green" is a song by Kerbdog and their second single released in 1993 on Vertigo Records, taken from their self titled debut album. The two b-sides are covers. "In a Rut" was a song by The Ruts and "Kerosene" was by Big Black from their debut album Atomizer. Tracks 2 & 3 recorded at Dublin, by Pat Dunne assisted by Lorcan Cousins; the single was released on CD and 7" vinyl. There was a promo only 12" vinyl. "End of Green" "In a Rut" "Kerosene"
Alternative rock is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became popular in the 1990s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music; the term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, seen to be descended from punk rock. Alternative rock broadly consists of music that differs in terms of its sound, social context and regional roots. By the end of the 1980s, magazines and zines, college radio airplay, word of mouth had increased the prominence and highlighted the diversity of alternative rock, helping to define a number of distinct styles such as noise pop, indie rock and shoegaze.
Most of these subgenres had achieved minor mainstream notice and a few bands representing them, such as Hüsker Dü and R. E. M. had signed to major labels. But most alternative bands' commercial success was limited in comparison to other genres of rock and pop music at the time, most acts remained signed to independent labels and received little attention from mainstream radio, television, or newspapers. With the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became successful. In the past, popular music tastes were dictated by music executives within large entertainment corporations. Record companies signed contracts with those entertainers who were thought to become the most popular, therefore who could generate the most sales; these bands were able to record their songs in expensive studios, their works sold through record store chains that were owned by the entertainment corporations.
The record companies worked with radio and television companies to get the most exposure for their artists. The people making the decisions were business people dealing with music as a product, those bands who were not making the expected sales figures were excluded from this system. Before the term alternative rock came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms. In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term Alternative Music to describe the groups. In 1979 Dallas radio station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled "Rock and Roll Alternative". "College rock" was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the college radio circuit and the tastes of college students. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture. According to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called "Alternative Charts".
The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980. At the time, the term indie was used to describe independently distributed records. By 1985, indie' had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, rather than distribution status; the use of the term alternative to describe rock music originated around the mid-1980s. Individuals who worked as DJs and promoters during the 1980s claim the term originates from American FM radio of the 1970s, which served as a progressive alternative to top 40 radio formats by featuring longer songs and giving DJs more freedom in song selection. According to one former DJ and promoter, "Somehow this term'alternative' got rediscovered and heisted by college radio people during the 80s who applied it to new post-punk, indie, or underground-whatever music". At first the term referred to intentionally non–mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by "heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave" and "high-energy dance anthems".
Usage of the term would broaden to include new wave, punk rock, post-punk, "college"/"indie" rock, all found on the American "commercial alternative" radio stations of the time such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM. Journalist Jim Gerr wrote that Alternative encompassed variants such as "rap, trash and industrial". In December 1991, Spin magazine noted: "this year, for the first time, it became resoundingly clear that what has been considered alternative rock – a college-centered marketing group with lucrative, if limited, potential- has in fact moved into the mainstream"; the bill of the first Lollapalooza, an itinerant festival in North America conceived by Jane's Addiction frontman Perry Farrell, reunited "disparate elements of the alternative rock community" including Henry Rollins, Butthole Surfers, Ice-T, Nine Inch Nails and the Banshees and Jane's Addiction. That same year, Farrell coined the term Alternative Nation. In the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific. In 1997, Neil Strauss of The New York Times defined alternative rock as "hard-edged rock distinguished by brittle,'70s-inspired guitar riffing and singers agonizing over their problems until they take on epic proportions".
Defining music as alt
Dummy Crusher is a song by Kerbdog and a single released in July 1994, taken from their self titled debut album. The single was released on two CDs, 7" vinyl and 12" vinyl; the 12" single was a limited edition picture disc. Most of the B-sides over the 4 discs are covers. "Kennedy" was by The Wedding Present, "Debaser" is a cover of the song by the Pixies from their 1989 album Doolittle, "Mildred Pierce" is a cover of the song by Sonic Youth from their 1990 album Goo, "This Is Not a Love Song" was by Public Image Ltd, "Mr. Clean" was by The Jam on their 1978 album All Mod Cons, "Don't Stand in Line" is a cover of the song by Pailhead, "Too Much Too Young" was a number-one hit for The Specials in 1980. All b-side tracks recorded by Nick Woolage. CD2 and the 7" feature the "Kaliphz Mix" of "Dummy Crusher", a faster dancier mix with heavy breakbeats; this mix features on both sides of a 10" green-coloured vinyl promo issued to DJs only. There were two CD promos; these featured a "Clean Mix" of "Dummy Crusher" which had bad language featured in the lyrics edited out, as this is not considered suitable for daytime radio play.
"The Funk Regulators Clean Mix" is the "Kaliphz Mix" edited in the same way. When played live the band jokingly said that the song was about Battle's Dad's taxi or'a famous car'. "Dummy Crusher" is the only Kerbdog single to have reached the UK's Top 40 singles chart, peaking at number 37. The "Dummy Crusher" track was featured on the Highlander III: The Sorcerer soundtrack. "Dummy Crusher" "Kennedy" "Debaser" "Dummy Crusher" "Mildred Pierce" "This Is Not A Love Song" "Dummy Crusher" "Don't Stand In Line" "Mr. Clean" "Dummy Crusher" "Too Much Too Young" CD DJ promo "Dummy Crusher" "Dummy Crusher" "Dummy Crusher" "Dummy Crusher" "This Is Not A Love Song" "Debaser"Green 10" promo "Dummy Crusher" "Dummy Crusher" entered the UK singles charts on 6 August 1994 and peaked after two weeks
Roy Z is an American guitarist and producer, best known for his work with Bruce Dickinson and Judas Priest. He is the founder of Tribe of Gypsies, a Latin-influenced hard rock band. Roy Z was born Roy Ramirez in Los Angeles, but changed his name in the 1980s because "ethnic names were not trendy at the time". Roy reversed became'Roy Zerimar', though people began calling him ` Roy Z' for short. Roy began playing guitar and studying music at a young age, influenced by players such as Peter Green, Uli Roth, Jimmy Page, Frank Marino, Carlos Santana, Michael Schenker, Yngwie Malmsteen, Jeff Beck, Robin Trower, he was featured in Mike Varney's "Spotlight" column in Guitar Player magazine. A regular on the Southern California hard rock scene in the late 1980s, Roy played with several bands, including Seventh Thunder, Gypsy Moreno, Royal Flush, Driver and Mike Vescera. In 1991, Roy recorded a 5-song demo which netted a record deal with German indie label Dream Circle Records and led to the formation of Tribe of Gypsies.
When Bruce Dickinson split with Iron Maiden in 1993, he hand picked Roy and Tribe of Gypsies members Eddie Casillas, David Ingraham, Doug van Booven to complete his solo band. Adding a Latin feel to the metal legend's distinctive voice, the resulting album Balls to Picasso is a somewhat eclectic affair, ranging from the power ballad "Tears of the Dragon" to the doomy rocker "Cyclops". Although recorded in 1993, the self-titled Tribe of Gypsies debut album did not surface until 1996 when it was released on JVC/Victor in Japan. Three more releases followed in quick succession before the band toured the U. S. for the first time, supporting Santana on a handful of dates on the Supernatural tour. After the commercial failure of his alternative rock styled Skunkworks album in 1996, Bruce Dickinson re-teamed with Roy on 1997's critically acclaimed Accident of Birth which featured guitarist Adrian Smith; the band would follow up with 1998's The Chemical Wedding, a concept album with a darker feel but praised along with Accident of Birth as a fan favorite jokingly called by some "The best Iron Maiden album since Seventh Son."
Roy gained widespread industry acclaim for his work with Dickinson, in 2000 he was tapped to produce the Rob Halford solo album Resurrection, which featured the duet "The One You Love to Hate" with Dickinson, as well as Helloween's The Dark Ride. Roy would go on to produce and co-write every Halford album to date as well as taking over on guitar for the departing Pat Lachman in 2003. Roy re-connected with his former Driver bandmate, vocalist Rob Rock, for a series of albums starting with 2000's Rage of Creation. Roy and Bruce again teamed up in 2003 to write and record Tyranny of Souls, released on Sanctuary Records; the pair could not find time to write the album together, so Roy would send riffs to Bruce, on the road with Iron Maiden, Bruce would write melodies and lyrics. The album was recorded in Roy's studio, featured session players on drums and bass. Roy himself took a turn on bass for 2 songs, "Believil" and "Power of the Sun." Vocals for the album were done in less than 2 weeks, with Bruce sleeping on a cot in the studio to maximize time.
Dickinson had been injured during a fall at an Iron Maiden show and was all but unable to stand. The album had to be shelved for more than eight months, when in 2004, Roy got the call to produce and mix Judas Priest's reunion album Angel of Retribution. Shortly thereafter, Roy was tapped by former Skid Row frontman Sebastian Bach to produce his 2007 solo album, Angel Down, which included a guest vocal appearance by Guns N' Roses mainman Axl Rose. In 2008, Roy and Rob Rock re-activated their long dormant band Driver and released their full-length debut, Sons of Thunder, which included re-recordings of the songs from the band's 1990 cassette EP. Roy took part in the Halford reunion and has played guitar alongside "Metal" Mike Chlasciak on all subsequent studio and live releases since, starting with the 2009 Christmas album, Halford III: Winter Songs. Roy has continued his production work, including Ravenous by Swedish heavy metal band Wolf in 2009 and Brazilian thrashers Sepultura's twelfth album, Kairos, in 2011.
In March 2013, news leaked that Roy was once again working with Bruce Dickinson and that the project would involve former Scorpions guitarist Uli Jon Roth with whom both Z and Dickinson have performed live on different occasions. No new album with Dickinson would materialize but Dickinson has since acknowledged that "If Eternity Should Fail", the opener on Iron Maiden's 2015 album, The Book of Souls, stemmed from writing and demo sessions with Roy, although Dickinson is listed as the sole writer in the credits. In 2014, Z's band, Tribe of Gypsies, were invited to play the Rock of Ages Festival in Seebronn, their first and only show on the European continent to date, they played a rare L. A. show supporting Latin all-stars De La Tierra, led by Sepultura's Andreas Kisser. In early 2016, Tribe released a video for "Yeah!", their first new song since 2006's Dweller on the Threshold. Z has continued to keep busy working as a producer and mixer, most with artists such as former Nevermore vocalist Warrel Dane, Peruvian metal band Flor de Loto, Russian rockers Aria, all-star project Spirits of Fire featuring Tim "Ripper" Owens, Chris Caffery, Steve DiGiorgio, Mark Zonder.
Z co-wrote, played guitar on and produced the 2019 West Bound debut alb