Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy that flourished throughout the Roman and Greek world until the 3rd century AD. Stoicism is predominantly a philosophy of ethics which is informed by its system of logic. It was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC. Because of this, the Stoics presented their philosophy as a way of life, to live a good life, one had to understand the rules of the natural order since they taught that everything was rooted in nature. Later Stoics—such as Seneca and Epictetus—emphasized that, because virtue is sufficient for happiness, from its founding, Stoic doctrine was popular during the Roman Empire—and its adherents included the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. It experienced a decline after Christianity became the religion in the 4th century. Over the centuries, it has seen revivals, notably in the Renaissance, the Stoics provided a unified account of the world, consisting of formal logic, monistic physics and naturalistic ethics. Of these, they emphasized ethics as the focus of human knowledge.
A primary aspect of Stoicism involves improving the individuals ethical and moral well-being and this viewpoint was described as Classical Pantheism. Beginning at around 301 BC, Zeno taught philosophy at the Stoa Poikile, Zenos ideas developed from those of the Cynics, whose founding father, had been a disciple of Socrates. Zenos most influential follower was Chrysippus, who was responsible for the molding of what is now called Stoicism, Roman Stoics focused on promoting a life in harmony within the universe, over which one has no direct control. Scholars usually divide the history of Stoicism into three phases, Early Stoa, from the founding of the school by Zeno to Antipater, middle Stoa, including Panaetius and Posidonius. Late Stoa, including Musonius Rufus, Epictetus, no complete work by any Stoic philosopher survives from the first two phases of Stoicism. Only Roman texts from the Late Stoa survive, diodorus Cronus, who was one of Zenos teachers, is considered the philosopher who first introduced and developed an approach to logic now known as propositional logic.
This is an approach to logic based on statements or propositions, rather than terms, Chrysippus developed a system that became known as Stoic logic and included a deductive system, Stoic Syllogistic, which was considered a rival to Aristotles Syllogistic. New interest in Stoic logic came in the 20th century, when important developments in logic were based on propositional logic, susanne Bobzien wrote, The many close similarities between Chrysippus philosophical logic and that of Gottlob Frege are especially striking. The Stoics held that all being – though not all things – is material and they accepted the distinction between concrete bodies and abstract ones, but rejected Aristotles belief that purely incorporeal being exists. Thus, they accepted Anaxagoras idea that if an object is hot, unlike Aristotle, they extended the idea to cover all accidents
Aristotle was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece. His father, died when Aristotle was a child, at seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Platos Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven. Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip II of Macedon, teaching Alexander the Great gave Aristotle many opportunities and an abundance of supplies. He established a library in the Lyceum which aided in the production of many of his hundreds of books and he believed all peoples concepts and all of their knowledge was ultimately based on perception. Aristotles views on natural sciences represent the groundwork underlying many of his works, Aristotles views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval scholarship. Their influence extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance, some of Aristotles zoological observations, such as on the hectocotyl arm of the octopus, were not confirmed or refuted until the 19th century.
His works contain the earliest known study of logic, which was incorporated in the late 19th century into modern formal logic. Aristotle was well known among medieval Muslim intellectuals and revered as The First Teacher and his ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. All aspects of Aristotles philosophy continue to be the object of academic study today. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues – Cicero described his style as a river of gold – it is thought that only around a third of his original output has survived. Aristotle, whose means the best purpose, was born in 384 BC in Stagira, Chalcidice. His father Nicomachus was the physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. Aristotle was orphaned at a young age, although there is little information on Aristotles childhood, he probably spent some time within the Macedonian palace, making his first connections with the Macedonian monarchy. At the age of seventeen or eighteen, Aristotle moved to Athens to continue his education at Platos Academy and he remained there for nearly twenty years before leaving Athens in 348/47 BC.
Aristotle accompanied Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor, there, he traveled with Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island. Aristotle married Pythias, either Hermiass adoptive daughter or niece and she bore him a daughter, whom they named Pythias. Soon after Hermias death, Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander in 343 BC, Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During that time he gave not only to Alexander
Platonism, rendered as a proper noun, is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it. Lower case platonists need not accept any of the doctrines of Plato, in a narrower sense, the term might indicate the doctrine of Platonic realism. The forms are described in dialogues such as the Phaedo, Symposium. In the Republic the highest form is identified as the Form of the Good, the source of all other forms, in the Sophist, a work, the forms being and difference are listed among the primordial Great Kinds. The primary concept is the Theory of Forms, the only true being is founded upon the forms, the eternal, perfect types, of which particular objects of moral and responsible sense are imperfect copies. The multitude of objects of sense, being involved in perpetual change, are deprived of all genuine existence. The number of the forms is defined by the number of concepts which can be derived from the particular objects of sense. The following excerpt may be representative of Platos middle period metaphysics and epistemology, Since the beautiful is opposite of the ugly, and since they are two, each is one.
And the same account is true of the just and unjust, the good and the bad, each of them is itself one, but because they manifest themselves everywhere in association with actions and one another, each of them appears to be many. The lovers of sights and sounds like beautiful sounds, colors and everything fashioned out of them, in fact, there are very few people who would be able to reach the beautiful itself and see it by itself. What about someone who believes in things, but doesnt believe in the beautiful itself. Dont you think he is living in a rather than a wakened state. Isnt this dreaming, whether asleep or awake, to think that a likeness is not a likeness, I certainly think that someone who does that is dreaming. Book VI of the Republic identifies the highest form as the Form of the Good, the cause of all other Ideas, conceptions derived from the impressions of sense can never give us the knowledge of true being, i. e. of the forms. It can only be obtained by the activity within itself, apart from the troubles and disturbances of sense.
Dialectic, as the instrument in this process, leading us to knowledge of the forms, beginning with Plotinus, identified the Good of the Republic with the so-called transcendent, absolute One of the first hypothesis of the Parmenides. Platonist ethics is based on the Form of the Good, virtue is knowledge, the recognition of the supreme form of the good. And, since in this cognition, the three parts of the soul, which are reason and appetite, all have their share, we get the three virtues, Wisdom and Moderation
Cosmology is the study of the origin and eventual fate of the universe. The term cosmology was first used in English in 1656 in Thomas Blounts Glossographia, religious or mythological cosmology is a body of beliefs based on mythological and esoteric literature and traditions of creation and eschatology. Physical cosmology is studied by scientists, such as astronomers and physicists, as well as philosophers, such as metaphysicians, philosophers of physics, and philosophers of space and time. Because of this scope with philosophy, theories in physical cosmology may include both scientific and non-scientific propositions, and may depend upon assumptions that can not be tested. Cosmology differs from astronomy in that the former is concerned with the Universe as a whole while the latter deals with individual celestial objects. Theoretical astrophysicist David N. Spergel has described cosmology as a science because when we look out in space. Physics and astrophysics have played a role in shaping the understanding of the universe through scientific observation.
Physical cosmology was shaped through both mathematics and observation in an analysis of the whole universe, cosmogony studies the origin of the Universe, and cosmography maps the features of the Universe. In Diderots Encyclopédie, cosmology is broken down into uranology, geology, metaphysical cosmology has been described as the placing of man in the universe in relationship to all other entities. Physical cosmology is the branch of physics and astrophysics that deals with the study of the physical origins and it includes the study of the nature of the Universe on a large scale. In its earliest form, it was what is now known as celestial mechanics, greek philosophers Aristarchus of Samos and Ptolemy proposed different cosmological theories. The geocentric Ptolemaic system was the theory until the 16th century when Nicolaus Copernicus. This is one of the most famous examples of epistemological rupture in physical cosmology, when Isaac Newton published the Principia Mathematica in 1687, he finally figured out how the heavens moved.
A fundamental difference between Newtons cosmology and those preceding it was the Copernican principle—that the bodies on earth obey the same laws as all the celestial bodies. This was a crucial advance in physical cosmology. Physicists began changing the assumption that the Universe was static and unchanging, in 1922 Alexander Friedmann introduced the idea of an expanding universe that contained moving matter. In parallel to this approach to cosmology, one long-standing debate about the structure of the cosmos was coming to a climax. This difference of ideas came to a climax with the organization of the Great Debate on 26 April 1920 at the meeting of the U. S. National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D. C
The Peripatetic school was a school of philosophy in Ancient Greece. Its teachings derived from its founder and peripatetic is an adjective ascribed to his followers, the school dates from around 335 BC when Aristotle began teaching in the Lyceum. It was an institution whose members conducted philosophical and scientific inquiries. After the middle of the 3rd century BC, the fell into a decline. Later members of the school concentrated on preserving and commenting on Aristotles works rather than extending them, the study of Aristotles works continued by scholars who were called Peripatetics through Late Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance. The term Peripatetic is a transliteration of the ancient Greek word περιπατητικός peripatêtikos, the Peripatetic school was actually known simply as the Peripatos. Aristotles school came to be so named because of the peripatoi of the Lyceum where the members met, the legend that the name came from Aristotles alleged habit of walking while lecturing may have started with Hermippus of Smyrna.
Because of the association with the gymnasium, the school came to be referred to simply as the Lyceum. Some modern scholars argue that the school did not become formally institutionalized until Theophrastus took it over, Aristotle did teach and lecture there, but there was philosophical and scientific research done in partnership with other members of the school. It seems likely that many of the writings that have come down to us in Aristotles name were based on lectures he gave at the school. Among the members of the school in Aristotles time were Theophrastus, Phanias of Eresus, Eudemus of Rhodes, Clytus of Miletus, the doctrines of the Peripatetic school were those laid down by Aristotle, and henceforth maintained by his followers. Whereas Plato had sought to explain things with his theory of Forms, Philosophy to him meant science, and its aim was the recognition of the why in all things. Hence he endeavoured to attain to the grounds of things by induction. Logic either deals with appearances, and is called dialectics, or of truth, all change or motion takes place in regard to substance, quantity and place.
There are three kinds of substances – those alternately in motion and at rest, as the animals, those perpetually in motion, as the sky, the last, in themselves immovable and imperishable, are the source and origin of all motion. Among them there must be one first being, which acts without the intervention of any other being, all that is proceeds from it, it is the most perfect intelligence – God. The heavens are of a perfect and divine nature than other bodies. In the centre of the universe is the Earth, the stars, like the sky, beings of a higher nature, but of grosser matter, move by the impulse of the prime mover
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century, the 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data, Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events that are explained by the science of meteorology. Different spatial scales are used to describe and predict weather on local, Meteorology, atmospheric physics, and atmospheric chemistry are sub-disciplines of the atmospheric sciences. Meteorology and hydrology compose the interdisciplinary field of hydrometeorology, the interactions between Earths atmosphere and its oceans are part of a coupled ocean-atmosphere system. Meteorology has application in diverse fields such as the military, energy production, agriculture.
The word meteorology is from Greek μετέωρος metéōros lofty, high and -λογία -logia -logy, varāhamihiras classical work Brihatsamhita, written about 500 AD, provides clear evidence that a deep knowledge of atmospheric processes existed even in those times. In 350 BC, Aristotle wrote Meteorology, Aristotle is considered the founder of meteorology. One of the most impressive achievements described in the Meteorology is the description of what is now known as the hydrologic cycle and they are all called swooping bolts because they swoop down upon the Earth. Lightning is sometimes smoky, and is called smoldering lightning, sometimes it darts quickly along, at other times, it travels in crooked lines, and is called forked lightning. When it swoops down upon some object it is called swooping lightning, the Greek scientist Theophrastus compiled a book on weather forecasting, called the Book of Signs. The work of Theophrastus remained a dominant influence in the study of weather, in 25 AD, Pomponius Mela, a geographer for the Roman Empire, formalized the climatic zone system.
According to Toufic Fahd, around the 9th century, Al-Dinawari wrote the Kitab al-Nabat, ptolemy wrote on the atmospheric refraction of light in the context of astronomical observations. St. Roger Bacon was the first to calculate the size of the rainbow. He stated that a rainbow summit can not appear higher than 42 degrees above the horizon, in the late 13th century and early 14th century, Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī and Theodoric of Freiberg were the first to give the correct explanations for the primary rainbow phenomenon. Theoderic went further and explained the secondary rainbow, in 1716, Edmund Halley suggested that aurorae are caused by magnetic effluvia moving along the Earths magnetic field lines. In 1441, King Sejongs son, Prince Munjong, invented the first standardized rain gauge and these were sent throughout the Joseon Dynasty of Korea as an official tool to assess land taxes based upon a farmers potential harvest. In 1450, Leone Battista Alberti developed a swinging-plate anemometer, and was known as the first anemometer, in 1607, Galileo Galilei constructed a thermoscope
On the Soul
On the Soul is a major treatise written by Aristotle c.350 B. C. E on the nature of living things. His discussion centres on the kinds of souls possessed by different kinds of living things, thus plants have the capacity for nourishment and reproduction, the minimum that must be possessed by any kind of living organism. Lower animals have, in addition, the powers of sense-perception and self-motion Humans have all these as well as intellect. Aristotle holds that the soul is the form, or essence of any living thing, that it is not a distinct substance from the body that it is in. That it is the possession of soul that makes an organism an organism at all and it is difficult to reconcile these points with the popular picture of a soul as a sort of spiritual substance inhabiting a body. Some commentators have suggested that Aristotles term soul is better translated as lifeforce, in 1855, Charles Collier published a translation titled On the Vital Principle, George Henry Lewes, found this description wanting.
The treatise is divided into three books, and each of the books is divided into chapters, the treatise is near-universally abbreviated “DA, ” for “De anima, ” and books and chapters generally referred to by Roman and Arabic numerals, along with corresponding Bekker numbers. Book I contains a summary of Aristotles method of investigation and a determination of the nature of the soul. He begins by conceding that attempting to define the soul is one of the most difficult questions in the world. But he proposes a method to tackle the question, just as we can come to know the properties and operations of something through scientific demonstration. It is like finding the term to a syllogism with a known conclusion. Therefore, we must seek out such operations of the soul to determine what kind of nature it has, from a consideration of the opinions of his predecessors, a soul, he concludes, will be that in virtue of which living things have life. Book II contains his scientific determination of the nature of the soul, by dividing substance into its three meanings, he shows that the soul must be the first actuality of a naturally organised body.
This is its form or essence and it cannot be matter because the soul is that in virtue of which things have life, and matter is only being in potency. The rest of the book is divided into a determination of the nature of the nutritive and sensitive souls, all species of living things, plant or animal, must be able to nourish themselves and reproduce others of the same kind. If they can feel pleasure and pain they have desire, some animals in addition have other senses, and some have more subtle versions of each He discusses how these function. Some animals have in addition the powers of memory, book III discusses the mind or rational soul, which belongs to humans alone. e. to be actually thinking about them. These are called the possible and agent intellect, the possible intellect is an unscribed tablet and the store-house of all concepts, i. e. universal ideas like triangle, man, etc
On the Heavens
On the Heavens is Aristotles chief cosmological treatise, written in 350 BC it contains his astronomical theory and his ideas on the concrete workings of the terrestrial world. It should not be confused with the spurious work On the Universe, according to Aristotle in On the Heavens, the heavenly bodies are the most perfect realities, whose motions are ruled by principles other than those of bodies in the sublunary sphere. Hence their motions are eternal and perfect, and the motion is the circular one. As substances, celestial bodies have matter and form, sometimes Aristotle seems to regard them as living beings with a rational soul as their form. This work is significant as one of the pillars of the Aristotelian worldview. Similarly, this work and others by Aristotle were important seminal works by which much of scholasticism was derived. Aristotelian philosophy and cosmology was influential in the Islamic world, where his ideas were taken up by the Falsafa school of philosophy throughout the half of the first millennia AD.
Of these, philosophers Averroes and Avicenna are especially notable, european philosophers had a similarly complex relationship with De Caelo, attempting to reconcile church doctrine with the mathematics of Ptolemy and the structure of Aristotle. A particularly cogent example of this is in the work of Thomas Aquinas, known today as St. Otherwise, Aquinas accepted Aristotles explanation of the physical world, including his cosmology and physics. Livre du ciel et du monde was written at the command of King Charles V, stuart Leggatt, On the Heavens I and II. ISBN 0-85668-663-8 William Keith Chambers Guthrie, Aristotle On the Heavens, john Leofric Stocks, On the Heavens. Adelaide Etexts Sacred Texts InfoMotions MIT Internet Archive Free Audiobook Thomas Taylor, The treatises of Aristotle, on the heavens, on generation & corruption, ISBN 1-898910-24-3 Dalimier, C. and Pellegrin, P. Aristote. Gigon, O. Vom Himmel, Von der Seele, Von der Dichtkunst, aristoteles’ Vier Bücher über das Himmelsgebäude und Zwei Bücher über Entstehen und Vergehen.
Prantl, C. De coelo, et de generatione et corruptione, physics Aristotelian physics Dynamics of the celestial spheres Celestial spheres Elders, L. Aristotle’s Cosmology, A Commentary on the De Caelo. Free audiobook version of On the Heavens
The Economics is a work ascribed to Aristotle. Most modern scholars attribute it to a student of Aristotle or of his successor Theophrastus, the title of this work means household management and is derived from the Greek word, οἶκος, meaning house/household. The term includes household finance as it is known today. In a broad sense the household is the beginning to economics as a whole, the natural, everyday activities of maintaining a house are essential to the beginnings of economy. From farming and cooking to hiring workers and guarding your property, the two books that comprise this treatise explore the meaning of economics while showing that it has many different aspects. Book I is broken down into six chapters that begin to define economics, the text starts by describing that economics and politics differ in two major ways, one, in the subjects with which they deal and two, the number of rulers involved. Like an owner of a house, there is only one ruling in an economy, the practitioners of both sciences are trying to make the best use of what they have in order to thrive. A household is made up of a man and his property, agriculture is the most natural form of good use for this property.
The man should find a wife, children should come next because they will be able to take care of the household as the man grows old. These are called the matter of economics. The duties of a wife are the important topic. A wife should be treated respectfully by her husband, and she will help him by bearing children, a man has to be modest in sexual encounters with his wife and not dwell on sexual experiences. The wife should be nurturing and attend to the aspects of the household. Her duties should center on maintaining the inner part of the house, the male should have instilled in him the belief he should never wrong his wife. Next, the involved in agriculture will need slaves to help him perform his duties. A slave should be food for his work but be well disciplined. It is the duty of a man to every aspect of his land. The quality of his land should never be left to others alone, as a true economist, a man needs to bring four qualities to the possession of wealth
History of Animals
History of Animals is one of the major texts on biology by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, who had studied at Platos Academy in Athens. It was written in the fourth century BC, Aristotle died in 322 BC, generally seen as a pioneering work of zoology, Aristotle frames his text by explaining that he is investigating the what prior to establishing the why. The book is thus an attempt to apply philosophy to part of the natural world, throughout the work, Aristotle seeks to identify differences, both between individuals and between groups. A group is established when it is seen all members have the same set of distinguishing features, for example, that all birds have feathers, wings. This relationship between the birds and their features is recognized as a universal, some of these were long considered fanciful before being rediscovered in the nineteenth century. Aristotle has been accused of making errors, but some are due to misinterpretation of his text and he did however make somewhat uncritical use of evidence from other people, such as travellers and beekeepers.
The History of Animals had a influence on zoology for some two thousand years. It continued to be a source of knowledge until in the sixteenth century zoologists including Conrad Gessner, all influenced by Aristotle. Aristotle studied at Platos Academy in Athens, remaining there for some 17 years and this study made him the earliest natural historian whose written work survives. No similarly detailed work on zoology was attempted until the sixteenth century and his writings on zoology form about a quarter of his surviving work. Aristotles pupil Theophrastus wrote a book on botany, Enquiry into Plants. In the History of Animals, Aristotle sets out to investigate the existing facts, the book is thus a defence of his method of investigating zoology. Aristotle investigates four types of differences between animals, differences in body parts, differences in ways of life and types of activity. On the other hand, some animals that have red blood have lungs, here one can rightly conclude that if something has lungs, it has red blood, but Aristotle is careful not to imply that all red-blooded animals have lungs, so the reasoning here is not bidirectional.
Book I The grouping of animals and the parts of the human body. Aristotle describes the parts that the body is made of, such as the skull, face, ears, tongue, belly, viscera, genitalia. Book II The different parts of red-blooded animals, Book III The internal organs, including generative system, sinews, bone etc. He moves on to the blood, bone marrow, milk including rennet and cheese, Book IV Animals without blood – cephalopods, etc
The Prior Analytics is Aristotles work on deductive reasoning, which is known as his syllogistic. Being one of the six extant Aristotelian writings on logic and scientific method, modern work on Aristotles logic builds on the tradition started in 1951 with the establishment by Jan Lukasiewicz of a revolutionary paradigm. The term analytics comes from the Greek words ἀναλυτός and ἀναλύω, however, in Aristotles corpus, there are distinguishable differences in the meaning of ἀναλύω and its cognates. There is the possibility that Aristotle may have borrowed his use of the analysis from his teacher Plato. Therefore, Analysis is the process of finding the reasoned facts, Aristotles Prior Analytics represents the first time in history when Logic is scientifically investigated. On those grounds alone, Aristotle could be considered the Father of Logic for as he says in Sophistical Refutations. When it comes to this subject, it is not the case that part had been worked out before in advance and part had not, some scholars prefer to use the word deduction instead as the meaning given by Aristotle to the Greek word συλλογισμός syllogismos.
In the Analytics then, Prior Analytics is the first theoretical part dealing with the science of deduction, Prior Analytics gives an account of deductions in general narrowed down to three basic syllogisms while Posterior Analytics deals with demonstration. In the Prior Analytics, Aristotle defines syllogism as, a deduction in a discourse in which, certain things being supposed, something different from the things supposed results of necessity because these things are so. In modern times, this definition has led to a debate as to how the word syllogism should be interpreted, scholars Jan Lukasiewicz, Józef Maria Bocheński and Günther Patzig have sided with the Protasis-Apodosis dichotomy while John Corcoran prefers to consider a syllogism as simply a deduction. In the third century AD, Alexander of Aphrodisiass commentary on the Prior Analytics is the oldest extant, in the sixth century, Boethius composed the first known Latin translation of the Prior Analytics. No Westerner between Boethius and Bernard of Utrecht is known to have read the Prior Analytics, the so-called Anonymus Aurelianensis III from the second half of the twelfth century is the first extant Latin commentary, or rather fragment of a commentary.
The Prior Analytics represents the first formal study of logic, where logic is understood as the study of arguments, an argument is a series of true or false statements which lead to a true or false conclusion. In the Prior Analytics, Aristotle identifies valid and invalid forms of arguments called syllogisms, a syllogism is an argument that consists of at least three sentences, at least two premises and a conclusion. Although Aristotles does not call them categorical sentences, tradition does, he deals with them briefly in the Analytics, each proposition of a syllogism is a categorical sentence which has a subject and a predicate connected by a verb. In his formulation of syllogistic propositions, instead of the copula, belongs to/does not belong to all/some. Is said/is not said of all/some, there are four different types of categorical sentences, universal affirmative, particular affirmative, universal negative and particular negative. Depending on the position of the term, Aristotle divides the syllogism into three kinds, Syllogism in the first and third figure
Neopythagoreanism was a school of Hellenistic philosophy which revived Pythagorean doctrines. Neopythagoreanism was influenced by Middle Platonism and in turn influenced Neoplatonism and it originated in the 1st century BCE and flourished during the 1st and 2nd centuries CE. The 1911 Britannica describes Neopythagoreanism as a link in the chain between the old and the new within Hellenistic philosophy, as such, it contributed to the doctrine of monotheism as it emerged during Late Antiquity. Central to Neopythagorean thought was the concept of a soul and its inherent desire for a unio mystica with the divine, the word Neopythagoreanism is a modern term, coined as a parallel of Neoplatonism. Other important Neopythagoreans include the mathematician Nicomachus of Gerasa, who wrote about the properties of numbers. In the 2nd century, Numenius of Apamea sought to fuse elements of Platonism into Neopythagoreanism. Neopythagoreanism was an attempt to re-introduce a mystical religious element into Hellenistic philosophy in place of what had come to be regarded as an arid formalism, the founders of the school sought to invest their doctrines with the halo of tradition by ascribing them to Pythagoras and Plato.
They emphasized the distinction between the soul and the body. God must be worshipped spiritually by prayer and the will to be good, the soul must be freed from its material surrounding, the muddy vesture of decay, by an ascetic habit of life. Bodily pleasures and all sensuous impulses must be abandoned as detrimental to the purity of the soul. God is the principle of good, Matter the groundwork of Evil, in this system can be distinguished not only the asceticism of Pythagoras and the mysticism of Plato, but the influence of the Orphic mysteries and of Oriental philosophy. The Ideas of Plato are no longer self-subsistent entities but are the elements which constitute the content of spiritual activity, the non-material universe is regarded as the sphere of mind or spirit. A basilica where Neopythagoreans held their meetings in the 1st century was found near Porta Maggiore on Via Praenestina in Rome, pythagoreanism School of the Sextii Allegorical interpretations of Plato Charles H. Neopythagoreanism