A prefabricated building, informally a prefab, is a building, manufactured and constructed using prefabrication. It consists of factory-made components or units that are transported and assembled on-site to form the complete building. Buildings have been reassembled in another throughout history; this was true for mobile activities, or for new settlements. John Rollo described in 1801 earlier use of portable hospital buildings in the West Indies Possibly the first advertised prefab house was the "Manning cottage". A London carpenter, Henry Manning, constructed a house, built in components shipped and assembled by British emigrants; this was published at the time and a few still stand in Australia. One such is the Friends Meeting Adelaide; the peak year for the importation of portable buildings to Australia was 1853, when several hundred arrived. These have been identified as coming from Liverpool and Singapore. In Barbados the Chattel house was a form of prefabricated building, developed by emancipated slaves who had limited rights to build upon land they did not own.
As the buildings were moveable they were regarded as chattels. In 1855 during the Crimean War, after Florence Nightingale wrote a letter to The Times, Isambard Kingdom Brunel was commissioned to design a prefabricated modular hospital. In five months he designed the Renkioi Hospital: a 1,000 patient hospital, with innovations in sanitation, ventilation and a flushing toilet. Fabricator William Eassie constructed the required 16 units in Gloucester Docks, shipped directly to the Dardanelles. Only used from March 1856 to September 1857, it reduced the death rate from 42% to 3.5%. The world's first prefabricated, pre-cast panelled apartment blocks were pioneered in Liverpool. A process was invented by city engineer John Alexander Brodie, whose inventive genius had him inventing the football goal net; the tram stables at Walton in Liverpool followed in 1906. The idea was not extensively adopted in Britain, however was adopted elsewhere in Eastern Europe. Prefabricated homes were produced during the Gold Rush in the United States, when kits were produced to enable Californian prospectors to construct accommodation.
Homes were available in kit form by mail order in the United States in 1908. Prefabricated housing was popular during the Second World War due to the need for mass accommodation for military personnel; the United States used Quonset huts as military buildings, in the United Kingdom prefabricated buildings used included Nissen huts and Bellman Hangars.'Prefabs' were built after the war as a means of and cheaply providing quality housing as a replacement for the housing destroyed during the Blitz. The proliferation of prefabricated housing across the country was a result of the Burt Committee and the Housing Act 1944. Under the Ministry of Works Emergency Factory Made housing programme, a specification was drawn up and bid on by various private construction and manufacturing companies. After approval by the MoW, companies could bid on Council led development schemes, resulting in whole estates of prefabs constructed to provide accommodation for those made homeless by the War and ongoing slum clearance.
160,000 had been built in the UK by 1948 at a cost of close to £216 million. The largest single prefab estate in Britain was at Belle Vale, where more than 1,100 were built after World War 2; the estate was demolished in the 1960s amid much controversy as the prefabs were popular with residents at the time. Prefabs were aimed at families, had an entrance hall, two bedrooms, a bathroom —, a novel innovation for many Britons at that time, a separate toilet, a living room and an equipped kitchen. Construction materials included steel, timber or asbestos, depending on the type of dwelling; the aluminium Type B2 prefab was produced as four pre-assembled sections which could be transported by lorry anywhere in the country. The Universal House was given to the Chiltern Open Air Museum after 40 years temporary use; the Mark 3 was manufactured by Rickmansworth. The United States used prefabricated housing for troops for GIs returning home. Prefab classrooms were popular with UK schools increasing their rolls during the baby boom of the 1950s and 1960s.
Many buildings were designed with a five-ten year life span, but have far exceeded this, with a number surviving today. In 2002, for example, the city of Bristol still had residents living in 700 examples. Many UK councils have been in the process of demolishing the last surviving examples of Second World War prefabs in order to comply with the British government's Decent Homes Standard, which came into effect in 2010. There has, been a recent revival in prefabricated methods of construction in order to compensate for the United Kingdom's current housing shortage. Architects are incorporating modern designs into the prefabricated houses of today. Prefab housing should no longer be compared to a mobile home in terms of appearance, but to that of a complex modernist design. There has been an increase in the use of "green" materials in the construction of these prefab houses. Consumers can select between different environmentally friendly finishes and wall systems. Since these homes are built in parts, it is easy for a home owner to add additional rooms
Seven Chances is a 1925 American comedy silent film directed by and starring Buster Keaton, based on the play of the same name by Roi Cooper Megrue, produced in 1916 by David Belasco. Additional cast members include Snitz Edwards and Ruth Dwyer. Jean Arthur, a future star, has an uncredited supporting role; the film's opening scenes were shot in early Technicolor, this rare color footage still survives on the Kino International special edition DVD print. Jimmy Shannon is the junior partner in the brokerage firm of Meekin and Shannon, on the brink of financial ruin. A lawyer manages to inform Jimmy of the terms of his grandfather's will, he will inherit seven million dollars if he is married by 7:00 p.m. on his 27th birthday, which happens to be that same day. Shannon seeks out his sweetheart, Mary Jones, who accepts his proposal. However, when he clumsily explains why they have to get married that day, she breaks up with him, he returns to the country club to break the news to the lawyer. Though Jimmy's heart is set on Mary, Meekin persuades him to try proposing to other women to save them both from ruin or possibly jail.
He has Jimmy look in the club's dining room. Each turns him down. In desperation, Jimmy asks any woman; the hat check girl rejects him. He finds one who agrees, but it turns out she is underage when her mother spots her and takes her away. Meanwhile, Mary's mother persuades her to reconsider, she sends the hired hand to deliver it. Unaware of this, Meekin has his partner's predicament printed in the newspaper, asking would-be brides to go to the Broad Street Church at 5 p.m. Hordes of veiled women descend on the place; when they spot Jimmy, they begin to fight over him. The clergyman appears and announces he believes it all to be a practical joke. Infuriated, the women chase after Jimmy. While hiding, he gets Mary's note, he races to Mary's house, pursued by furious females. Along the way, he accidentally starts an avalanche; when he gets to Mary's home, Meekin shows him his watch. Mary still wants to marry money or no, but he refuses to let her share his impending disgrace; when he leaves, he sees by the church clock.
He and Mary wed just in time. Buster Keaton as Jimmy Shannon T. Roy Barnes as His Partner Snitz Edwards as His Lawyer Ruth Dwyer as His Sweetheart Frances Raymond as Her Mother Erwin Connelly as The Clergyman Jules Cowles as The Hired Hand Jean Arthur as the receptionist at the country club Joseph Schenck bought the rights to Roi Cooper Megrue's play Seven Chances thinking it may be a good project for either Keaton or for Norma, Constance or Natalie Talmadge; the play had been an enormous hit on Broadway and touring and Schenck paid stage director John McDermott $25,000 with the promise that he would direct the film. Schenck had Keaton make the film instead. Keaton had hated the play and called it a sappy farce, but he owed money to Schenck and had to make the film to settle his debt. Shooting began in January 1925. Keaton intended to finish with a fadeout of him still running from the mob of women, but unable to come up with any better ending. However, during a preview, the audience laughed most loudly when Keaton's character accidentally dislodged a rock, which struck two others, sending them tumbling down after the hero.
Keaton had 150 papier-mâché and chicken wire fakes made in various sizes up to 8 feet in diameter for what is now considered one of his most memorable sequences. Keaton thought that the tumbling rocks scene saved it. Keaton cast Doris Deane as one of the "7 chance" fiancées, as a favor to his friend Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle; the film was another box office success for Keaton, grossing $598,288 domestically. When released, Mordaunt Hall, the film critic for The New York Times, gave the film a mixed review, wrote, "After viewing Buster Keaton's latest comedy, Seven Chances, one is justified in assuming; the result inclines one's belief in the old adage concerning too many cooks, as although there are quite a number of good twists some of them have been produced in haste. The ideas did not have time to ripen and are therefore put before the audience in a rather sour state."Film critic Dennis Schwartz liked the film and wrote, "A less ambitious but hilarious Buster Keaton comedy. It's scripted by a team of writers.
This minor film is based on a one-joke premise, but it has one of the greatest chase scenes. Keaton proves he's a master at building the comedy until it reaches its absolute breaking point."Time Out London gave the film a positive review and wrote, "Less ambitious and less concerned with plastic values than the best of Keaton, this is a dazzlingly balletic comedy in which Buster has a matter of hours to acquire the wife on which a seven million dollar inheritance depends... From this leisurely start, the film takes off into a fantastically elaborate, gloriously inventive chase sequence, in which Buster escapes the mob of pursuing harridans only to find an escalating avalanche of rocks taking over at his heels as he hurtles downhill. Added only after an initial preview, the rocks make for one of the great Keaton action gags." British Film Institute Awards
Roscoe Conkling "Fatty" Arbuckle was an American silent film actor, comedian and screenwriter. Starting at the Selig Polyscope Company he moved to Keystone Studios, where he worked with Mabel Normand and Harold Lloyd, he discovered Buster Keaton and Bob Hope. Arbuckle was one of the most popular silent stars of the 1910s, soon became one of the highest paid actors in Hollywood, signing a contract in 1920 with Paramount Pictures for US$14,000.00. Between November 1921 and April 1922, Arbuckle was the defendant in three publicized trials for the rape and manslaughter of actress Virginia Rappe. Rappe had fallen ill at a party hosted by Arbuckle at the St. Francis Hotel in San Francisco in September 1921. Arbuckle was accused by Rappe's acquaintance of accidentally killing Rappe. After the first two trials, which resulted in hung juries, Arbuckle was acquitted in the third trial and received a formal written statement of apology from the jury. Despite Arbuckle's acquittal, the scandal has overshadowed his legacy as a pioneering comedian.
Following the trials, his films were banned and he was publicly ostracized. Although the ban on his films was lifted within a year, Arbuckle only worked sparingly through the 1920s, he worked as a film director under the alias William Goodrich. He was able to return to acting, making short two-reel comedies in 1932 for Warner Bros, he died in his sleep of a heart attack in 1933 at age 46 on the same day he signed a contract with Warner Brothers to make a feature film. Roscoe Conkling Arbuckle was born on March 24, 1887, in Smith Center, one of nine children of Mary E. "Mollie" Gordon and William Goodrich Arbuckle. He weighed in excess of 13 lb at birth and, as both parents had slim builds, his father believed the child was not his, he named the baby after a politician whom he despised, Republican senator Roscoe Conkling of New York. The birth was traumatic for Mollie and resulted in chronic health problems that contributed to her death 12 years later; when Arbuckle was nearly two his family moved to California.
Roscoe had a "wonderful" singing voice and was agile. At the age of eight, with his mother's encouragement, he first performed on stage with Frank Bacon's company during their stopover in Santa Ana. Arbuckle enjoyed performing and continued on until his mother's death in 1899 when he was 12, his father, who had always treated him harshly, now refused to support him and Arbuckle got work doing odd jobs in a hotel. Arbuckle was in the habit of singing while he worked and was overheard by a customer, a professional singer; the customer invited him to perform in an amateur talent show. The show consisted of the audience judging acts by clapping or jeering with bad acts pulled off the stage by a shepherd's crook. Arbuckle sang and did some clowning around, but did not impress the audience, he saw the crook emerge from the wings and to avoid it somersaulted into the orchestra pit in obvious panic. The audience went wild, he not only won the competition but began a career in vaudeville. In 1904, Sid Grauman invited Arbuckle to sing in his new Unique Theater in San Francisco, beginning a long friendship between the two.
He joined the Pantages Theatre Group touring the West Coast of the United States and in 1906 played the Orpheum Theater in Portland, Oregon, in a vaudeville troupe organized by Leon Errol. Arbuckle became the group took their show on tour. On August 6, 1908, Arbuckle married Minta Durfee, the daughter of Charles Warren Durfee and Flora Adkins. Durfee starred in many early comedy films with Arbuckle, they made a strange couple, as Minta was short and petite while Arbuckle tipped the scales at 300 lbs. Arbuckle joined the Morosco Burbank Stock vaudeville company and went on a tour of China and Japan returning in early 1909. Arbuckle began his film career with the Selig Polyscope Company in July 1909 when he appeared in Ben's Kid. Arbuckle appeared sporadically in Selig one-reelers until 1913, moved to Universal Pictures and became a star in producer-director Mack Sennett's Keystone Cops comedies Although his large size was undoubtedly part of his comedic appeal, Arbuckle was self-conscious about his weight and refused to use it to get "cheap" laughs.
For example, he would not allow himself to be stuck in a chair. Arbuckle was a talented singer. After famed operatic tenor Enrico Caruso heard him sing, he urged the comedian to "...give up this nonsense you do for a living, with training you could become the second greatest singer in the world." Despite his physical size, Arbuckle was remarkably acrobatic. Director Mack Sennett, when recounting his first meeting with Arbuckle, noted that he "skipped up the stairs as as Fred Astaire", his comedies are noted as rollicking and fast-paced, have many chase scenes, feature sight gags. Arbuckle was fond of the "pie in the face", a comedy cliché that has come to symbolize silent-film-era comedy itself; the earliest known pie thrown in film was in the June 1913 Keystone one-reeler A Noise from the Deep, starring Arbuckle and frequent screen partner Mabel Normand. In
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound. In silent films for entertainment, the plot may be conveyed by the use of title cards, written indications of the plot and key dialogue lines; the idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, the introduction of synchronized dialogue became practical only in the late 1920s with the perfection of the Audion amplifier tube and the advent of the Vitaphone system. During the silent-film era that existed from the mid-1890s to the late 1920s, a pianist, theater organist—or in large cities, a small orchestra—would play music to accompany the films. Pianists and organists would play either from improvisation; the term silent film is a retronym—a term created to retroactively distinguish something. Early sound films, starting with The Jazz Singer in 1927, were variously referred to as the "talkies," "sound films," or "talking pictures." Within a decade, the widespread production of silent films for popular entertainment had ceased, the industry had moved into the sound era, in which movies were accompanied by synchronized sound recordings of spoken dialogue and sound effects.
Most early motion pictures are considered lost because the nitrate film used in that era was unstable and flammable. Additionally, many films were deliberately destroyed because they had little value in the era before home video, it has been claimed that around 75 percent of silent films have been lost, though these estimates may be inaccurate due to a lack of numerical data. The earliest precursors to film began with image projection through the use of a device known as the magic lantern, which utilized a glass lens, a shutter, a persistent light source to project images from glass slides onto a wall; these slides were hand-painted, after the advent of photography in the 19th century, still photographs were sometimes used. Thus the invention of a practical photography apparatus preceded cinema by only fifty years; the next significant step toward the invention of cinema was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828—only four years after Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called "Persistence of Vision."
Roget showed that when a series of still images is shown at a considerable speed in front of a viewer's eye, the images merge into one registered image that appears to show movement. This is an optical illusion, since the image is not moving; this experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device that spun at a high speed a disk with an image on its surface. The three features necessary for motion pictures to work were "a camera with sufficiently high shutter speed, a filmstrip capable of taking multiple exposures swiftly, means of projecting the developed images on a screen." The first projected proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge between 1877 and 1880. Muybridge set up a row of cameras along a racetrack and timed image exposures to capture the many stages of a horse's gallop; the oldest surviving film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a two-second film of people walking in "Oakwood streets" garden, titled Roundhay Garden Scene.
The development of American inventor Thomas Edison's Kinetograph, a photographic device that captured sequential images, his Kinetoscope, a device for viewing those images, allowed for the creation and exhibition of short films. Edison made a business of selling Kinetograph and Kinetoscope equipment, which laid the foundation for widespread film production. Due to Edison's lack of securing an international patent on his film inventions, similar devices were "invented" around the world. In France, for example and Louis Lumière created the Cinématographe, which proved to be a more portable and practical device than both of Edison's as it combined a camera, film processor, projector in one unit. In contrast to Edison's "peepshow"-style kinetoscope, which only one person could watch through a viewer, the cinematograph allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple people, their first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture. The invention of celluloid film, strong and flexible facilitated the making of motion pictures.
This film was 35 mm wide and was pulled using four sprocket holes, which became the industry standard. This doomed the cinematograph; the art of motion pictures grew into full maturity in the "silent era". The height of the silent era was a fruitful period, full of artistic innovation; the film movements of Classical Hollywood as well as French Impressionism, German Expressionism, Soviet Montage began in this period. Silent filmmakers pioneered the art form to the extent that every style and genre of film-making of the 20th and 21st centuries has its artistic roots in the silent era; the silent era was a pioneering one from a technical point of view. Three-point lighting, the close-up, long shot and continuity editing all became prevalent long before silent films were replaced by "talking pictures" or "talkies" in the late 1920s; some scholars claim that the artistic quality of cinema decreased for several years, during the early 1930s, until film directors and production staff adapted to the new "talkies" around the late 1930s.
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Elgin Lessley was an American hand-crank cameraman of the silent film era—a period of filmmaking when all special effects work had to be produced inside the camera during filming. Though Lessley worked earlier with Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle, with Harry Langdon, he is best known for the groundbreaking effects he produced with Buster Keaton, who dubbed him "the human metronome" for his ability to crank at any requested speed. Lessley's most striking effects were in The Playhouse and Sherlock, Jr.. In The Playhouse, through use of a specially shuttered lens and repeated back-cranking and re-cranking, Lessley allowed Keaton to appear as up to nine characters interacting with one another. In Sherlock, Jr. Lessley's careful positioning of camera and actor in various locations produced the effect of a man stuck in a movie where his location keeps changing as he struggles to keep up. Lessley retired from filmmaking after shooting The Cameraman with Buster Keaton in 1928. Elgin Lessley was born on June 10, 1883, to Orpha and Shelton Lessley, joining a household with sisters Annette and Ora, uncles Herbert and Claude Brooks, grandfather Burton Brooks.
Another sister, Bindy joined the family. Shelton, a Confederate Army veteran and operated a general store with two sons from a previous marriage. In 1910, the family relocated to Colorado Springs, where Elgin worked as a window trimmer in the family's department store. After Shelton's death in 1911, the family relocated to Los Angeles. Lessley met his wife, Blanche Olmstead, in Colorado, they married in 1918, at some point the couple settled in Culver City, California. In 1911, at the age of 28, Lessley became a cameraman for American Wildwest, the renamed American branch of Star Film Company operated by French filmmaker Gaston Méliès, brother of Georges Méliès. American Midwest made one-reel Westerns. Lessley isn't known to be credited on any of these films, so it is difficult to determine which ones he worked on. Filming was done outdoors, including interior scenes which were shot on sets built outside and topped with cotton screens to control the sunlight. Thus, Lessley got his start in cinematography in outdoor settings, ideal for working with Arbuckle and Keaton, who preferred location shoots to studio shoots.
Gaston Méliès took his film company touring in the South Seas and Asia in the summer of 1912. Lessley joined them in Yokohama in April 1913, he worked there on short documentaries. Again, lacking screen credits, it is difficult to determine which films Lessley himself shot, but candidates include A Japanese Funeral, Home Life in Japan, The Rice Industry in Japan. Méliès wound down the tour and sent his crew back to the United States on May 10, 1913. Lessley returned to Los Angeles, near his sister Nettie, went to work for Mack Sennett at Keystone Studios. Lessley joined Keystone Studios in 1913. Since most early silent films are lost, cameramen weren't credited on-screen anyway, it's impossible to determine for certain which films Lessley shot, his first screen credit is for The Waiters' Ball in 1916, but Lessley was seen working on He Did and He Didn't with Roscoe Arbuckle and Mabel Normand in late 1915. Picture Play writer Will Rex described the workaday life Lessley was part of: The studio was bristling with activity.
Roscoe Arbuckle... was superintending the construction of a set, aided by Ferris Hartman, his co-worker, a dozen prop men. A dozen rough and ready comedians were practicing falls down a stairway. Lessley was on the payroll for $55 per week, Arbuckle evidently worked him hard for his money, shooting 10,000 - 15,000 feet of film for a single two-reel comedy; the rough and tumble atmosphere on an Arbuckle shoot went far in preparing Lessley for his work with Buster Keaton, who had standing orders for his cameramen to keep filming his risky stunts no matter what, until he either yelled "Cut" or was killed. Arbuckle launched his own studio, with Joseph Schenck in 1917. Lessley wasn't part of the original Comique crew, he shot a number of movies starring Arbuckle's nephew, Al St. John, including A Self-Made Hero, The Stone Age, A Winning Loser, he did The Dangers of a Bride with Gloria Swanson, A Clever Dummy with Ben Turpin. Arbuckle had recruited Buster Keaton, when Lessley came aboard Comique in 1918, he began their working relationship with The Bell Boy.
Lessley filmed Arbuckle, Keaton, St. John, Arbuckle's dog Luke in the subsequent Comique films, The Hayseed, The Garage. Though busy with Comique, Lessley continued to work with Gloria Swanson, filming Her Decision and You Can't Believe Everything, he filmed Pauline Stark in Irish Eyes, The Atom, Daughter Angele, Alias Mary Brown. Once Arbuckle moved to feature films in 1920, Keaton took over the old Comique studio, renamed Buster Keaton Studios, retained Lessley as his cameraman. Lessley shot all 19 of Keaton's shorts, six of Keaton's feature films, it was in his work for Keaton. When filming The Playhouse in 1921, Keaton was recovering from a broken ankle, thus was unable to perform his usual death-defying and physically punishing stunts, he decided to focus instead on special effects. He and Lessley went to work on seeing how many Ke
National Film Registry
The National Film Registry is the United States National Film Preservation Board's selection of films deserving of preservation. The NFPB, established by the National Film Preservation Act of 1988, was reauthorized by acts of Congress in 1992, 1996, 2005, again in October 2008; the NFPB's mission, to which the NFR contributes, is to ensure the survival and increased public availability of America's film heritage. The 1996 law created the non-profit National Film Preservation Foundation which, although affiliated with the NFPB, raises money from the private sector; the NFPB adds to the NFR up to 25 "culturally or aesthetically significant films" each year, showcasing the range and diversity of American film heritage to increase awareness for its preservation. A film becomes eligible for inclusion ten years after its original release. For the first selection in 1989, the public nominated 1,000 films for consideration. Members of the NFPB developed individual ballots of possible films for inclusion.
The ballots were tabulated into a list of 25 films, modified by Librarian of Congress James H. Billington and his staff at the Library for the final selection. Since 1997, members of the public have been able to nominate up to 50 films a year for the NFPB and Librarian to consider; the NFR includes films ranging from Hollywood classics to orphan films. A film is not required to be feature-length, nor is it required to have been theatrically released in the traditional sense. In addition, television programs and foreign films are not excluded from consideration, although American films are given preference; the Registry contains newsreels, silent films, student films, experimental films, short films, music videos, films out of copyright protection or in the public domain, film serials, home movies, documentaries and independent films. As of the 2018 listing, there are 750 films in the Registry; the earliest listed film is Newark Athlete, the most recent is Brokeback Mountain. Counting the 11 multi-year serials in the NFR once each by year of completion, the year with the most films selected is 1939, with 19 films from that year chosen.
The time between a film's debut and its selection varies greatly. The longest span is 121 years; the shortest span is the minimum 10 years. This table is through the 2018 induction list. For purposes of this list, multi-year serials are counted only once by year of completion. Category:United States National Film Registry films National Recording Registry These Amazing Shadows, a 2011 documentary film that tells the history and importance of the registry National Film Registry homepage Classic Movie Hub: National Film Registry List These Amazing Shadows site for Independent Lens on PBS