City of Adelaide (1864)
City of Adelaide is a clipper ship, built in Sunderland and launched on 7 May 1864. The ship was commissioned in the Royal Navy as HMS Carrick between 1923 and 1948 and, after decommissioning, was known as Carrick until 2001. At a conference convened by HRH The Duke of Edinburgh in 2001, the decision was made to revert the ship's name to City of Adelaide, the duke formally renamed her at a ceremony in 2013. City of Adelaide was built by William Pile, Hay and Co. for transporting passengers and goods between Britain and Australia. Between 1864 and 1887 the ship made 23 annual return voyages from London and Plymouth to Adelaide, South Australia. During this period she played an important part in the immigration of Australia. On the return voyages she carried passengers and copper from Adelaide and Port Augusta to London. From 1869 to 1885 she was part of Harrold Brothers' "Adelaide Line" of clippers. After 1887 the ship carried coal around the British coast, timber across the Atlantic. In 1893 she became a floating hospital in Southampton, in 1923 was purchased by the Royal Navy.
Converted as a training ship, she was renamed HMS Carrick to avoid confusion with the newly commissioned HMAS Adelaide. HMS Carrick was based in Scotland until 1948 when she was decommissioned and donated to the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Club, towed into central Glasgow for use as the club's headquarters. Carrick remained on the River Clyde until 1989. In order to safeguard the vessel she was protected as a listed building, but in 1991 she sank at her mooring. Carrick was recovered by the Scottish Maritime Museum the following year, moved to a private slipway adjacent to the museum's site in Irvine. Restoration work began, but funding ceased in 1999, from 2000 the future of the ship was in doubt. After being served with an eviction notice by the owners of the slipway, the Scottish Maritime Museum was forced to seek the deconstruction of the ship on more than one occasion, while rescue proposals were developed by groups based in Sunderland and South Australia. In 2010, the Scottish Government decided that the ship would be moved to Adelaide, to be preserved as a museum ship.
In September 2013 the ship moved by barge from Scotland to the Netherlands to prepare for transport to Australia. In late November 2013, loaded on the deck of a cargo ship, City of Adelaide departed Europe bound for Port Adelaide, where she arrived on 3 February 2014. City of Adelaide is the world's oldest surviving clipper ship, of only two that survive — the other is Cutty Sark. With Cutty Sark and HMS Gannet, City of Adelaide is one of only three surviving ocean-going ships of composite construction to survive. City of Adelaide is one of three surviving sailing ships, of these the only passenger ship, to have taken emigrants from the British Isles. City of Adelaide is the only surviving purpose-built passenger sailing ship. Adding to her significance as an emigrant ship, City of Adelaide is the last survivor of the timber trade between North America and the United Kingdom; as this trade peaked at the same time as conflicts in Europe, a great mass of refugees sought cheap passage on the timber-trade ships, that would otherwise be returning empty, creating an unprecedented influx of new immigrants in North America.
Having been built in the years prior to Lloyd's Register publishing their rules for composite ships, City of Adelaide is an important example in the development of naval architecture. The UK's Advisory Committee on National Historic Ships describes the significance of City of Adelaide in these terms: She highlights the early fast passenger-carrying and general cargo trade to the Antipodes, her composite construction illustrates technical development in 19th shipbuilding techniques and scientific progress in metallurgy and her self-reefing top sails demonstrate the beginnings of modern labour saving technologies. Her service on the London to Adelaide route between 1864 and 1888 gives her an unrivalled associate status as one of the ships contributing to the growth of the Australian nation. In recognition of her significance, until departing the United Kingdom in 2013, City of Adelaide was an A-listed structure in Scotland, part of the National Historic Fleet of the United Kingdom, listed in the Core Collection of the United Kingdom.
City of Adelaide was designed to carry both passengers and cargo between Australia. Cabins could accommodate first-class and second-class passengers, the hold could be fitted out for carrying steerage-class emigrants when needed. City of Adelaide is of composite construction with timber planking on a wrought-iron frame; this method of construction provides the structural strength of an iron ship combined with the insulation of a timber hull. Unlike iron ships, where copper would cause corrosion in contact with the iron, the timber bottoms of composite ships could be sheathed with copper to prevent fouling; the iron frames meant. Composite ships were therefore some of the fastest ships afloat. Composite ships were built in the short period from c. 1860 to 1880. City of Adelaide was built in 1864 before Lloyd's Register recognised and endorsed composite ships in 1867. Before this, all composite ships were labelled by Lloyds as being "Experimental". Being a developmental technology in 1864 meant that many of the structural features on City of Adelaide are now regarded as being'over-engineered' when compared to other composite ships like Cutty Sark.
For example, the frame spacing on City of Adelaide is much closer
Torrens Island is an island in the Australian state of South Australia located in the Port River Estuary between the Port River and Barker Inlet, about 15 kilometres northwest of the state capital of Adelaide. Since European settlement of Adelaide in 1836, it has been used for a number of purposes. Being uninhabited, an island, adjacent to Port Adelaide, near Outer Harbor, Torrens Island was used as the site of a Quarantine Station for new arrivals to South Australia. One example of its use was during the Boonah crisis. There were two quarantine stations on the site at different times. Tours of the heritage-listed Quarantine Station are conducted by the South Australian Maritime Museum; the Torrens Island Internment Camp was a World War I detention camp which held up to 400 men of German or Austro-Hungarian background between 9 October 1914 and 16 August 1915. There are two power stations on Torrens Island: Torrens Island Power Station, completed in 1967, since 2007 operated by AGL Energy. Quarantine Power Station and operated since 2002 by Origin Energy.
A proposed third station known as the Barker Inlet Power Station was announced in 2017 with construction commenced in the third quarter of the year with the aim to commission the new station during the first quarter of 2019, Torrens Island has been located within the boundaries of the following protected areas to varying extents since 1963, 1973 and 2005 – the Torrens Island Conservation Park which covers all of the island down to low water with exception to the most of land associated with the former quarantine station and the land associated with the Quarantine Power Station and Torrens Island Power Stations, the Barker Inlet-St Kilda Aquatic Reserve which covers all of the east side of the island located below high water and the Adelaide Dolphin Sanctuary which overlays the entire island. List of islands of Australia List of power stations in South Australia
Port Adelaide is a port-side region of Adelaide 14 kilometres northwest of the Adelaide CBD. It is the namesake of the City of Port Adelaide Enfield council, a suburb, a federal and state electoral division and is the main port for the city of Adelaide. Port Adelaide played an important role in the formative decades of Adelaide and South Australia, with the port being early Adelaide's main supply and information link to the rest of the world. Prior to European settlement Port Adelaide was covered with mangrove swamps and tidal mud flats, lay next to a narrow creek; the entrance to this creek, the Port River, was first reported in 1831. It was explored by Europeans when Captain Henry Jones entered in 1834; the creek's main channel was fed by numerous smaller creeks, was 2–4 fathoms deep. The navigable channel was narrow and the creek soon faded into swamps and sandhills. At low tide the channel was surrounded by mudbanks. Dry and solid land ended near present-day Alberton. Colonel William Light began exploring the area in late 1836 while deciding on a site for the colony of South Australia's port.
After initial trepidation, he reported to the Colonisation Commissioners that the location was a suitable harbour. By this time it had acquired the name "the port creek". Light's choice of separating the port and Adelaide was opposed by a few merchants, a newspaper and Governor John Hindmarsh; this opposition was based on the distance between them. The division of power in the colony meant, he kept the port separate principally due to the lack of fresh water at the port. The effective foundation day of Port Adelaide was 6 January 1837. On this day the first harbourmaster, Captain Thomas Lipson, took up residence with his family on the edge of Port Creek; the new port was used for shipping that month, passengers began disembarking the next. At this point the site was known as The Port Creek Settlement; when founded, the port's land was just higher than the surrounding tidal flats. The port had a significant problem—reported in letters from Light and complaints to the Governor from ship owners—of a lack of a fresh water supply.
At first the river was not used for larger ships. They had to land at Holdfast Bay; this early port was plagued by mosquitoes, was a comparative long distance from Adelaide, had few amenities and had a risk of inundation when the tide was high. By 1840 it had acquired the name "Port Misery", it was first coined in a book credited to T. Horton James a pseudonym, comes from a line stating: The original drawings of Adelaide City Plan by Light show that he envisaged a canal between Port Adelaide and the City of Adelaide; the canal was not built. A plan of a proposed "Grand Junction Canal" between Adelaide and the North Arm, by engineer Edward Snell was produced in 1851, with an exhibition of his "A Bird's Eye View of the Country Between Adelaide and the North Arm", showing the proposed canal. By early 1838, large vessels could only get as far as the end of Gawler Reach. Arrivals had to use smaller boats, traverse the mangrove swamps at low tide and climb sandhills to reach the road to Adelaide. A canal for the loading of sailing ships was constructed in 1838, town acreages nearby surveyed and sold.
By the years end deficiencies of the canal were clear. The canal was dry for most of the day and cargo movement slow. Seagoing ships had to stop some distance from the settlement due to the mudbanks. Cargo and passengers covered the remaining distance in ships' boats. All had to traverse 2–300 m of swamps after landing to reach sandhills, the road to Adelaide; the new port's first maritime casualty was the migrant ship Tam O'Shanter that ran aground on the outer sand bar. A small waterway in the port was named after the ship; the port's initial location was intended to be temporary. The location for a proper port was chosen by Governor George Gawler, between the original settlement and the Governor's preferred location at the junction of the North Arm and the Port River. One reason for the chosen site was Gawler's instructions on leaving England to limit expenditure. Gawler awarded a tender allowing the South Australian Company to construct a private wharf, again to limit government expenditure.
Along with the wharf they were to construct a roadway. The roadway was to be a 100 feet wide and run from the port to dry land, a distance of 1 mile; this first wharf was built near the end of the modern Commercial Road. The wharf, known as Maclaren Wharf, was finished in 1840. McLaren Wharf was 15 feet deep at low tide. Contrary to usual practice, it was allowed to be built at the low water mark, which made construction simpler; the Wharf and road were opened by Governor Gawler in October 1840. The opening procession from the old port to the new included over 1,000 people; the procession included 600 horsemen and 450 vehicles all of the colony's wheeled transportation. At the opening a parcel was ceremonially landed from the barque Guiana. Upon opening, the port could accommodate vessels up to 530 long tons. In May 1841 John Hill became the original holder of the land grant for all the land south of St Vincent Street, reaching to Tam O'Shanter Creek
Alberton Oval is located in Alberton, a north-western suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. The ground is a public park and leased to the Port Adelaide Football Club for Australian rules football. With the nearby Queenstown Oval built upon in 1876, the Alberton and Queenstown Council opted to construct a cricketing ground on the land adjacent Brougham Place in 1876; the land was donated by the former Mayor of John Formby. The Queen and Albert Oval was opened on 8 November 1877 for a game between the touring Tasmanian cricket team and a selected eleven of the Queen and Albert Cricket Association. While several teams played at the Alberton Oval in the ground's early days, it is most famous for being the training and administration base for the Port Adelaide Football Club since it played its first game on 15 May 1880 and defeated the original, now-defunct Kensington Football Club 1-nil. Port Adelaide still plays its SANFL games at the ground, although AFL games are played at Adelaide Oval and, between 1997 and 2013, at AAMI Stadium.
All of the club's teams, including its AFL team and its SANFL League and Academy teams, conduct their principal trainings at the ground. The Allan Scott Power Headquarters stands adjacent to the oval. So too does The Port Club, a social venue for the club's supporters and players, opened on 14 November 1954. Alberton is regarded as the "spiritual home" of Port Adelaide due to the club playing all of their homes games there since commencing its tenancy; the club's AFL team plays one or two trial games at the ground during the pre-season. Many notable Australian rules footballers have played for Port Adelaide on the ground, including 3 time Brownlow and Sandover Medalist Haydn Bunton Sr, four time SANFL Magarey Medal winner and club games record holder Russell Ebert, nine time premiership coach Fos Williams, local junior and future Carlton player Craig Bradley, 1992 Best and Fairest winner Nathan Buckley, 1993 Brownlow Medallist Gavin Wanganeen and Port Adelaide's first AFL coach, John Cahill who coached the club to 10 SANFL premierships.
For a long time such was the Port Adelaide Football Club's dominance at Alberton Oval there has been conjecture that opposition teams became cursed as they passed by Cheltenham cemetery on the way to the ground. Malcolm Blight as coach for Woodville played up the curse for his players in the lead up to a match, parking the bus before the cemetery, making his players walk past Cheltenham cemetery, it didn't work and Woodville still lost but Blight suggests his team would've lost by more if he didn't make everyone walk past. 1888 September 17 – Port Adelaide vs. Broken Hill 1913 July 26 – Port Adelaide vs. North Fremantle 1925 August 25 – Port Adelaide vs. South Fremantle 1931 October 15 – Port Adelaide vs. Geelong 1968 – Port Adelaide vs. Melbourne 1968 – Port Adelaide vs. South Melbourne 1969 March 22 – Port Adelaide vs. Melbourne 1971 March 14 – Port Adelaide vs. Melbourne 1979 March 31 – Port Adelaide vs. Footscray 1981 March 14 – Port Adelaide vs. Richmond 1997 February 9 – Port Adelaide vs. Richmond 2014 March 8 – Port Adelaide vs. St Kilda 2019 March 9 – Port Adelaide vs. North Melbourne 33.24 – Port Adelaide def.
South Adelaide. 160 – Port Adelaide def. West Adelaide. 16 – Tim Evans, Port Adelaide 31 – Port Adelaide Alberton Oval was used as a cricket ground during summer between 1877 and 1996. Following the opening game between Tasmania and the Queen and Albert Cricket Association in 1877, the ground became the home of the new Port Adelaide Cricket Club in 1897 and remained so until the end of 1996. In the early years attention needed to be paid to the state of the outfield. An example of this need was when Port Adelaide batsman G. S. P. Jones was able to run 8 while making 143 not out against West Torrens in 1904-05 because the fieldsman could not find the ball amongst the weeds. Cricket and football shared the use of the oval for a century, until the Port Adelaide Football Club was elevated into the AFL in 1997 and required the full-year use of the ground; the cricket club now plays games at the Port Reserve in Port Adelaide. The grounds main stands and features are: Opened in 1903; the oldest remaining structure at Alberton Oval, the Fos Williams stand houses the SANFL change rooms and media boxes.
It is the location of plaques commemorating members of the Williams family. Opened in 1964, the grandstand houses the Port Club bistro, Bob McLean sportsbar, Port Store and upstairs function room. Built with donations provided by businessman Allan Scott, government grants and funding provided by the sale of personalised pavers laid around the Oval precinct, the Headquarters house the administration of the Port Adelaide Football Club along with the AFL training facilities; the Headquarters have a balcony that overlooks the ground. In 2010 the HQ was upgraded, the cornerstone of, the Mark Williams Facility, which allows players to train indoors during extreme weather conditions. Named after Port Adelaide and South Australian cricketer Norman Williams, the scoreboard is located on the South East pocket; the attendance record at the ground for an Australian rules football match was 22,738 during a match against Norwood on 11 June 1977. Official website of the Port Adelaide Football Club Port Adelaide Cricket Club Alberton Oval at Austadiums
Yelta is a steam tug which operated in the Australian state of South Australia from 1949 to 1976 within both the Port River and the waters of Gulf St Vincent adjoining the river's mouth. After being laid up for about nine years, she was purchased in 1985 by the Government of South Australia for addition to the collection of the South Australian Maritime Museum as a museum ship; as of 1985, she was considered to be the only remaining steam-powered tug operating within Australian waters. Yelta was built at the Cockatoo Island Dockyard in Sydney, New South Wales, during 1948 by the Cockatoo Docks and Engineering Company for Ritch and Smith Ltd of Port Adelaide, South Australia. After an 11 day voyage from Sydney, Yelta arrived in Port Adelaide on 22 February 1949; until her retirement in 1976, she assisted vessels to and from docks and other facilities within the Port River. She assisted in refloating vessels that ran aground within the Port River such as Eastwave in 1950, Caltex Bombay in 1952, Ulooloo and Trykori in 1953.
Yelta was retired from service in November 1976. The Port Adelaide branch of the National Trust of South Australia purchased the vessel with the objective of making "a feature of a maritime museum on a lease it holds on land on Cruickshank corner near the Birkenhead Bridge." The plan for a maritime museum did not proceed due to the plans of the Government of South Australia to develop facilities for the South Australian Maritime Museum. In 1985, the National Trust offered the vessel for sale by tender in order to recover some of the costs expended on its own museum proposal and subsequently accepted an offer from the South Australian government who added the vessel to the collection of its maritime museum; the vessel was restored by South Australian Maritime Museum in order to "operate as both a floating museum and functional passenger vessel." Using a team of "retired and semi-retired volunteers with lengthy and comprehensive experience in various maritime industries," the vessel was re-launched on 5 October 1988 after three years of restoration.
In 1985, Yelta was reported as being "Australia's last working steam-powered tug" and in 2017, it was described as a "historic vessel with strong associations with Port Adelaide, it is the only steam vessel on the river."In 2017, Yelta was one of the ships considered in a study funded by Renewal SA about "a strategy for berthing or locating historic ships and vessels within the inner harbour of Port Adelaide."'Steam Tug Yelta' video on YouTube Image showing "Showing Yelta in original condition"
Hart's Mill is a former flour mill complex located on a bend in the Port River, in the north-western corner of Port Adelaide, South Australia. Now restored, it has become the suburb's cultural hub, it has been listed as a state heritage place on the South Australian Heritage Register since 27 May 2004. Its significance is described as follows:Built c. 1889, this substantial mill building is associated with the development of the wheat industry in South Australia in the latter part of the 19th century and with the export of flour from the state through Port Adelaide. It is a rare example of a purpose-built late 19th century flour mill in South Australia, when considered with the adjacent 1855 Hart's Mill, provides the only known example of two generations of flour mill buildings surviving on one site; the Packing Shed is an uncommon surviving example of an ancillary milling industry building. After his final voyage to England in 1846 John Hart settled near Port Adelaide, where he joined with H.
Kent Hughes as merchants Hughes and Hart as Hart & Company, established large and successful flour mills. The flour mill at Port Adelaide, now colloquially referred to as Hart's Mill, was regarded as one of the best, "Hart's Flour" commanded the highest prices in Australia. John Hart & Co. merged with the Adelaide Milling Co. in 1882. South Australian History Hub - Hart's Mill complex Hart's Mill Project Out Port - Hart's Mill 34°50′40″S 138°29′55″E