An architect is someone who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. The terms architect and architecture are used in the disciplines of landscape architecture, naval architecture. In most jurisdictions, the professional and commercial uses of the terms architect, throughout ancient and medieval history, most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Until modern times, there was no distinction between architect and engineer. In Europe, the architect and engineer were primarily geographical variations that referred to the same person. It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the gentleman architect. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century, pencils were used more often for drawing by 1600.
The availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals, until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only qualified people with appropriate license, certification, or registration with a relevant body, such licensure usually requires an accredited university degree, successful completion of exams, and a training period. To practice architecture implies the ability to independently of supervision. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses, in the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, and an understanding of business are as important as design. However, design is the force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client, the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them.
The architect participates in developing the requirements the client wants in the building, throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, the architect hired by a client is responsible for creating a design concept that meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. In that, the architect must meet with and question the client to ascertain all the requirements, often the full brief is not entirely clear at the beginning, entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make proposals to the client which may rework the terms of the brief
The Printworks is an urban entertainment venue offering a cinema and eateries, located on the corner of Withy Grove and Corporation Street in Manchester city centre, England. The Printworks entertainment venue is located on the revamped Withy Grove site of the premises of the 19th century newspaper proprietor Edward Hulton, established in 1873. Hultons son Sir Edward Hulton expanded his fathers interests and sold his publishing business based in London and Manchester to Lord Beaverbrook. Most of the Hulton newspapers were sold soon afterwards to the Allied Newspapers consortium formed in 1924. Kemsley House on the corner of Withy Grove and Corporation Street was developed gradually from 1929, the site housed a printing press until 1986. Robert Maxwell bought the property for £1 and subsequently closed it down, the building was left unused for over a decade and fell derelict. The property was redeveloped and reopened as a leisure centre as part of the redevelopment of Manchester following the 1996 IRA bombing.
The building was renamed The Printworks reflecting its past history and underwent a £110 million conversion to transform the property into an entertainment venue, in 2000 the Printworks was opened by Sir Alex Ferguson and Lionel Richie as the venue for a variety of clubs and eateries. The new 365, 000-square-foot facility is set over four floors, the external lighting facing Exchange Square has been changed numerous times since opening. The property was sold to Resolution Property for £100 million in 2008, parkinson-Bailey, John J. Manchester, An architectural history
Southside Wandsworth is a shopping centre in Wandsworth Town, London, England. Southside opened in 1971 as the Wandsworth Arndale Centre, and was the largest of the UK-wide chain of Arndale Centres with 110 shops and it occupies much of the town centre of Wandsworth, with five blocks of apartments, and the River Wandle running in a culvert underneath. It initially included a mix of shops and restaurants, as well as a market traders hall, at one point it housed a large nightclub, which closed in 2002. The shopping centre is anchored by a Waitrose supermarket, large TK Maxx, the upper mall contains a food plaza containing an Eds Easy Diner, Frankie & Bennys, KFC, McDonalds and Prezzo as well a 14-screen Cineworld cinema. Two gyms reside in the centre with a Virgin Active at the Wandsworth High Street end of the shopping centre, since August 2016, the Virgin Active has been taken over by Nuffield Health gyms. A large recently refurbished and extended branch of Sainsburys is located opposite on Garratt Lane together with a Premier Inn Hotel, the centre is split into three indoor malls plus a street-frontage along Garratt Lane.
The south mall contains a large Decathlon store, Caffè Nero, Carphone Warehouse, Clairess, EE, Nationwide, Oliver Bonas, Pandora and Waterstones. The central mall contains a number of stores including an Argos, Gap, H&M, JD Sports, Primark, Top Shop. It included a clinic and a day centre, as well as a post office. Because it was right over the River Wandle, it was considered something of an architectural. However it was not universally popular, and its size led to it being described by some contemporary commentators as one of London’s great architectural disasters. Although initially successful, it steadily drifted downmarket in the decades after its construction aided by the departure of its anchor tenants such as Sainsburys. Work therefore began to refurbish and extend the complex in 2000. This included the demolition and reconstruction of the southern end of the structure, to add a new 860-space multistorey car park, a 14 screen Cineworld cinema. A large Waitrose supermarket was built, to anchor the relaunched centre.
A glazed roof to the Central Mall was introduced to better use of natural light. This redevelopment was followed by construction of a 23-storey residential development at the end of the complex by Barratt Developments. Wandsworth Borough Council refurbished the residential apartment blocks in 2003/4
Old English or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid 5th century, Old English developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or North Sea Germanic dialects originally spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles and Jutes. As the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain, Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, Old English had four main dialects, associated with particular Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, Northumbrian and West Saxon. It was West Saxon that formed the basis for the standard of the Old English period, although the dominant forms of Middle. The speech of eastern and northern parts of England was subject to strong Old Norse influence due to Scandinavian rule, Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, and its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon.
Like other old Germanic languages, it is different from Modern English. Old English grammar is similar to that of modern German, adjectives and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms. The oldest Old English inscriptions were using a runic system. Old English was not static, and its usage covered a period of 700 years, from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century to the late 11th century, some time after the Norman invasion. While indicating that the establishment of dates is a process, Albert Baugh dates Old English from 450 to 1150, a period of full inflections. Perhaps around 85 per cent of Old English words are no longer in use, Old English is a West Germanic language, developing out of Ingvaeonic dialects from the 5th century. It came to be spoken over most of the territory of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which became the Kingdom of England and this included most of present-day England, as well as part of what is now southeastern Scotland, which for several centuries belonged to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria.
Other parts of the island – Wales and most of Scotland – continued to use Celtic languages, Norse was widely spoken in the parts of England which fell under Danish law. Anglo-Saxon literacy developed after Christianisation in the late 7th century, the oldest surviving text of Old English literature is Cædmons Hymn, composed between 658 and 680. There is a corpus of runic inscriptions from the 5th to 7th centuries. The Old English Latin alphabet was introduced around the 9th century, with the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms by Alfred the Great in the 9th century, the language of government and literature became standardised around the West Saxon dialect. In Old English, typical of the development of literature, poetry arose before prose, a literary standard, dating from the 10th century, arose under the influence of Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester, and was followed by such writers as the prolific Ælfric of Eynsham. This form of the language is known as the Winchester standard and it is considered to represent the classical form of Old English
Gunwharf Quays is an outlet retail destination with 90 outlet stores and 30 restaurants and cafés located in Portsmouth, UK. It was constructed in the early 21st century on the site of what had once been HM Gunwharf, known as HMS Vernon, the military site closed in 1995, and opened to the public as Gunwharf Quays after six years of reconstruction. The landmark Spinnaker Tower, which stands on the site, was opened a few years later. Before the Gun Wharf was built the area was nothing more than marshy ground lying below the waterline, the main feature on this particular stretch of shoreline was the sizeable Mill Pond, which served to power a pair of tide mills on the waterfront. An Ordnance Yard began to be established on the present site in the late 17th century, in the 1770s a decision was taken to extend the Yard to the south, so further land was reclaimed, extending the Yard and doubling its size. The original Yard and its extension functioned as two halves of a single operation. Prior to 1855, a ships guns belonged not to the Admiralty or the Navy Board, but to the Board of Ordnance, whose Ordnance Yards were constructed alongside, but independent from, the Royal Dockyards.
These Yards were repositories providing armament and ammunition not only for ships but for land defences, furthermore, in the days of sail warships required periodic checking and maintenance. The ship would therefore offload all of its guns at one of the Gunwharf Quays before being dry docked, most of the area of the 19th-century Gun Wharf, and the majority of its buildings, was given over to storage. On the New Gun Wharf, the prominent Grand Storehouse was designated as a Land Service Store, in addition to these two, a plan dated 1859 indicates more than a dozen other large storehouses all around the site. Alongside the storehouses were a range of workshops, for blacksmiths, coopers, a wide range of ordnance-related equipment had to be accommodated within the Yard. Gun carriages in particular took up a lot of space, and were prone to decay if left outside. The balls are formed in pyramids from 42 pounders to the lowest bores, every size in a pyramid by themselves, one item that was not stored at the Gun Wharf was gunpowder, which was kept in the Square Tower and in magazines at Priddys Hard from 1777.
In 1824 a set of storehouses along the edge of the site were converted to form barracks for the Royal Marine Artillery. A wall was built, within the perimeter, which separated the barracks from the rest of the Gunwharf, in 1858 the RMA moved out, the Gunwharf Barracks began to be occupied by Artillery and other troops until 1888 when they reverted to use as storehouses. After the demise of the Ordnance Board in 1855 the War Office took over responsibility for the Gun Wharves, during the First World War, the entire site was taken over by the Navy, and it remained in Navy hands thereafter until its closure in 1995. As ships and armaments developed, the requirement to offload the armament diminished, the site was re-established as the Royal Navy shore establishment HMS Vernon in 1923. Following several naval restructures and mergers, HMS Vernon ceased to be an independent command and was renamed HMS Nelson on 31 March 1986, in 1987 it was renamed again to HMS Nelson although locally it continued to be known as HMS Vernon
The street itself is just under 500 ft in length and now forms the eastern boundary of the ward after the 2003 boundary changes. The Citys major shopping centre opened in 2010 is at One New Change within Bread Street Ward. As with most of the Citys 25 wards, the boundaries of Bread Street were altered considerably in 2003. The ward is now bounded on its north by Cheap Ward, to the east by Cordwainer Ward, to the south by Queenhithe and Vintry Wards, and to the west by Castle Baynard and Farringdon Within Wards. Its geographical boundaries are Bread Street in the east, Newgate Street and Cheapside in the north, Warwick Lane and Ave Maria Lane in the west, and Queen Victoria Street to the south. St Pauls Cathedral is outside the boundaries, being in Castle Baynard Ward. Five successive Livery Halls of the Worshipful Company of Cordwainers stood in the ward and they are commemorated by a blue plaque in the gardens of St Pauls facing Cannon Street. The fifth and last hall was built between 1909-10 but, on the night of 10 May 1941, was gutted during the Blitz.
There were once two churches in the ward, All Hallows Bread Street and St Mildred, Bread Street, today their former parishes comprise part of St Mary-le-Bow on Cheapside. All Hallows was demolished in 1876 to make way for warehouses, Bread Street is one of 25 wards in the City of London, each electing one Alderman and a number of Common Councilmen on the Court of Common Council of the City of London Corporation. As of July 2014, the members for Bread Street include Alderman William Russell. A bust of Admiral Phillip can be seen in the gardens on Watling Street. Lord Mayor John Ansley was elected Alderman for Bread Street in 1800, Bread Street is the birthplace of the poets John Donne and John Milton, both of whom are commemorated within Bread Street Ward. onenewchange. com Ward Club
St David's, Cardiff
St Davids or more formally St Davids Dewi Sant, is one of the principal shopping centres in the city centre of Cardiff, Wales. It is in The Hayes area of the city centre. Owing to the extension of St Davids 2 in 2009, St Davids is now the ninth largest shopping centre in the United Kingdom, the construction of the extension cost a total of £675m and brought Cardiff within the top five shopping destinations in the United Kingdom. The centre consists of original the first phase, St Davids Centre, adjoining St Davids Hall, the second phase of the shopping centre, opened on 22 October 2009, when the first 58 of its 88 stores opened for business. In 2008–9, the footfall of the centre was 27 million. 20 million people visited the centre during the first six months after the opening of St Davids 2, St Davids was crowned the international shopping centre of the year in 2010 by Global Retail Leisure International, beating contenders in Portugal and Singapore. St Davids is patrolled by three paramedics on bicycles between every Friday and Sunday in order to respond rapidly to medical emergencies, St Davids Shopping Centre was open to the public in January 1981, although it did not officially open until 24 March 1982.
The centre has 4 entrances located on Queen Street, Cathedral Walk, Working Street, the entrance on Hills Street connects to the northern entrance of the second phase of the shopping centre, open at street level and via an enclosed bridge on the first floor. It is joined internally with Queens Arcade, there are 3 thoroughfares within the centre, Town Wall, Cathedral Walk and St Davids Way. The centre attracted an average footfall of 39,000,000 per annum and has a catchment of 2.4 million people. The 12 million tourists visit the city annually help generate over £7.5 billion in retail spending. There are seventy-five individual shops and stores in the first centre that cater for a broad demographic, the centre is anchored by Boots, Marks & Spencer and Primark. St Davids Hall was built on top of the shopping centre, St Davids, and much of the southern end of Cardiff city centres shopping area, was re-developed as part of the St Davids 2 development. The second phase was a £675 million extension of the centre, the second phase of St.
Davids was known as St Davids 2 during the construction phase, but both phases were simply named St Davids when the second phase was completed. It includes apartments, called Hayes Apartments, above the shopping centre. The second phase was made up of different sections, they were, St Davids Walk, leading to the extension of Debenhams, St Davids Way, The original part of St Davids. Grand Arcade, connecting St Davids Walk in the centre to John Lewis. The Grand Arcade was split over two floors, the Upper Grand Arcade had other shops and stores
City of London
The City of London is a city and county within London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, the City of London is not a London borough. The City of London is widely referred to simply as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdoms trading and financial services industries. The name London is now used for a far wider area than just the City. London most often denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs and this wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888, when the County of London was created. The local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council and it is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries.
The Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the current Lord Mayor, as of November 2016, is Andrew Parmley. The City is a business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the primary business centre. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008, the insurance industry is focused around the eastern side of the City, around Lloyds building. A secondary financial district exists outside of the City, at Canary Wharf,2.5 miles to the east, the City has a resident population of about 7,000 but over 300,000 people commute to and work there, mainly in the financial services sector. It used to be held that Londinium was first established by merchants as a trading port on the tidal Thames in around 47 AD. However, this date is only supposition, many historians now believe London was founded some time before the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD. They base this notion on evidence provided by both archaeology and Welsh literary legend, archaeologists have claimed that as much as half of the best British Iron Age art and metalwork discovered in Britain has been found in the London area.
One of the most prominent examples is the famously horned Waterloo Helmet dredged from the Thames in the early 1860s and now exhibited at the British Museum. Also, according to an ancient Welsh legend, a king named Lud son of Heli substantially enlarged and improved a pre-existing settlement at London which afterwards came to be renamed after him, the same tradition relates how this Lud son of Heli was buried at Ludgate
An arcade is a succession of arches, each counter-thrusting the next, supported by columns, piers, or a covered walkway enclosed by a line of such arches on one or both sides. In warmer or wet climates, exterior arcades provide shelter for pedestrians, the walkway may be lined with stores. A blind arcade superimposes arcading against a solid wall, blind arcades are a feature of Romanesque architecture that was taken into Gothic architecture. European shopping malls generally resemble the bazaars and souks of Asia, the word arcade comes from French arcade from Provençal arcada or Italian arcata, based on Latin arcus, ‘bow’. One of the earliest examples of a European shopping arcade, the Covered Market, the Covered Market was started in response to a general wish to clear untidy and unsavoury stalls from the main streets of central Oxford. John Gwynn, the architect of Magdalen Bridge, drew up the plans, twenty more soon followed, and after 1773 meat was allowed to be sold only inside the market.
From this nucleus the market grew, with stalls for garden produce, pig meat, dairy products, Gostiny Dvor in St Petersburg, Russia is another early shopping arcade. Throughout the following century, Gostiny Dvor was augmented, resulting in ten indoor streets, during the post-World War II reconstructions, its inner walls were demolished and a huge shopping mall came into being. This massive 18th-century structure got a recently and entered the 21st century as one of the most fashionable shopping centres in Eastern Europe. An early French arcade is the Passage du Caire created in 1798 as a tribute to the French campaign in Egypt and it was appreciated by the public for its protection from the weather and filth of the streets. A year American architect William Thayer created the Passage des Panoramas with a row of shops passing between two panorama paintings, shopping arcades increasingly were built in the second Bourbon Restoration. Upper levels of arcades often contained apartments and sometimes brothels. S.
W, australia Great Gostiny Dvor St. Petersburg, Russia The Passage St
Brighton Marina is an artificial marina situated in Brighton, England. It features a working harbour and residential housing alongside a variety of leisure, the construction of the marina itself took place between 1971 and 1979, although developments within it have continued ever since. The marina covers an area of approximately 127 acres, Brighton Corporation purchased the foreshore at the Black Rock site from the Crown Estate Commissioners for £50,000 on 1 March 1972. On the same day the land was leased to the Brighton Marina Company for a period of 125 years, the architect of the original plan was David Hodges of the Louis de Soissons Partnership. Construction of the marina commenced in 1971 and was opened for use in 1978, the marina was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 31 May 1979. The original funders were the National Westminster Bank, the Electricity Supply Pension Fund, a SeaJet service ran from the Marina to Dieppe in France between 1979 and 1980. Two Boeing Jetfoils were used, with three flights per day, the service suffered from poor reliability of the Jetfoils in the early stages, was restricted due to mid-channel wave height, and suffered during the French fishermens blockade of channel ports.
Brent Walker purchased the marina and adjoining land in the mid 1980s, george Walker kept his showpiece 72 staysail schooner Rich Harvest in the marina, but the yacht was sold and used in the infamous offshore off-licence project. Brunswick Developments purchased the marina for £9m from Brent Walkers receivers in 1996, in 1992 there was a trial of summer-season passenger services to Fécamp, using a small catamaran ferry. From 2003 to 2010, the marina hosted an annual, weekend event called The Big Splash and it featured street performers and aqua themed entertainment and coincided with the final days of the Brighton Festival. Wellcome Trust acquired Premier Marinas Limited from the BlackRock UK Property Fund in 2015, amongst previous owners, Brunswick Developments Group plc owned the head lease of Brighton Marina. The marine operations are leased to Premier Marinas, the underlease for the commercial activities was purchased by X-Leisure from Parkridge Developments in August 2004 for £65m. In 2013 Land Securities acquired majority control of X-Leisure, operated by Premier Marinas, the marina provides 1,600 berths along with various ancillary services including a boatyard and fuel berth.
Other marina services including boat sales, equipment shops and boat trips are provided by a variety of commercial operators, the RNLI operates an inshore lifeboat from a new Station built in 2000 on the west quay. On the east and south side of the marina there are a number of buildings made up of townhouses and apartments. Planning permission for a new district of the marina to contain 853 new apartments, cafés, the development is planned for the south-western part of the marina and would partly sit on stilts over the main spending beach. The centrepiece building is to be a skyscraper dubbed The Roaring Forties which would stand at 40 storeys tall and include a public viewing platform on the top floor. Two new pedestrian bridges are to be included in the scheme, one bridge to link the marina arms
The Westgate Shopping Centre is a shopping centre in central Oxford, England. It was built between 1970–72, designed by the City Architect Douglas Murray and built by Taylor Woodrow, excavations for the service basements destroyed evidence for over a twentieth of the remains of the original medieval town. The centre has closed since February 2016 for redevelopment and is planned to re-open on October 2017. Westgate is located at the west end of Queen Street, where the west gate of the city of Oxford used to be situated, a car park, including a multi-storey section, is attached to the shopping centre, with access from Oxpens Road. Plans to expand the centre, tripling it in size, are well underway. Bonn Square is close to the entrance and Oxford Castle is to the northwest. The Clarendon Centre, a shopping centre completed in 1984, is in Queen Street. In September 2004, The Westgate Partnership published plans for redevelopment of the Westgate area in Oxford and this was endorsed by Oxford City Council and Oxfordshire County Council in October 2004.
Since then, work has been undertaken on the design in consultation with local stakeholders, including the local community. A detailed planning application was submitted on 13 June 2006, on 9 March 2007, Capital Shopping Centres received approval for the extension and the partial redevelopment of the existing Westgate Shopping Centre. In addition, there will be around 2,000 jobs during construction, the Westgate Partnership has said it will support a programme of skills training in conjunction with the City Council, local colleges and job centres. This scheme includes a redesign of the centre of Oxford to pedestrianise the city, the scheme is entitled Transform Oxford. The Westgate shopping centre will reopen on 24 October 2017, in 2008, a local campaign group, called Oxford Against Westgate Expansion, was set up to oppose the redevelopment. An underground multi-storey car park is planned, which campaigners say may increase flooding in Oxford because if its location on the flood plain and they criticise the buildings design and say that it would be highly inefficient and contribute to climate change.
St Ebbes Castle Street, Oxford Westgate Oxford Westgate expansion plans
Xscape buildings are large, strikingly designed and unusually shaped buildings. They are named after the company that developed them, X-Leisure, typically they contain a real snow indoor ski slope, leisure facilities and related shops. There are currently two members of the chain, located in Central Milton Keynes and Yorkshire and a member in Braehead. Xscape Milton Keynes opened in 2000 and is a feature on the skyline of Central Milton Keynes as seen from the east. The Xscape is 44 metres high, making it the second tallest building in Milton Keynes after Mellish Court in Bletchley, Xscape Milton Keynes features a 170m long real-snow ski slope, a 16-screen cinema, a number of shops and restaurants and a climbing wall. An interesting point is the two funnels on the front of the building are sometimes mistaken for lifts or part of the cooling system. Xscape Milton Keynes and Xscape Yorkshire were designed by FaulknerBrowns Architects, located directly behind the Xscape building is a large square structure that houses an indoor skydiving centre named Airkix.
The cinema features 4DX, a type of 4D cinema which shows full-length films, as of August 2015, it is the only one of its kind in the UK. Xscape Yorkshire in Castleford, West Yorkshire is built in a style to Xscape Braehead – the many angular parts of the building form a shape similar to that of Xscape Milton Keynes. Xscape Yorkshire opened in October 2003 and has a 5,500 square metres roof, Xscape Yorkshire was a major development for what was before, an average sized town in West Yorkshire and is situated next to Junction 32, a popular outlet mall formerly known as Freeport. Xscape Yorkshire contains many shops, clubs and entertainment facilities including an alley, multi screen cinema, laser tag, crazy golf. The cinema is one of only seven cineworlds in the UK which has D-Box motion seating, Xscape formerly had a centre in Renfrew. It was sold to Intu Properties