Ryongyŏn County is a county in western South Hwanghae province, North Korea. Its Yellow Sea coast is known for its natural environment and as an important habitat for plants and birds. Ryongyŏn was the first place in which Protestant Christianity was established in Korea, in the late 19th Century. Ryongyŏn is a coastal county of 463 km ², it borders Changyon county to the northeast, Taetan county to the east. Its territory includes several islands to the south: Wollaedo and Yukdo. Ryongyŏn is separated from the South Korean Baengnyeong Island by a strait 12 km wide, can be seen from South Korean resorts on clear days; the Pult'a Mountains run through the county from east to west. The western part of the chain projects into the Yellow Sea, forming the Ryongyŏn Peninsula, with Changsan Cape at its western end; the territory is mountainous, with beaches and some lowland to the north and south of the mountains. There are two main inlets or harbors: Monggŭmp'o in the north, Kumip'o in the south. Two of North Korea's protected natural areas lie along the coastal strip.
Changsan Cape contains a Protected Area covering 25.8 km², another part of the cape has been established as a plant reserve. On the north side of the peninsula is Monggŭmp'o Sand Dune, a national monument of 0.1 km². The county is divided into one ŭp and twenty ri: The first Protestant Christian church in Korea was founded at Sorae, on the southern coast of Ryongyŏn, in 1884 - before the beginning of foreign missionary activity in Korea; the church was founded by Suh Sang-Ryun, converted to Christianity while in Manchuria. The church was visited and supported by English and American Presbyterian missionaries in the following years, including Horace Underwood. A permanent church building was constructed by the local Christians in 1895; the territory of Ryongyŏn County lies just above the 38th parallel, was included in the northern zone during the division of Korea. The nearby Ongjin Peninsula and Baengnyeong Island fell within the southern zone. During the Korean War, the island Wollaedo was used as a base by pro-Southern partisans.
This position was bombarded by Northern artillery on the mainland of Cape Changsan. In 1952, a group of "White Tiger" partisans working together with United States Special Forces landed on the cape, they took control of and destroyed the artillery site, escaping with small losses. It has been reported by a former North Korean army officer that areas of the coast in Ryongyŏn are still defended by land mines; the territory of Ryongyŏn County was part of Changyon County. In 1952, Changyon was split, the new Ryongyŏn County was created. During the North Korean famine of the 1990s and 2000s, relief agencies have reported near-starvation conditions in Ryongyŏn. Western aid organizations have supported a Ryongyŏn Sustainable Food Security Programme to bring about "environmentally friendly community development at a group of four collective farms covering over 7,000 acres."At an international conference on plans for a proposed Korea-China undersea tunnel, held in Seoul in 2008, Changsan was one of the locations considered for the terminus on the Korean side.
Of the four suggested routes, the Ryongyŏn-Weihai line was the shortest, the only one entering North rather than South Korea. Administrative divisions of North Korea Geography of North Korea In Korean language online encyclopedias: Doosan Encyclopedia Korean language Britannica Encyclopedia of Korean Culture Pascal World Encyclopedia
Ongjin Bay Important Bird Area
The Ongjin Bay Important Bird Area lies on the western coast of North Korea on the Yellow Sea, in Ongjin County, South Hwanghae. It comprises 3500 ha of wetlands, including rice paddies, encompasses a 1000 ha protected area, it has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area because it supports significant populations of various birds, including swan geese, bean geese, greater white-fronted geese, Oriental storks, black-faced spoonbills, white-naped cranes, red-crowned cranes, long-billed plovers and Far Eastern curlews. It is threatened by aquacultural development
Haeju is a city located in South Hwanghae Province near Haeju Bay in North Korea. It is the administrative centre of South Hwanghae Province; as of 2008, the population of the city is estimated to be 273,300. At the beginning of the 20th century, it became a strategic port in Sino-Korean trade. Haeju has a cement factory; the area around Haeju is known to have been inhabited since the Neolithic period, as shellmounds and stone tools have been found at Ryongdangp'o. During the early Three kingdoms period, it was governed by a small chieftain, when it was known as "Naemihol". In 757, however, it was conquered by the Goguryeo kingdom, who lost it to Silla, it was under the Goryeo dynasty's King T'aejo. Sohyon Academy was a Confucian academy founded near Haeju by the famous scholar Yi I after his retirement, it is situated in Unbyong Valley, a part of Soktamgugok (Nine valleys of pools and rocks. According to the North Korean government, the North Korean attack on South Korea on 25 June 1950 was a response to a two-day long bombing by the South Koreans and their surprise attacks on Haeju and other places.
Early in the morning of 26 July, before the dawn counterattack in the North Korean account, the South Korean Office of Public Information announced that the Southern forces had captured Haeju. The South Korean government denied capturing the town and blamed the report on an exaggerating officer. Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union proposed that North Korea would be invited to the UN Security Council to present its side of the story. Both proposals were voted down. Haeju City is located on the westernmost edge of the Korean Peninsula, 60 km north of the Military Demarcation Line and 100 km south of Pyongyang; the city, being not mountainous, is composed of plains. All the mountains located within the city are under 1,000 m in elevation. Mountain Suyang, 946 m. Mountain Jangdae, 686 m. Nam Hill, 122 m. Haeju has a humid continental climate, with cold, dry winters and hot, humid summers. Haeju is divided into several rural villages. Famous tourist attractions in the city center include Puyong Pavilion, the Haeju Dharani Monument, the Haeju Sokbinggo, several trees classified as living monuments.
Farther out, scenic spots include Suyangsan Falls, the Sokdamgugok scenic area, Suyangsan Fortress and the Sohyon Academy. Haeju Special Economic Zone was announced in the Second Inter-Korean summit meeting between the South Korean president Roh Moo-Hyun and the North Korean leader Kim Jong-Il, it was to be a Special Economic Zone centered on the Haeju port. The zone would have consisted of 16.5 km2 of development, the expansion of the Haeju port. This project was estimated to cost over US$4.5 billion. This economic agreement between South Korea and North Korea would have allowed trading across the Northern Limit Line between the ports of Incheon and Haeju, only 110 km apart. Recent military skirmishes make any revival of this deal unlikely for the time being. Haeju has a civilian dual purposes air station, with a 12/30 runway. Haeju has one of the major economic and military ports in North Korea, it is connected to Sariwŏn via the Hwanghae Ch'ŏngnyŏn Line of the Korean State Railway. Haeju is home to Haeju University of Education, Haeju College of Art, Kim Je Won Haeju University of Agriculture.
Sohyon Academy was a Confucian academy founded by the famous scholar Yi Yulgok. It is situated in the Unbyong Valley west of Haeju; the Korean Central Broadcasting Station airs on AM 1080 kHz using a 1.5-megawatt mediumwave transmitter. Guaranda, Ecuador Ulan-Ude, Russia Choe Chung, Confucian scholar and poet Choe Yun-ui, Confucian scholar Choe Manri, minister of Hall of Worthies Syngman Rhee, the first president of South Korea Kim Koo, last president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea An Jung-geun, independence activist who assassinated Itō Hirobumi Mirok Li, writer Kang Joon-ho, bronze-medalist Olympic boxer Jong Song-ok, marathon gold-medalist & Olympic runnerHaeju is the home of the Haeju Choi and the Haeju Oh clan. List of cities in North Korea "Corea",'Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1878, pp. 390–394. Dormels, Rainer. North Korea's Cities: Industrial facilities, internal structures and typification.
Jimoondang, 2014. ISBN 978-89-6297-167-5 Haeju at Curlie North Korea Uncovered Haeju photos. Traveller's blog with pictures from North Korea City profile of Haeju
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o
North Korea the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, with Pyongyang the capital and the largest city in the country. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. To the north and northwest, the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok and Tumen rivers. North Korea, like its southern counterpart, claims to be the legitimate government of the entire peninsula and adjacent islands. In 1910, Korea was annexed by Imperial Japan. After the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II in 1945, Korea was divided into two zones, with the north occupied by the Soviet Union and the south occupied by the United States. Negotiations on reunification failed, in 1948, separate governments were formed: the socialist Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, the capitalist Republic of Korea in the south.
An invasion initiated by North Korea led to the Korean War. The Korean Armistice Agreement brought about a ceasefire. North Korea describes itself as a "self-reliant" socialist state, formally holds elections, though said elections have been described by outside observers as sham elections. Outside observers generally view North Korea as a Stalinist totalitarian dictatorship noting the elaborate cult of personality around Kim Il-sung and his family; the Workers' Party of Korea, led by a member of the ruling family, holds power in the state and leads the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland of which all political officers are required to be members. Juche, an ideology of national self-reliance, was introduced into the constitution in 1972; the means of production are owned by the state through state-run enterprises and collectivized farms. Most services such as healthcare, education and food production are subsidized or state-funded. From 1994 to 1998, North Korea suffered a famine that resulted in the deaths of between 240,000 and 420,000 people, the population continues to suffer malnutrition.
North Korea follows "military-first" policy. It is the country with the highest number of military and paramilitary personnel, with a total of 9,495,000 active and paramilitary personnel, or 37% of its population, its active duty army of 1.21 million is the fourth largest in the world, after China, the United States and India. It possesses nuclear weapons; the UN inquiry into human rights in North Korea concluded that, "The gravity and nature of these violations reveal a state that does not have any parallel in the contemporary world". The North Korean regime denies most allegations, accusing international organizations of fabricating human rights abuses as part of a smear campaign with the covert intention of undermining the state, although they admit that there are human rights issues relating to living conditions which the regime is attempting to correct. In addition to being a member of the United Nations since 1991, the sovereign state is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, G77 and the ASEAN Regional Forum.
The name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel. After the division of the country into North and South Korea, the two sides used different terms to refer to Korea: Chosun or Joseon in North Korea, Hanguk in South Korea. In 1948, North Korea adopted Democratic People's Republic of Korea as its new legal name. In the wider world, because the government controls the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, it is called North Korea to distinguish it from South Korea, called the Republic of Korea in English. Both governments consider themselves to be the legitimate government of the whole of Korea. For this reason, the people do not consider themselves as'North Koreans' but as Koreans in the same divided country as their compatriots in the South and foreign visitors are discouraged from using the former term.
After the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, Korea was occupied by Japan from 1910 to 1945. Japan tried to suppress Korean traditions and culture and ran the economy for its own benefit. Korean resistance groups known as Dongnipgun operated along the Sino-Korean border, fighting guerrilla warfare against Japanese forces; some of them took part in parts of South East Asia. One of the guerrilla leaders was the communist Kim Il-sung, who became the first leader of North Korea. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Korean Peninsula was divided into two zones along the 38th parallel, with the northern half of the peninsula occupied by the Soviet Union and the southern half by the United States; the drawing of the division was assigned to two American officers, diplomat Dean Rusk and Army officer Charles Bone
Geography of North Korea
North Korea is located in East Asia on the Northern half of the Korean Peninsula. North Korea shares a border with three countries; the Yellow Sea and the Korea Bay are off the west coast and the Sea of Japan is off the east coast. Most of North Korea is a series of medium-sized to large-sized Mountain Ranges and large hills, separated by deep, narrow valleys; the highest peak, Paektu-san on the volcanic Baekdu Mountain, is located on its northern border with China, rises 9,002 ft.. Along the west coast there are wide coastal plains, while along the Sea of Japan coastline, narrow plains rise into mountains. Similar to South Korea, dozens of small islands dot the western coastline. North Korea's longest river is the Yulu. Other large rivers include the Tumen and Imjin; the terrain consists of hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys. The coastal plains are wide in discontinuous in the east. Early European visitors to Korea remarked that the country resembled "a sea in a heavy gale" because of the many successive mountain ranges that crisscross the peninsula.
Some 80 percent of North Korea's land area is composed of mountains and uplands, with all of the peninsula's mountains with elevations of 2,000 metres or more located in North Korea. The great majority of the population lives in the lowlands. Paektu Mountain, the highest point in North Korea at 2,743 m, is a volcanic mountain near Manchuria with basalt lava plateau with elevations between 1,400 metres and 2,000 metres above sea level; the Hamgyong Range, located in the extreme northeastern part of the peninsula, has many high peaks, including Kwanmobong at 2,541 metres. Other major ranges include the Rangrim Mountains, which are located in the north-central part of North Korea and run in a north-south direction, making communication between the eastern and western parts of the country rather difficult. Geumgangsan written Mt Kumgang, or Diamond Mountain, in the Thaebaek Range, which extends into South Korea, is famous for its scenic beauty. For the most part, the plains are small; the most extensive are the Pyongyang and Chaeryŏng plains, each covering about 500 km2.
Because the mountains on the east coast drop abruptly to the sea, the plains are smaller there than on the west coast. The mountain ranges in the northern and eastern parts of North Korea form the watershed for most of its rivers, which run in a westerly direction and empty into the Yellow Sea and Korea Bay; the longest is the Amnok River, navigable for 678 km of its 790 kilometres. The Tuman River, one of the few major rivers to flow into the Sea of Japan, is the second longest at 521 kilometres but is navigable for only 85 kilometres because of the mountainous topography; the third longest river, the Taedong River, flows through Pyongyang and is navigable for 245 of its 397 km. Lakes tend to be small because of the lack of glacial activity and the stability of the Earth's crust in the region. Unlike neighboring Japan or northern China, North Korea experiences few severe earthquakes; the country has a number of natural spas and hot springs, which number 124 according to one North Korean source.
North Korea has a combination of a continental climate and an oceanic climate, with four distinct seasons. Most of North Korea is classified as being of a humid continental climate within the Köppen climate classification scheme, with warm summers and cold, dry winters. In summer, there is a short rainy season called changma. Long winters bring bitter cold and clear weather interspersed with snow storms as a result of northern and northwestern winds that blow from Siberia; the daily average high and low temperatures for Pyongyang in January are −3 and −13 °C. On average, it snows thirty-seven days during the winter. Winter can be harsh in the northern, mountainous regions. Summer tends to be short, hot and rainy because of the southern and southeastern monsoon winds that bring moist air from the Pacific Ocean. Spring and autumn are transitional seasons marked by mild temperatures and variable winds and bring the most pleasant weather; the daily average high and low temperatures for Pyongyang in August are 29 and 20 °C.
On average 60% of all precipitation occurs from June to September. Natural hazards include late spring droughts which are followed by severe flooding. Typhoons affect the peninsula on an average of at least early autumn; the drought that started in June 2015, according to the Korean Central News Agency, has been the worst seen in 100 years. The environment of North Korea is diverse, encompassing alpine, farmland and marine ecosystems. In recent years, the environment has been reported to be in a state of "crisis", "catastrophe", or "collapse". Cultivation and natural disasters have all put pressure on North Korea's forests. During the economic crisis of the 1990s, deforestation accelerated, as people turned to the woodlands to provide firewood and food; this in turn has led to soil erosion, soil depletion, increased risk of flooding. In response, the government has promoted a tree planting program. Based on satellite imagery, it has been estimated that 40 percent of forest cover has been lost since 1985.
North Korea has an area of 120,538 km², of which 120,408 km² is land and 130 km² is water. It has 1,671.5 kilometres of land boundaries.
38th parallel north
The 38th parallel north is a circle of latitude, 38 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, the Pacific Ocean, North America, the Atlantic Ocean; the 38th parallel north formed the border between South Korea prior to the Korean War. At this latitude the sun is visible for 14 hours, 48 minutes during the summer solstice and 9 hours, 32 minutes during the winter solstice. Starting at the Prime Meridian heading eastward, the 38th parallel north passes through: Japan had occupied the Korean peninsula between 1910 and 1945; when Japan surrendered in August 1945, the 38th parallel was established as the boundary between Soviet and American occupation zones. This parallel divided the Korean peninsula in the middle. In 1948, this parallel became the boundary between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea, both of which claim to be the government of the whole of Korea. On 25 June 1950, after a series of cross-border raids and gunfire from both the Northern and the Southern sides, the North Korean Army crossed the parallel and invaded South Korea.
This sparked a United Nations resolution against the aggression and the Korean War, with United Nations troops helping to defend South Korea. After the Armistice agreement was signed on July 27, 1953, a new line was established to separate North Korea and South Korea; this Military Demarcation Line is surrounded by a Demilitarized Zone. It crosses the 38th parallel, from the southwest to the northeast; the Demarcation Line is confused with 38th parallel, but as can be seen in the image of the map, the two are not the same. 37th parallel north 38th parallel structures 39th parallel north Circle of latitude Oberdorfer, Don. The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History. 38th parallel at the Encyclopædia Britannica