Artigue is a commune in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France. Communes of the Haute-Garonne department INSEE
Aspet is a commune in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France. Communes of the Haute-Garonne department INSEE
The ondes Martenot or ondes musicales is an early electronic musical instrument. It is played with a keyboard or by moving a ring along a wire, creating wavering, theremin-like sounds. A player of the ondes martenot is called an ondist; the ondes martenot was invented in 1928 by the French inventor Maurice Martenot. Martenot was inspired by the accidental overlaps of tones between military radio oscillators, wanted to create an instrument with the expressiveness of the cello; the instrument is used in more than 100 classical compositions. The French composer Olivier Messiaen used it in pieces such as his 1949 symphony Turangalîla-Symphonie, his sister-in-law Jeanne Loriod was a celebrated player of the instrument, it appears in numerous film and television soundtracks science fiction and horror films. Jonny Greenwood of the English rock band Radiohead is credited with bringing the ondes to a larger modern audience, it has been used by pop artists such as Daft Punk and Damon Albarn. The ondes Martenot is one of the earliest electronic instruments, patented in the same year as another early electronic instrument, the theremin.
It was invented in 1928 by French cellist Maurice Martenot. Martenot had been a radio operator during World War I, developed the ondes martenot in an attempt to replicate the accidental overlaps of tones between military radio oscillators, he hoped to bring musical expressivity associated with the cello to his new instrument. He first demonstrated the ondes Martenot on April 20, 1928, performing Dimitrios Levidis’s Poème symphonique at the Paris Opera. Units were manufactured individually to order. Over the following years, Martenot produced several new models, introducing the ability produce vibrato by moving the keys from side to side, a feature adapted in the 1970s by some Yamaha GX-1 synthesisers. According to The Guardian, "the most familiar model resembles a cross between an organ and a theremin". In 1983, Martenot's son created a digital ondes Martenot model. Jonny Greenwood of the English rock band Radiohead purchased one of these instruments in the late 90s. In 2000, Greenwood commissioned the synthesiser company Analogue Systems to develop a new version of the ondes Martenot as he was nervous about damaging his instrument on tour.
The new version, the French Connection, replicates the ondes Martenot controller, but does not generate sound. The ondes Martenot is unique among electronic musical instruments in its methods of control; the ondes Martenot can be played with a metal ring worn on the right index finger. Sliding the ring along a wire produces "theremin-like" tones, generated by oscillations in vacuum tubes, or transistors in later models. One of the earliest models of the instrument had a non-functioning simulacrum of a keyboard below the wire to indicate pitch; this model had a "black fingerguard" on a wire which could be used instead of the ring. It was held between the right thumb and index finger, played standing at a distance from the instrument; when played in this way, the drawer is removed from the instrument and placed on a bench next to the player. Maurice Martenot's pedagogical manual for the ondes Martenot, written in 1931, offers instruction on both methods of playing. Versions added a real 83-key keyboard.
A drawer allows manipulation of timbre by the left hand. Volume is controlled with a touch-sensitive glass "lozenge". Early models could produce only a few waveforms. Models can generate sine, square, pulse waves, pink noise, several waveforms unique to the instrument, all controlled by switches in the drawer. Martenot produced three amplifiers for the instrument. One features a gong instead of a speaker cone. Another, the palm speaker, has a resonance chamber laced with strings tuned to all 12 semitones of an octave. According to the Guardian, the ondes Martenot "can be as soothing and moving as a string quartet, but nerve-jangling when gleefully abused". Greenwood described it as "a accurate theremin that you have far more control of... When it's played well, you can emulate the voice." The New York Times described its sound as a "haunting wail". The ondes Martenot is used in more than 100 classical compositions, most notably by the French composer Olivier Messiaen. Messiaen first used it in Fête des Belles Eaux, for six ondes, went on to use it in several more works, including Trois Petites Liturgies de la Présence Divine and Saint-François d'Assise.
For his Turangalîla-Symphonie, Messiaen used to create "shimmering, swooping musical effects". Messiaen's widow, Yvonne Loriod-Messiaen and edited four unpublished Feuillets inedits for ondes Martenot and piano which were published in 2001. Other composers who used the instrument include Arthur Honegger, Darius Milhaud, Edgard Varèse, Charles Koechlin, Florent Schmitt and Jacques Ibert. According to the New York Times, the ondes' most celebrated performer was the French musician Jeanne Loriod, who studied under Martenot at the Paris Conservatory, she performed internationally in more than 500 works, created 85 works for a sextet of ondes she formed in 1974, wrote a three-volume book on the instrument, Technique de l'Onde Electronique Type Martenot. The English composer Hugh Davies estimated that more than 1,000 works had been composed for the ondes. Jeanne Loriod estimated that there were
Aignes is a commune in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France. Communes of the Haute-Garonne department INSEE
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Albiac is a commune in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France. Communes of the Haute-Garonne department INSEE
Auterive is a commune in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France. Communes of the Haute-Garonne department INSEE