Kurdistan Workers' Party
The Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK is a Kurdish far-left militant and political organization based in Turkey and Iraq. Since 1984 the PKK has been involved in an armed conflict with the Turkish state, with the initial aim of achieving an independent Kurdish state changing it to a demand for equal rights and Kurdish autonomy in Turkey; the group was founded in 1978 in the village of Fis by a group of Kurdish students led by Abdullah Öcalan. The PKK's ideology was a fusion of revolutionary socialism and Kurdish nationalism, seeking the foundation of an independent Communist state in the region, to be known as Kurdistan; the initial reasons given by the PKK for this were the oppression of Kurds in Capitalism. By the use of Kurdish language, dress and names were banned in Kurdish-inhabited areas; the words "Kurds", "Kurdistan", or "Kurdish" were banned by the Turkish government temporarily. Following the military coup of 1980, the Kurdish language was prohibited in public and private life. Many who spoke, published, or sang in Kurdish were imprisoned.
The PKK was formed, as part of a growing discontent over the suppression of Turkey's ethnic Kurds, in an effort to establish linguistic and political rights for Turkey's ethnic Kurdish minority. Since the PKK's foundation, it has been involved in armed clashes with Turkish security forces; the full-scale insurgency, did not begin until 15 August 1984, when the PKK announced a Kurdish uprising. Since the conflict began, more than 40,000 have died, most of whom were Turkish Kurdish civilians. Since PKK leader Öcalan's capture and imprisonment in 1999, he has moved on from Marxism–Leninism, leading the party to adopt his new political platform of democratic confederalism while ceasing its official calls for the establishment of a independent country. In May 2007, former members of the PKK helped form the Kurdistan Communities Union, an umbrella organisation of Kurds from Turkey, Iran and Syria. In 2013, the PKK declared a ceasefire agreement and began withdrawing its fighters to the Kurdistan Region of northern Iraq as part of the solution process between the Turkish state and the Kurdish minority.
In July 2015, the PKK announced that a ceasefire was over and said that Ankara had welched on its promises regarding the Kurdish issue. In August 2015, the PKK announced that they would accept another ceasefire with Turkey only under US guarantees; the PKK is listed as a terrorist organization by several states and organizations, including the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, the United Kingdom and the European Union. However, the United Nations and countries such as Switzerland, India and Egypt, have not designated the PKK as a terrorist organization. In the early 1970s, the organization's core group was made up of students led by Abdullah Öcalan in Ankara. By the use of Kurdish language, dress and names were banned in Kurdish-inhabited areas. In an attempt to deny their existence, the Turkish government categorized Kurds as "Mountain Turks" until 1991; the words "Kurds", "Kurdistan", or "Kurdish" were banned by the Turkish government. Following the military coup of 1980, the Kurdish language was prohibited in public and private life.
Many who spoke, published, or sang in Kurdish were imprisoned. The PKK was formed, as part of a growing discontent over the suppression of Turkey's ethnic Kurds, in an effort to establish linguistic and political rights for Turkey's ethnic Kurdish minority; the group focused to the large oppressed Kurdish population in south-east Turkey. A meeting on 25 November 1978, in a tea house near Diyarbakır is considered the founding meeting. On 27 November 1978, the group adopted the name Kurdistan Workers' Party. Espousing a Marxist ideology, the group took part in violent conflicts with right-wing entities as a part of the political chaos in Turkey at the time; the group tried to assassinate the Kurdish tribal leader Mehmet Celal Bucak in 1979. According to the PKK sources, he was exploiting the peasants, collaborated with Turkey in oppressing the Kurds, it is believed. Turkish sources claimed that the 1980 Turkish coup d'état pushed the organization to another stage, with members being executed, doing jail time, being subject to capital punishment, or fleeing to Syria.
On 10 November 1980, it was claimed that the PKK bombed the Turkish Consulate in Strasbourg, France in a joint operation with the Armenian radical group ASALA, which they claimed as the beginning of a "fruitful collaboration." The PKK didn't take responsibility despite a numerous of accusations. Starting in 1984, the PKK transformed into a paramilitary group, using training camps in Turkey, Syria and France. At the same time, some of its members started to get training by the members of the Palestine Liberation Organization who themselves were trained by Soviet personnel in Lebanon's Bekaa Valley in Syrian-controlled camps. According to the U. S. government reports, the PKK received significant support by Syria, which allowed it to maintain headquarters in Damascus, as well as by Iran and Libya. It began to launch attacks and bombings against Turkish governmental installations, the military, various institutions of the state; the organization focused on attacks against Turkish military targets in Turkey, although civilian targets were hit.
The group started to gain publicity after committing political massacres. From the mid-1990s, the organization began to lose t
35th Berlin International Film Festival
The 35th annual Berlin International Film Festival was held from 15 to 26 February 1985. The Golden Bear was awarded to German film Die Frau und der Fremde directed by Rainer Simon and British film Wetherby directed by David Hare; the retrospective dedicated to Special effects was shown at the festival. The following people were announced as being on the jury for the festival: Jean Marais Max von Sydow Alberto Sordi Regimantas Adomaitis Sheila Benson Wolfgang Kohlhaase Onat Kutlar Luis Megino Ingrid Scheib-Rothbart Chris Sievernich István Szabó The following films were in competition for the Golden Bear and Silver Bear awards: The following films were shown in the retrospective: The following prizes were awarded by the Jury: Golden Bear: Die Frau und der Fremde by Rainer Simon Wetherby by David Hare Silver Bear - Special Jury Prize: Szirmok, virágok, koszorúk by László Lugossy Silver Bear for Best Director: Robert Benton for Places in the Heart Silver Bear for Best Actress: Jo Kennedy for Wrong World Silver Bear for Best Actor: Fernando Fernán Gómez for Stico Silver Bear for an outstanding single achievement: Tolomush Okeyev for Potomok belogo barsa Silver Bear for an outstanding artistic contribution: Ronja Rövardotter Honourable Mention: Damiano Damiani for Pizza Connection Les enfants Tarık Akan for Pehlivan FIPRESCI Award Tōkyō saiban by Masaki Kobayashi Brigitte Tast: Als Farbe das Grau, als Format der Innenblick.
35. Internationale Filmfestspiele Berlin 1985, Schellerten 2014, ISBN 978-3-88842-045-0 35th Berlin International Film Festival 1985 1985 Berlin International Film Festival Berlin International Film Festival:1985 at Internet Movie Database
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, is best known for its visual artworks and writings. Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange creatures from everyday objects, developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself, its aim was to "resolve the contradictory conditions of dream and reality into an absolute reality, a super-reality". Works of surrealism feature the element of unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was, above all, a revolutionary movement. Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe affecting the visual arts, literature and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice and social theory; the word'surrealism' was coined in March 1917 by Guillaume Apollinaire three years before Surrealism emerged as an art movement in Paris.
He wrote in a letter to Paul Dermée: "All things considered, I think in fact it is better to adopt surrealism than supernaturalism, which I first used". Apollinaire used the term in his program notes for Serge Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes, which premiered 18 May 1917. Parade was performed with music by Erik Satie. Cocteau described the ballet as "realistic". Apollinaire went further, describing Parade as "surrealistic": This new alliance—I say new, because until now scenery and costumes were linked only by factitious bonds—has given rise, in Parade, to a kind of surrealism, which I consider to be the point of departure for a whole series of manifestations of the New Spirit, making itself felt today and that will appeal to our best minds. We may expect it to bring about profound changes in our arts and manners through universal joyfulness, for it is only natural, after all, that they keep pace with scientific and industrial progress; the term was taken up again by Apollinaire, in the preface to his play Les Mamelles de Tirésias, written in 1903 and first performed in 1917.
World War I scattered the writers and artists, based in Paris, in the interim many became involved with Dada, believing that excessive rational thought and bourgeois values had brought the conflict of the war upon the world. The Dadaists protested with anti-art gatherings, performances and art works. After the war, when they returned to Paris, the Dada activities continued. During the war, André Breton, who had trained in medicine and psychiatry, served in a neurological hospital where he used Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic methods with soldiers suffering from shell-shock. Meeting the young writer Jacques Vaché, Breton felt that Vaché was the spiritual son of writer and pataphysics founder Alfred Jarry, he admired the young writer's anti-social disdain for established artistic tradition. Breton wrote, "In literature, I was successively taken with Rimbaud, with Jarry, with Apollinaire, with Nouveau, with Lautréamont, but it is Jacques Vaché to whom I owe the most."Back in Paris, Breton joined in Dada activities and started the literary journal Littérature along with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault.
They began experimenting with automatic writing—spontaneously writing without censoring their thoughts—and published the writings, as well as accounts of dreams, in the magazine. Breton and Soupault wrote The Magnetic Fields. Continuing to write, they came to believe that automatism was a better tactic for societal change than the Dada form of attack on prevailing values; the group attracted additional members and grew to include writers and artists from various media such as Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, Yves Tanguy. As they developed their philosophy, they believed that Surrealism would advocate the idea that ordinary and depictive expressions are vital and important, but that the sense of their arrangement must be open to the full range of imagination according to the Hegelian Dialectic.
They looked to the Marxist dialectic and the work of such theorists as Walter Benjamin and Herbert Marcuse. Freud's work with free association, dream analysis, the unconscious was of utmost importance to the Surrealists in developing methods to liberate imagination, they embraced idiosyncrasy, while rejecting the idea of an underlying madness. As Salvador Dalí proclaimed, "There is only one difference between a madman and me. I am not mad."Beside the use of dream analysis, they emphasized that "one could combine inside the same frame, elements not found together to produce illogical and startling effects." Breton included the idea of the startling juxtapositions in his 1924 manifesto, taking it in turn from a 1918 essay by poet Pierre Reverdy, which said: "a juxtaposition of two more or less distant realities. The more the relationship between the two juxtaposed realities is distant and true, the stronger the image will be−the greater its emotional power and poetic reality."The group aimed to revolutionize human experience, in its
San Sebastián International Film Festival
The San Sebastián International Film Festival is an annual FIAPF A category film festival held in the Spanish city of Donostia-San Sebastián in September, in the Basque Country. Since its creation in 1953 it has established itself as one of the most important cinema festivals in the world, being one of the 14 "A" category competitive festivals accredited by the FIAPF, it has hosted several important events of the history of cinema, such as the international premieres of Vertigo, by Alfred Hitchcock and Melinda and Melinda by Woody Allen and the European premier of Star Wars. Actors and directors such as Bette Davis, Gloria Swanson, Gregory Peck, Glenn Ford, Elizabeth Taylor, Audrey Hepburn, Charlton Heston, Robert De Niro, Meryl Streep, Richard Gere, Michael Douglas, Catherine Zeta-Jones, Mel Gibson, Demi Moore, Naomi Watts and Brad Pitt have attended the festival since its inception, it was the first festival attended by Roman Polanski and has helped advance the professional careers of Francis Ford Coppola or Pedro Almodóvar, for instance.
In the current competitive context of international festivals, San Sebastián, which has one of the lowest budgets, has established itself as the most important in Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries. The festival was founded in 1952. Although it was intended to honour Spanish language films, films of other languages became eligible for consideration in 1955, when the festival was specialized in color films, it has been acknowledged by the FIAPF as an A category festival since 1957, with the exception of the 1980–1984 period, when no major awards were given. These are the main sections of the festival: Official Selection: According to FIAPF regulations, a selection of recent cinematographic works, which have not been shown in other festivals, compete for the major awards; some films are included out of competition. New Directors: First or second movies of new talents. Horizontes Latinos: A selection of films from Latin America, unreleased in Spain. Pearls: A selection of the best movies screened at other international festivals throughout the year.
Zabaltegi - Tabakalera: A competitive section aiming for heterogeneity with no formal norms. Made in Spain: A showcase of the year's Spanish movies for their international launch. Zinemira: A showcase of movies produced or directed by Basques. Retrospectives: Retrospectives are included in the program to present the works of a renowned filmmaker or works that represent a particular theme. Culinary Cinema: A non-competitive selection of gastronomy-related films. Velodrome: Projections of movies for a big audience in a giant screen installed at the Velódromo de Anoeta. Nest Film Students: Selected shorts graduation projects, from film schools around the world. An international jury evaluates the films in the Official Section and awards the following prizes: Golden Shell for Best Film Special Jury Prize Silver Shell for Best Director Silver Shell for Best Actress Silver Shell for Best Actor Jury Prize for Best Cinematography Jury Prize for Best Screenplay Donostia AwardThe following are the main awards for films in the pararell sections: New Directors Award: decided by a special jury, the films in the New Directors section compete for this prize.
Audience Award: The audience chooses a film from among those in the Pearls section. Youth Award: A jury composed of 350 youngsters aged between 17 and 21 chooses a film from those competing for the New Directors Award". Horizontes Award: A specific jury chooses the best film in the Horizontes Latinos section. "Otra Mirada" Award: TVE gives the Another Look award to the film, from any section, that best reflects the female world. Sebastiane Award: a jury chooses the film, from any section, that best reflects the values and reality of lesbians, gays and transgender people. Official website San Sebastián International Film Festival at the Internet Movie Database
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Turkish people or the Turks known as Anatolian Turks, are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most spoken Turkic language. They are the largest ethnic group in Turkey, as well as by far the largest ethnic group among the speakers of Turkic languages. Ethnic Turkish minorities exist in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire. In addition, a Turkish diaspora has been established with modern migration in Western Europe. Turks arrived from Central Asia and settled in the Anatolian basin in around the 11th century through the conquest of Seljuk Turks, mixing with the peoples of Anatolia; the region began to transform from a predominately Greek Christian one to a Turkish Muslim society. Thereafter, the Ottoman Empire came to rule much of the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle East, North Africa over the course of several centuries, with an advanced army and navy; the Empire lasted until the end of the First World War, when it was defeated by the Allies and partitioned.
Following the successful Turkish War of Independence that ended with the Turkish national movement retaking most of the land lost to the Allies, the movement abolished the Ottoman sultanate on 1 November 1922 and proclaimed the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. Not all Ottomans were Muslims and not all Ottoman Muslims were Turks, but by 1923, the majority of people living within the borders of the new Turkish republic identified as Turks. Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as "anyone, bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship". However, the majority of the Turkish population are of Turkish ethnicity and are estimated at 70–75 percent; the ethnonym "Turk" may be first discerned in Herodotus' reference to Targitas, first king of the Scythians. Pomponius Mela refers to the "Turcae" in the forests north of the Sea of Azov, Pliny the Elder lists the "Tyrcae" among the people of the same area; the first definite references to the "Turks" come from Chinese sources in the sixth century.
In these sources, "Turk" appears as "Tujue". In the 19th century, the word Türk only referred to Anatolian villagers; the Ottoman ruling class identified themselves as Ottomans, not as Turks. In the late 19th century, as the Ottoman upper classes adopted European ideas of nationalism the term Türk took on a much more positive connotation. During Ottoman times, the millet system defined communities on a religious basis, a residue of this remains in that Turkish villagers consider as Turks only those who profess the Sunni faith. Turkish Jews, Christians, or Alevis may be considered non-Turks. On the other hand, Kurdish followers of the Sunni branch of Islam who live in eastern Anatolia were sometimes considered "Mountain Turks". Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as anyone, "bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship." It is believed by Robert Fisk. Anatolia was first inhabited by hunter-gatherers during the Paleolithic era, in antiquity was inhabited by various ancient Anatolian peoples.
After Alexander the Great's conquest in 334 BC, the area was Hellenized, by the first century BC it is thought that the native Anatolian languages, themselves earlier newcomers to the area, as a result of the Indo-European migrations, became extinct. In Central Asia, the earliest surviving Turkic-language texts, the eighth-century Orkhon inscriptions, were erected by the Göktürks in the sixth century CE, include words not common to Turkic but found in unrelated Inner Asian languages. Although the ancient Turks were nomadic, they traded wool, leather and horses for wood, silk and grain, as well as having large ironworking stations in the south of the Altai Mountains during the 600s CE. Most of the Turkic peoples were followers of Tengrism, sharing the cult of the sky god Tengri, although there were adherents of Manichaeism, Nestorian Christianity and Buddhism. However, during the Muslim conquests, the Turks entered the Muslim world proper as slaves, the booty of Arab raids and conquests; the Turks began converting to Islam after Muslim conquest of Transoxiana through the efforts of missionaries and merchants.
Although initiated by the Arabs, the conversion of the Turks to Islam was filtered through Persian and Central Asian culture. Under the Umayyads, most were domestic servants, whilst under the Abbasid Caliphate, increasing numbers were trained as soldiers. By the ninth century, Turkish commanders were leading the caliphs’ Turkish troops into battle; as the Abbasid Caliphate declined, Turkish officers assumed more military and political power taking over or establishing provincial dynasties with their own corps of Turkish troops. During the 11th century the Seljuk Turks who were admirers of the Persian civilization grew in number and were able to occupy the eastern province of the Abbasid Empire. By 1055, the Seljuk Empire captured Baghdad and began to make their first incursions into the edges of Anatolia; when the Seljuk Turks won the Battle of Manzikert against the Byzantine Empire in 1071, it opened the gates of Anatolia to them. Although ethnically Turkish, the Seljuk Turks appreciated and became the purveyors of the Persian culture rather than the Turkish culture.
Nonetheless, the Turkish language and Islam were introduced and spread over the region and the slow transition from a predominantly Christian and Greek-speaking Anatolia to a pr