Canada Life Building
The Canada Life Building is a historic office building in Toronto, Canada. The fifteen-floor Beaux Arts building was built by Sproatt & Rolph and stands at 285 feet, 321 feet including its weather beacon, it is located at Queen Street in the city's downtown core. Work on the new headquarters of the Canada Life Assurance Company began in 1929 and it opened in 1931, it was the fourth building to serve as the headquarters of Canada Life, Canada's oldest, at the time largest insurance company. It had been housed in offices at Bay and King Street; the Beaux Arts structure was the first of a series of planned structures along University Avenue, but the Great Depression halted these plans. When it was completed it was one of the tallest buildings in Toronto, it remains one of the largest office buildings in Toronto with windows that can be opened by its occupants. The Canada Life Campus has been expanded several times over the last few decades and now consists of five structures: 330 University Avenue, 190 Simcoe Street, 180 Simcoe Street, 180 Queen Street West and a 5-storey parking garage at 206 Simcoe Street.
In addition, the Campbell House Museum was moved to the South-East corner of the Campus in 1972. The building is best known for its weather beacon, whose colour codes provide summarized weather forecasts at a glance; the information is updated four times every day by Environment Canada's Weather Centre at Toronto Pearson International Airport. The top light shows: Steady green = clear Steady red = cloudy Flashing red = rain Flashing white = snowThe white lights along the support tower show: Lights running up = warmer Lights running down = cooler Steady = steady temperature / No changeForecast Period: Day signals for the balance of the day. Night signals for the following day; the beacon was the first of its kind to appear in Canada and was built at a cost of $25,000. The top of the beacon tower stands 321 feet above University Avenue and, when completed on August 9, 1951, made the structure the third-highest in Toronto, after the Canadian Bank of Commerce Building and the Royal York Hotel. 190 Simcoe Street is a 9-floor addition to the Campus, built directly West of the original.
It connects to the original building through two enclosed, elevated walkways It was completed in 1970. 180 Simcoe Street is a 12-floor addition to the Campus, built directly South of 190 Simcoe Street. It connects to 190 Simcoe Street through a short walkway, it was completed in 1994. Canada Life Tower is a 16-floor addition to the campus, built South-West of the original, it connects to the rest of the Campus through an underground loading dock area. It was designed by Kuwabara Payne McKenna, it was completed in 2005. Canada Life Building, Montreal Weather Machine, a sculpture in Portland, Oregon Virtual tour "Canada Life Building". SkyscraperPage. "One Eighty Queen Street West". SkyscraperPage
Commerce Court is a complex of four office buildings on King and Bay Streets in the financial district of Toronto, Canada, The primary tenant is the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce which has its headquarters in the building. The buildings are a mix of Art Deco and early Modernism architectural styles; the first building, now known as Commerce Court North, was opened in 1931 as the headquarters of the Canadian Bank of Commerce, a precursor bank to the current main tenant. The building was the site of Toronto's first Wesleyan Methodist Church, a small wood chapel surrounded by woods from 1818 to 1831 as Theatre Royal from 1833 onwards. From 1887 to 1927 it was home to a seven storey head office of the Canadian Bank of Commerce, demolished to make way for Commerce Court North; the Canadian Bank of Commerce head office was designed by the American bank specialists York and Sawyer with the notable Canadian firm Darling and Pearson as the local architects of record. Structural engineering was provided by Hertzberg.
The 34-storey limestone clad tower was the tallest building in the British Empire/Commonwealth for three decades, until 1962. At the time of its construction, the building was one of the most opulent corporate headquarters in Canada, featured a public observation deck. In 1972, three other buildings were erected, thus creating the Commerce Court complex: glass and stainless steel glass curtain wall International Style Commerce Court West designed by Pei Cobb Freed & Partners with Page and Steele, Commerce Court West 57 was an observation floor. Commerce Court East and Commerce Court South are glass and applied masonry structures by Pei Cobb Freed & Partners with Page and Steele in 1972. In 1994, Zeidler Partnership Architects was commissioned to renovate the Commerce Court urban plaza, the banking area at the base of Commerce Court West, the below-grade retail area. There are 65 retails shops in the plaza below the complex; the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce sold the complex in April, 2000, now managed by GWL Realty Advisors, but the head office of the bank remains the anchor tenant.
On Wednesday, January 9, 2008, a portion of a CIBC sign at the top of the Commerce Court West building blew off as a result of wind gusts. Police cordoned off the area as a precaution; as a result, Bay St. from Front to Richmond and King St. from York to Yonge were shut down. Toronto Transit Commission service was diverted; this took place eight months after a piece of white marble panel fell from the 60th storey of the First Canadian Place building, ten months after layers of ice fell from the CN Tower. Surrounding the Commerce Court complex of buildings is a plaza featuring a fountain in its centre, a three piece bronze sculpture by Derrick Stephan Hudson entitled, Mother of Elephants completed in 2002; the sculptures were installed on site in 2005 on loan from the L. L. Odette Foundation of Windsor, Ontario. In popular culture, the plaza was used as a stand-in for Wall Street in a pair of Kids in the Hall sketches featuring Mr. Tyzik, the Headcrusher. Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce B2B Bank Blake, Cassels & Graydon LLP Deutsche Bank Guardian Capital Group Stikeman Elliott LLPCIBC has announced plans to relocate its headquarters from Commerce Court to CIBC Square, beginning in 2020, in a move which will consolidate staff from various other CIBC offices from the Toronto area.
However, the bank intends to maintain a presence at Commerce Court. Canadian Bankers Association Ricoh CIBC Wood Gundy Mackie Research Capital Corporation Waterton Global Resource Management List of tallest buildings in Toronto List of tallest buildings in Canada Tour CIBC Old Canadian Bank of Commerce Building, Montreal Commerce Place I and Commerce Place II in Hamilton, Ontario Commerce Court official website
Renaissance Revival architecture
Renaissance Revival architecture is a group of 19th century architectural revival styles which were neither Greek Revival nor Gothic Revival but which instead drew inspiration from a wide range of classicizing Italian modes. Under the broad designation "Renaissance architecture" nineteenth-century architects and critics went beyond the architectural style which began in Florence and central Italy in the early 15th century as an expression of Humanism. Self-applied style designations were rife in the mid- and nineteenth century: "Neo-Renaissance" might be applied by contemporaries to structures that others called "Italianate", or when many French Baroque features are present; the divergent forms of Renaissance architecture in different parts of Europe in France and Italy, has added to the difficulty of defining and recognizing Neo-Renaissance architecture. A comparison between the breadth of its source material, such as the English Wollaton Hall, Italian Palazzo Pitti, the French Château de Chambord, the Russian Palace of Facets—all deemed "Renaissance"—illustrates the variety of appearances the same architectural label can take.
The origin of Renaissance architecture is accredited to Filippo Brunelleschi Brunelleschi and his contemporaries wished to bring greater "order" to architecture, resulting in strong symmetry and careful proportion. The movement grew in particular human anatomy. Neo-Renaissance architecture is formed by not only the original Italian architecture but by the form in which Renaissance architecture developed in France during the 16th century. During the early years of the 16th century the French were involved in wars in northern Italy, bringing back to France not just the Renaissance art treasures as their war booty, but stylistic ideas. In the Loire valley a wave of chateau building was carried out using traditional French Gothic styles but with ornament in the forms of pediments, shallow pilasters and entablatures from the Italian Renaissance. In England the Renaissance tended to manifest itself in large square tall houses such as Longleat House; these buildings had symmetrical towers which hint at the evolution from medieval fortified architecture.
This is evident at Hatfield House built between 1607 and 1611, where medieval towers jostle with a large Italian cupola. This is why so many buildings of the early English Neo-Renaissance style have more of a "castle air" than their European contemporaries, which can add again to the confusion with the Gothic revival style; when in the 19th century Renaissance style architecture came into vogue, it materialized not just in its original form according to geography, but as a hybrid of all its earlier forms according to the whims of architects and patrons rather than geography and culture. If this were not confusing enough, the new Neo-Renaissance frequently borrowed architectural elements from the succeeding Mannerist period, in many cases the later Baroque period. Mannerism and Baroque being two opposing styles of architecture. Mannerism was exemplified by Baroque by the Wurzburg Residenz, thus Italian and Flemish Renaissance coupled with the amount of borrowing from these periods can cause great difficulty and argument in identifying various forms of 19th-century architecture.
Differentiating some forms of French Neo-Renaissance buildings from those of the Gothic revival can at times be tricky, as both styles were popular during the 19th century. John Ruskin's panegyrics to architectural wonders of Venice and Florence contributed to shifting "the attention of scholars and designers, with their awareness heightened by debate and restoration work" from Late Neoclassicism and Gothic Revival to the Italian Renaissance; as a consequence, a self-consciously "Neo-Renaissance" manner first began to appear circa 1840. By 1890 this movement was in decline; the Hague's Peace Palace completed in 1913, in a heavy French Neo-Renaissance manner was one of the last notable buildings in this style. Charles Barry introduced the Neo-Renaissance to England with his design of the Travellers Club, Pall Mall. Other early but typical, domestic examples of the Neo-Renaissance include Mentmore Towers and the Château de Ferrières, both designed in the 1850s by Joseph Paxton for members of the Rothschild banking family.
The style is characterized by original Renaissance motifs, taken from such Quattrocento architects as Alberti. These motifs included rusticated masonry and quoins, windows framed by architraves and doors crowned by pediments and entablatures. If a building were of several floors, the uppermost floor had small square windows representing the minor mezzanine floor of the original Renaissance designs. However, the Neo-renaissance style came to incorporate Romanesque and Baroque features not found in the original Renaissance architecture, more severe in its design. Like all architectural styles, the Neo-Renaissance did not appear overnight formed but evolved slowly. One of the first signs of its emergence was the Würzburg Women's Prison, erected in 1809 designed by Peter Speeth, it included a rusticated ground floor, alleviated by one semicircular arch, with a curious Egyptian style miniature portico above, high above this were a sequence of six tall arched windows and above these just beneath the projecting roof were the small windows of the upper floor.
This building foreshadows similar effects in the work of the American architect Henry Hobson Richardson whose work in the Neo-Renaissance style was popu
The Dominion Bank
The Dominion Bank was a Canadian bank, chartered in 1869 and based in Toronto, Ontario. On February 1, 1955, it merged with the Bank of Toronto to form the Toronto-Dominion Bank. In 1871, the Dominion Bank was launched by entrepreneurs and professionals under the leadership of James Austin with the opening of its first branch on King Street in Toronto, Ontario, they were dedicated to creating a new institution “conducive to the general prosperity of that section of the country.” The Dominion Bank was a cautious institution, “selecting its customers serving them well, duly prospering with them”. It too created a network of branches, in 1872 became the first Canadian bank to have two branches in one city – Toronto. With the maturing of the Canadian economy and the opening of northern Ontario and the West in 1880s and 1890s, the banks became more aggressive in loans to resource industries and manufacturing. In 1897, the Dominion Bank opened its first western branch in Winnipeg. In the first decade of the twentieth century, the bank expanded their branch networks in central Canada and across the west.
To mark its rise as a significant national institution, the Dominion Bank moved to a landmark head office at King and Yonge Street in 1879. The First World War brought new challenges for the bank when they were called upon to finance war expenditures and to support the innovation of war bonds marketed to the general public. Half the staff of the bank served in the armed forces. Except for some contraction in the western provinces due to drought, the decade following the war was one of expansion and increasing profitability due to resource development and industrial expansion. Both banks weathered the storm of Great Depression in the 1930s without great difficulty, despite a decline in earnings. Like all Canadian banks, they endured criticism of its credit policies and resisted the introduction of a central bank to control the money supply and advise on fiscal policy; the Bank of Canada was established and the banks relinquished their right to issue their own currency. The coming of the Second World War involved the banks, once again, in the marketing of war bonds and in participation in the control of foreign exchange and other financial war measures.
500 staff, or half the total, entered the armed forces. The Dominion Bank emerged from the war in 1945 stronger than with assets more than doubled since 1939. With the post-war boom, they became more active in business lending and in the penetration of new markets. However, they realized that the costs of expansion and competition with much larger rivals made their objectives difficult to realize; the bank had engaged in acquisitions or mergers in order to grow, but determined that a union with a bank of equal size would place it in a much stronger position to take advantage of the opportunities of the post-war economy. In 1954, negotiations began between the Bank of Toronto and the Dominion Bank, by the end of the year, an amalgamation agreement was reached. In their brief to the Minister of Finance, the banks stated: “It is more burdensome for a small bank to keep pace with the development of our country than for a large bank, with the result that the effective growth and comparative influence of smaller banks will in the future decline in comparison with that of the larger banks.”
On November 1, 1954, Canada's minister of finance announced that the amalgamation was accepted, shareholders were asked for their approval. This was forthcoming in December, on February 1, 1955, the Bank of Toronto and the Dominion Bank became the Toronto-Dominion Bank. James Austin, 1871-1897 Sir Frank Smith, 1897-1901 Sir Edmund Osler, 1901-1924 Sir Augustus Nanton, 1924-1925 Albert W. Austin, 1925-1933 Clarence A. Bogert, 1933-1948 C. H. Carlisle, 1934-1948 Robert Rae - 1948 The Dominion Bank building in Calgary, built in 1911, is on the Registry of Historical Places of Canada; the Dominion Bank Building in Winnipeg, built in 1907, is on the Registry of Historical Places of Canada. John M. Lyle was the architect for the Dominion Bank for many branches in Toronto and throughout Ontario from 1911 to 1939. List of Canadian banks One King Street West Robert Henry Bethune Quebec History - Dominion Bank TD Bank Financial Group: Celebrating a rich history
Four Seasons Hotel and Residences Toronto
The Four Seasons Hotel and Residences Toronto is a complex consisting of a 204-metre, 55-story residential condominium tower and a 125-meter, 30-storey hotel tower in the Yorkville district of Toronto, Canada, which opened on October 5, 2012. Located at 60 Yorkville Avenue, at its intersection with Bay Street, the complex is situated one block east of the former Four Seasons Hotel Toronto building at 21 Avenue Road; the complex was designed by Peter Clewes of architectsAlliance, developed by Bay-Yorkville Developments. The taller tower was the 10th tallest building in Toronto, but by 2017, its position had fallen to 17th as other taller buildings were completed; the location had been the Bay Ford Lincoln car dealership, it is next door to Toronto Fire Services Station 312. The penthouse, which claims the entire 55th floor of the West Residence, sold for C$28 million, making it the most expensive condominium sold in Canada; the 55-floor complex contains 210 private condo suites. It offers a two-storey spa, Café Boulud and bar, glass-enclosed event spaces.
It was designed with Page and Steele as Architect of Record. The project was developed by Bay-Yorkville Developments Ltd. a joint venture of Alcion Ventures, LP, Menkes Developments and Lifetime Homes, uses the "Four Seasons" trademark under licence. Before the ribbon-cutting ceremony, Four Seasons Hotels chairman and founder Isadore Sharp proclaimed the new location as being "...in a category by itself, a true Four Seasons in our hometown, our flagship hotel. It is a landmark development for the city of Toronto". There have been several previous Four Seasons properties at other locations in Toronto; the first Four Seasons-operated hotel in Toronto was The Four Seasons Motor Hotel, opened in 1961 at 415 Jarvis Street near Carlton. Built by architect Peter Dickinson, it operated as a motor inn before it was demolished and replaced by townhouses; the next hotel operated by Four Seasons was the Inn on the Park, which opened in 1963. It became a Holiday Inn in the 1980s, has since been demolished and replaced by the Lexus on the Park car dealership.
The Four Seasons Sheraton Hotel opened in 1972 as a joint venture between Four Seasons founder Issy Sharp and Sheraton. Unhappy with the partnership, Sharp sold his 49 percent interest in the hotel in 1976 for $18.5 million, the hotel was renamed The Sheraton Centre of Toronto. The longest-operating Four Seasons property in the city was located on 21 Avenue Road at the intersection with Yorkville Avenue, it consisted of a 31-storey Brutalist concrete tower, with a low-rise podium that stretched south to Cumberland Avenue. It was built in 1972 as the Hyatt Regency Toronto. Issy Sharp renamed it the Four Seasons Hotel Toronto; the hotel was popular with celebrities when the Toronto International Film Festival was centred on the Yorkville area. However Sharp said the building "felt like driving into a garage." The hotel closed on March 28, 2012 and was sold to developer Camrost-Felcorp, which converted it to a condominium development known as Yorkville Plaza. The hotel's facade was renovated, while the podium containing the hotel function rooms and below-grade retail was demolished and replaced by a new retail complex.
List of tallest buildings in Canada List of tallest buildings in Toronto Peter Clewes architectsAlliance Trump International Hotel and Tower Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts Hotels in Toronto Four Seasons Hotel Toronto website architectsAlliance project page City of Toronto: Four Seasons Development Project
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000