A wine bar is a tavern-like business focusing on selling wine, rather than liquor or beer. A typical feature of many wine bars is a wide selection of wines available by the glass; some wine bars are profiled on wines of a certain type such as Italian wine or Champagne. While many wine bars are private "stand-alone" establishments, in some cases, wine bars are associated with a specific wine retailer or other outlet of wine, to provide additional marketing for that retailer's wine portfolio. In countries where licensing regulations allow this, some wine bars sell the wines they serve, effective function as a hybrid between a wine shop and a wine bar. Although the trend of wine bars in the United States was not well received in the 1980s, they began to gain popularity in the 1990s. By early 2000, wine bars became popular and started popping up in many metropolitan neighborhoods across the country. Wine bars now rival the local hangouts such as local bars; the wine bar phenomenon offers the taste.
Wine bars add a new dimension to wine tasting. They seek to remove the association of wine with upscale clientele and overwhelming wine lists and replace it with a more casual and relaxing atmosphere. Many of these bars are furnished with nooks and cozy booths encased in rich colors and plush surroundings in hopes their guests will linger. Wine bars look to embrace the intellectual stimulation linked to wine and offer an alternative to the bar scene; the laid-back environment lends itself to a good socializing setting with a less crowded feel and more intimate appeal. Modern wine bars have begun to incorporate a larger variety of foods. Traditionally associated with cheeses and desserts, wine bars are looking to combine wine with appetizer-sized gourmet selections to enhance the palate; the concept brings the tastes of fancy restaurants to a dressed-down setting. Restaurant owners and chefs sometimes take the opposite approach and use wine bars as an opportunity for expansion. Types of drinking establishments
Napster is a set of three music-focused online services. It was founded as a pioneering peer-to-peer file sharing Internet service that emphasized sharing digital audio files audio songs, encoded in MP3 format; the company ran into legal difficulties over copyright infringement. It ceased operations and was acquired by Roxio. In its second incarnation, Napster became an online music store until it was acquired by Rhapsody from Best Buy on December 1, 2011. More decentralized projects followed Napster's P2P file-sharing example, such as Gnutella, BearShare and Soulseek; some services, like LimeWire, Kazaa, Madster, eDonkey2000, were brought down or changed due to copyright issues. Napster was founded by Sean Parker. Napster was envisioned as an independent peer-to-peer file sharing service by Shawn Fanning; the service operated between June 1999 and July 2001. Its technology allowed people to share their MP3 files with other participants. Although the original service was shut down by court order, the Napster brand survived after the company's assets were liquidated and purchased by other companies through bankruptcy proceedings.
Although there were networks that facilitated the distribution of files across the Internet, such as IRC, Usenet, Napster specialized in MP3 files of music and a user-friendly interface. At its peak the Napster service had about 80 million registered users. Napster made it easy for music enthusiasts to download copies of songs that were otherwise difficult to obtain, such as older songs, unreleased recordings, studio recordings, songs from concert bootleg recordings. Napster paved the way for streaming media services and transformed music into a public good for a brief period of time. High-speed networks in college dormitories became overloaded, with as much as 61% of external network traffic consisting of MP3 file transfers. Many colleges blocked its use for this reason before concerns about liability for facilitating copyright violations on campus; the service and software program began as Windows-only. However, in 2000, Black Hole Media wrote. Macster was bought by Napster and designated the official Mac Napster client, at which point the Macster name was discontinued.
Before the acquisition of Macster, the Macintosh community had a variety of independently-developed Napster clients. The most notable was the open source client called MacStar, released by Squirrel Software in early 2000 and Rapster, released by Overcaster Family in Brazil; the release of MacStar's source code paved the way for third-party Napster clients across all computing platforms, giving users advertisement-free music distribution options. Heavy metal band Metallica discovered a demo of their song "I Disappear" had been circulating across the network before it was released; this led to it being played on several radio stations across the United States and alerted Metallica to the fact that their entire back catalogue of studio material was available. On March 13, 2000, they filed a lawsuit against Napster. A month rapper and producer Dr. Dre, who shared a litigator and legal firm with Metallica, filed a similar lawsuit after Napster refused his written request to remove his works from its service.
Separately, Metallica and Dr. Dre delivered to Napster thousands of usernames of people who they believed were pirating their songs. In March 2001, Napster settled both suits, after being shut down by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in a separate lawsuit from several major record labels. In 2000, Madonna's single "Music" was leaked out onto the web and Napster prior to its commercial release, causing widespread media coverage. Verified Napster use peaked with 26.4 million users worldwide in February 2001. In 2000, the American musical recording company A&M Records along with several other recording companies, through the Recording Industry Association of America, sued Napster on grounds of contributory and vicarious copyright infringement under the US Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Napster was faced with the following allegations from the music industry: That its users were directly violating the plaintiffs' copyrights; that Napster was responsible for contributory infringement of the plaintiffs' copyrights.
That Napster was responsible for vicarious infringement of the plaintiffs' copyrights. Napster lost the case in the District Court but appealed to the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. Although it was clear that Napster could have commercially significant non-infringing uses, the Ninth Circuit upheld the District Court's decision. After, the District Court commanded Napster to keep track of the activities of its network and to restrict access to infringing material when informed of that material's location. Napster wasn't able to comply and thus had to close down its service in July 2001. In 2002, Napster sold its assets to a third party. Along with the accusations that Napster was hurting the sales of the record industry, there were those who felt just the opposite, that file trading on Napster stimulated, rather than hurt, sales; some evidence may have come in July 2000 when tracks from English rock band Radiohead's album Kid A found their way to Napster three months before the album's release.
Unlike Madonna, Dr. Dre or Metallica, Radiohead had never hit the top 20 in the US. Furthermore, Kid A was an album without any singles released, received little radio airplay. By the time of the album's release, the album was estimated to have been downloaded for free by millions of people worldwide, in October 2000 K
Moment of silence
A moment of silence is a period of silent contemplation, reflection, or meditation. Similar to flying a flag at half-mast, a moment of silence is a gesture of respect in mourning for those who have died or as part of a tragic historical event. One minute is a common length of time for the commemoration, though organizers may choose other periods of time connected in some way with the event being commemorated. During the moment of silence, participants may bow their heads, remove hats, refrain from speaking or moving for the duration; the first recorded instance of an official moment of silence dedicated to a person's death took place in Portugal on February 13, 1912. The Portuguese Senate dedicated 10 minutes of silence to José Maria da Silva Paranhos Júnior, baron of Rio Branco and Minister of the Exterior of the Brazilian government, who had died three days earlier on February 10; this moment of silence was registered in the Senate's records of that day. In the same year, large parts of the US kept a ceremonial silence to honour the dead of the Maine and the Titanic.
Many people in the Commonwealth observe the two-minute silence at 11:00am on November 11 each year to remember sacrifices of members of the armed forces and of civilians in times of war. In Israel, moments of silence are held in memory of the victims of the Holocaust and on Jewish holidays in memory of fallen soldiers and of terrorist victims. Participants mark the moments of silence as a time to live peacefully with other countries. Moments of silence are observed prior to sports matches, with reasons for silences ranging from national and international tragedies, to the death of individuals connected to the sport or specific clubs. Quakers have practised silent prayer, including moments of silence during other group activities, for more than 300 years. Since silence contains no statements or assumptions concerning beliefs and requires no understanding of language to interpret, it is more accepted and used than a spoken prayer or observance when persons of different religious and cultural backgrounds participate together.
In the colonial period Pennsylvania Quakers and other Americans worshipped silently together on occasions, yet both groups thought that this implied that they had altered their traditional belief system in doing so. Over time, the effectiveness of Quaker-style silence for non-sectarian and non-controversial public observances has led to its universal use in the English-speaking world as well as in other plural societies; this is the case within many institutions where diverse groups are expected to participate but not share beliefs - such as in government, commercial companies and the military. The U. S. Supreme Court ruled in 1962 that official organization, sponsorship, or endorsement of school prayer is forbidden by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution in public school. Teachers and school officials may not lead classes in prayer, but prayer is permitted at voluntary religious clubs, students are not prohibited from praying themselves. Other rulings have forbidden public, organized prayer at school assemblies, sporting events, similar school-sponsored activities.
Public moments of silence in the United States both arise from and contribute to this debate over prayer and the separation of church and state. A moment of silence lacks any specific religious formulation, therefore it has been presented as a way of creating reflection and respect without endorsing any particular sect. President Ronald Reagan was a supporter of a moment of silence in American schools. In 1981 Reagan formally proposed a constitutional amendment permitting organized prayer in public schools. In his 1984 state of the union address, Reagan asked Congress, who begin their day with an invocation: "If you can begin your day with a member of the clergy standing right here leading you in prayer why can't freedom to acknowledge God be enjoyed again by children in every schoolroom across this land?" The Lubavitcher rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson was a strong advocate of a moment of silence every morning in public schools. Citing the many polls as proof that it reduces crime. Colin Powell, a longtime advocate, has recommended a simple moment of silence at the start of each school day.
Further, he states that students could use this interval to pray, contemplate or study. However, critics view the moment of silence as publicly endorsing prayer "in disguise"; this issue has been raised by atheists groups and advocates, who argue that no non-religious purpose is served by designating an official moment of silence. They point out, for example, that many schools have entire class periods dedicated to silent study, which can be used for silent prayer or meditation. Moments of silence point to the tension in the U. S. Constitution and society between accommodation and endorsement. Accommodation of religion is to ensure an environment where a person or student can practice their religion. A question with "moments of silence" laws is whether accommodation was achieved by the fact that a student can pray or meditate on his/her own without an official moment of silence. Barry Lynn of Americans United for Separation of Church and State said, on a "moment of silence" case, "Students were allowed to pray, meditate, or reflect under the statute before it was amended.
The addition of the word'pray' where it wasn't needed shows that legislators intended to promote religion, that's not their job." Courts have stated on these moments of silence cases that a secular purp
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
All Media Network
RhythmOne is an American company that owns and maintains AllMusic, AllMovie, AllGame, SideReel and Celebified. The company was founded in 1990 by popular-culture archivist Michael Erlewine. RhythmOne offices are located in San Francisco and Ann Arbor, United States, several other locations across the country. All Music Guide was launched in 1991. In 1994 the All Movie Guide was launched and in 1998 the All Game Guide; the company was founded in Michigan in 1990 by Michael Erlewine. With the All Music Guide the aim was to " discographic information on every artist who's made a record since Enrico Caruso gave the industry its first big boost", which launched in 1991, they expanded with the All Movie Guide in 1994, the All Game Guide in 1998. Moved to Ann Arbor, Michigan in 1999 to take advantage of the "rich talent pool". AMG was a business unit within Alliance Entertainment Corporation from 1996 until early 2005. Alliance was acquired in 1999 by a multibillion-dollar fund based in California. Macrovision announced on November 6, 2007 that it had agreed to purchase All Media Guide for a reported $102 million.
For a time, all of the guides were controlled by Rovi's nameservers and combined access to the All Music and All Movie Guides was provided via AllRovi.com from 2011 until 2013. In 2013, Rovi sold consumer access of the content to the newly established All Media Network, LLC, but retained control of licensing the content to other businesses; the overall website is allmedianetwork.com. Rovi sold the consumer access to them to newly established All Media Network, LLC in 2013, while retaining ownership and maintenance of the content itself; the AllGame section of the site was shut down on December 12, 2014. On April 16, 2015 Blinkx Plc acquired All Media Network and rebranded the website under the new unified RhythmOne Group banner. AllMusic is an online database which provides access to information about songs, musicians and musical styles alongside staff-authored news, biographies and recommendations; the content was published in book form in 1991 as the All Music Guide, is now available to the public for online reference and information as well as available via licensing for point-of-sale systems, media players, online music stores.
RhythmOne produces the AllMusic guide series that includes the All Music Guide to Jazz and the All Music Guide to the Blues. Vladimir Bogdanov is the president of the series. AllMovie, launched in 1994 as the All Movie Guide, provides access to information about actors and filmmakers with staff-authored news, reviews and recommendations, it offers limited information about Television productions, focused on those released on DVD. Like AllMusic, this content is available via licensing to point-of-sale systems, media players, online stores. AllGame was active between 1998–2014 as the All Game Guide, it offered information and reviews about many console, hand held, PC games released in the US; the site started in February 1998 with the goal of becoming the most comprehensive game database available. In a farewell message on their site, the staff noted that they "didn't all know what we were doing in those early days but it was an exciting time to be helping build an online game database before the Internet exploded with numerous websites dedicated to video games."
SideReel, launched in 2007, is a TV community site which provides information about TV shows and episodes. Celebified offers celebrity news and interviews and started in 2012. RhythmOne's database was set up by Vladimir Bogdanov to hold the information of Erlewine's many lists. Information in the database is licensed and used in point-of-sale systems by some music retailers, includes the following: Basic data: names, credits, copyright information, product numbers. Descriptive content: styles, moods, nationalities. Relational content: similar artists and albums, influences. Editorial content: biographies, rankings; the company claims to have the largest digital archive of music, including about six million digital songs, as well as the largest cover art library, with more than half a million cover image scans. The AllMusic database is used by several generations of Windows Media Player and Musicmatch Jukebox to identify and organize music collections. Windows Media Player 11 and the integrated MTV Urge music store have expanded the use of AllMusic data to include related artists, reviews and other data.
All Media Network licenses large databases of metadata about movies, video games, audio books, music releases from Rovi Corporation and publishes them online for consumer use. This includes credits, staff-written biographies, reviews and recommendations as well as categories such as theme or mood. Rovi makes this content available for point of sale systems in stores globally, for CD and DVD recognition in software media players such as Windows Media Player and Musicmatch Jukebox, for providing content for a variety of websites including iTunes and Spotify. All Media Guide sold print compilations of its information. Stephen Thomas Erlewine, senior editor of AllMusic List of online music databases Official website
A drum kit — called a drum set, trap set, or drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones – most cymbals, but can include the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some kits include electronic instruments. Both hybrid and electronic kits are used. A standard modern kit, as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains: A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes A hi-hat, played with the sticks and closed with left foot pedal One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums.
The drum kit is played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch; the drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards. Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, some rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal; some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup.
Before the development of the drum set and cymbals used in military and orchestral music settings were played separately by different percussionists. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to enable them to play more than one instrument, but these devices would not be mass-produced for another 75 years. By the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set; the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all struck with hand-held drum sticks. Drummers in musical theater shows and stage shows, where the budget for pit orchestras was limited, contributed to the creation of the drum set by developing techniques and devices that would enable them to cover the roles of multiple percussionists. Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was played on beats one and three. While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated.
This resulted in dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a "trap set", from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05. Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist; the bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve. William F. Ludwig, Sr. and his brother, Theobald Ludwig, founded the Ludwig & Ludwig Co. in 1909 and patented the first commercially successful bass drum pedal system, paving the way for the modern drum kit. Wire brushes for use with drums and cymbals were introduced in 1912; the need for brushes arose due to the problem of the drum sound overshadowing the other instruments on stage.
Drummers began using metal fly swatters to reduce the volume on stage next to the other acoustic instruments. Drummers could still play the rudimentary snare figures and grooves with brushes that they would play with drumsticks. By World War I, drum kits were marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz Dixieland; the modern drum kit was developed in the vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans. In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all o
Slipknot is an American heavy metal band from Des Moines, Iowa. The band was founded in 1995 by percussionist Shawn Crahan, drummer Joey Jordison and bassist Paul Gray. After several lineup changes in its early years, the band settled on nine members for more than a decade: Shawn Crahan, Joey Jordison, Paul Gray, Corey Taylor, Mick Thomson, Jim Root, Craig Jones, Sid Wilson, Chris Fehn. Gray died on May 24, 2010, was replaced during 2011–2014 by guitarist Donnie Steele. Jordison left the band due to illness on December 12, 2013. Steele left during the recording sessions for.5: The Gray Chapter. The band found replacements in Alessandro Venturella on Jay Weinberg on drums. After the departure of Jordison, as of December 2013 the only founding member in the current lineup is percussionist Crahan. Slipknot is well known for its attention-grabbing image, aggressive style of music, energetic and chaotic live shows; the band rose to success following the release of their eponymous debut album in 1999.
The 2001 follow-up album, although darker in tone, made the band more popular. After a brief hiatus, Slipknot returned in 2004 with Vol. 3:, before going on another hiatus and returning in 2008 with its fourth album, All Hope Is Gone, which debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 chart. After another long hiatus, Slipknot released its fifth studio album.5: The Gray Chapter, in 2014. The band has released two live albums titled 9.0: Live and Day of the Gusano: Live in Mexico, a compilation album titled Antennas to Hell, five live DVDs. The band has sold 30 million records worldwide. In the years before Slipknot formed, a state of shifting band membership existed throughout the heavy metal scene in Des Moines, Iowa. In 1991, the biggest heavy metal band in Des Moines was Atomic Opera, with Jim Root on guitar. Drummer Joey Jordison founded a thrash metal band called Modifidious, playing at a club called Runway. Modifidious opened for Atomic Opera on December 1, 1991, at the Runway, after which their guitarist left for the more successful Atomic Opera.
Jordison replaced him with local guitarist Craig Jones. Drummer Shawn Crahan formed another Des Moines band called Heads on the Wall, playing funk metal cover songs at clubs and releasing a demo tape in July 1992. A fourth Des Moines band called Vexx played death metal with Anders Colsefni on drums, Paul Gray on bass, Josh Brainard on guitar and vocals. Colsefni took over vocal duties, but Vexx never recorded. During this time, Crahan went to the Runway on Sundays when the club opened to all ages, where he met other young musicians with whom he could jam. By March 1993, Crahan was jamming with vocalist Colsefni, bassist Gray and guitarist Pat Neuwirth and playing songs in Gray's basement, discussing possible band names such as Pull My Finger, but never making a final decision. One of the songs they recorded was titled "Slipknot". In 1993, a new band called Inveigh Catharsis formed in Des Moines, with Gray on bass, Brainard on guitar and Colsefni on drums. Jordison jammed with this group. Brainard left to join Jordison and Jones in Modifidious, participating in demo recordings at the end of'93 and early in'94.
During 1994, Modifidious sometimes played the same shows as Crahan's Heads on the Wall band. Gray formed. Modifidious stopped playing in the wake of death metal's increasing pull. Gray failed to get Jordison to join Body Pit, but soon after he recruited local guitar teacher Mick Thomson, the band broke up. In September 1995, Crahan and Gray started; the lineup was made up of friends who met through the local music scene, including vocalist Colsefni and guitarist Donnie Steele. Not long after their inception, Gray invited Jordison to a rehearsal because the band was interested in experimenting with additional drum elements. Jordison subsequently joined the band as their main drummer. Furthermore, Colsefni took up percussion while remaining the band's vocalist; the band decided to invite Brainard as their second guitarist, bringing their lineup to six members. On December 4, the band made their live debut. Much of the band's early development was retrospectively attributed to late-night planning sessions between Gray and Jordison at a Sinclair gas station where Jordison worked nights.
It was there, in late 1995, that Jordison suggested changing the band name to Slipknot after their song of the same name. In December, Slipknot began recording material at a studio in the band's hometown; as they didn't have a recording contract, the band self-financed the project, the costs of which came to an estimated $40,000. In February 1996, guitarist Donnie Steele, a Christian, left Slipknot after discussions regarding the band's lyrics with the producer, Sean McMahon. Jordison said of Steele's departure: " was having these God talks, when we were supposed to be working... We were prepared to keep him on, but he didn't want to stay." Steele himself has said: "I left for a few reasons... I had a lot on my mind spiritually." During the mixing stages of their project at SR Audio, Craig Jones was recruited as Steele's replacement on guitar. However, throughout their time in the studio, the band were adding samples to their recordings but could not produce these sounds live. Subsequently, Jones became the band's sampler and Mick Thomson was brought in as the replacement guitarist.
After a complicated time with mixing and mastering, the band self-released Mate. Feed. Kill. Repeat. on Halloween, October 31, 1996. Distribution for the demo was left to the band