Korean State Railway
The Korean State Railway is the operating arm of the Ministry of Railways of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and has its headquarters at P'yŏngyang. The current Minister of Railways is Jang Hyuk, who has held the position since 2015; the railway lines of North Korea were built during the Japanese occupation of Korea by the Chosen Government Railway, the South Manchuria Railway and various owned railway companies such as the Chosen Railway. At the end of the Pacific War, in the territory of today's North Korea Sentetsu owned 2,879.3 km of railway, of which 2,466.1 km was standard gauge, 413.2 km was 762 mm narrow gauge. At the same time, in September 1945 in the future territory of the DPRK there were 678 locomotives (124 steam tank, 446 tender, 99 narrow gauge steam, 8 electric locomotives, along with one steam-powered railway crane, 29 powered railcars, 747 passenger cars, 6,928 freight cars. With the official division of Korea into Soviet and American zones of occupation along the 38th parallel in August 1945, train service on the Kyŏngwŏn and Kyŏngŭi Lines was interrupted.
However, as early as 26 August, the Soviet army began operating trains on the Kyŏngŭi Line north of Sariwŏn. In May 1946 it was made illegal to cross the 38th parallel without a permit, on 9 August of that year identification cards were made compulsory for rail travel in the northern part of Korea; the beginnings of the Korean State Railway as an independent entity can be traced to 10 August 1946, when the Provisional People’s Committee for North Korea nationalised all railways in the Soviet occupation zone. The railways were nearly paralysed by a lack of experienced staff as a result of the expulsion of ethnic Japanese - most railway workers the skilled labourers, the locomotive crews, mechanics and administrators, were Japanese. Passengers resorted to riding on the infrequent freight trains, on locomotives. Kukch'ŏl's actual establishment, as a department of the Ministry of Transportation of the DPRK, dates to 1948, after the formal establishment of the People's Democratic Republic of Korea.
When Kukch'ŏl was formally established that year, it had 3,767 km of railway in functional condition, including the restoration of the electrification on the Yangdŏk–Sinch'ang–Ch'ŏnsŏng section of the P'yŏngwŏn Line, the new electrification of the Kaego–Koin section of the Manp'o Line. On 10 December 1947, the assets of the Chosen Government Railway were formally divided between North and South, leaving the KSR with 617 steam locomotives, 8 electric locomotives, 1,280 passenger cars and 9,154 freight cars. Other new construction took place prior to 1950, but the Korean War which broke out on 25 June 1950 interrupted progress; the Korean People's Army was dominant, occupying most of the Korean Peninsula apart from a small pocket around Pusan. At the same time, war aid in the form of locomotives and freight cars arrived from friendly socialist countries such as the USSR, Poland and Czechoslovakia. American-led United Nations forces turned the tide of the war, however. Throughout the Korean War, much of the railway infrastructure and many of the locomotives were destroyed.
On 31 December 1950, a train, consisting of the locomotive Matei 10 and 25 cars, going from Hanp'o to Munsan was ordered to stop at Changdan by the US Army, was destroyed. UN forces were pushed back south of the 38th parallel, by the end of the year the war had become a stalemate. North Korea was left devastated after the war, with damage being more extensive than in the south. Factories, bridges and railways were destroyed in heavy US Air Force bombing raids. Reconstruction, started before the end of the war and, with the aid of the Chinese People's Volunteer Corps, by the time the ceasefire was signed 1,382 km of railway lines had been restored; the north's transportation network was so damaged that in many places, the horse was the only viable means of transport.
Haeju is a city located in South Hwanghae Province near Haeju Bay in North Korea. It is the administrative centre of South Hwanghae Province; as of 2008, the population of the city is estimated to be 273,300. At the beginning of the 20th century, it became a strategic port in Sino-Korean trade. Haeju has a cement factory; the area around Haeju is known to have been inhabited since the Neolithic period, as shellmounds and stone tools have been found at Ryongdangp'o. During the early Three kingdoms period, it was governed by a small chieftain, when it was known as "Naemihol". In 757, however, it was conquered by the Goguryeo kingdom, who lost it to Silla, it was under the Goryeo dynasty's King T'aejo. Sohyon Academy was a Confucian academy founded near Haeju by the famous scholar Yi I after his retirement, it is situated in Unbyong Valley, a part of Soktamgugok (Nine valleys of pools and rocks. According to the North Korean government, the North Korean attack on South Korea on 25 June 1950 was a response to a two-day long bombing by the South Koreans and their surprise attacks on Haeju and other places.
Early in the morning of 26 July, before the dawn counterattack in the North Korean account, the South Korean Office of Public Information announced that the Southern forces had captured Haeju. The South Korean government denied capturing the town and blamed the report on an exaggerating officer. Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union proposed that North Korea would be invited to the UN Security Council to present its side of the story. Both proposals were voted down. Haeju City is located on the westernmost edge of the Korean Peninsula, 60 km north of the Military Demarcation Line and 100 km south of Pyongyang; the city, being not mountainous, is composed of plains. All the mountains located within the city are under 1,000 m in elevation. Mountain Suyang, 946 m. Mountain Jangdae, 686 m. Nam Hill, 122 m. Haeju has a humid continental climate, with cold, dry winters and hot, humid summers. Haeju is divided into several rural villages. Famous tourist attractions in the city center include Puyong Pavilion, the Haeju Dharani Monument, the Haeju Sokbinggo, several trees classified as living monuments.
Farther out, scenic spots include Suyangsan Falls, the Sokdamgugok scenic area, Suyangsan Fortress and the Sohyon Academy. Haeju Special Economic Zone was announced in the Second Inter-Korean summit meeting between the South Korean president Roh Moo-Hyun and the North Korean leader Kim Jong-Il, it was to be a Special Economic Zone centered on the Haeju port. The zone would have consisted of 16.5 km2 of development, the expansion of the Haeju port. This project was estimated to cost over US$4.5 billion. This economic agreement between South Korea and North Korea would have allowed trading across the Northern Limit Line between the ports of Incheon and Haeju, only 110 km apart. Recent military skirmishes make any revival of this deal unlikely for the time being. Haeju has a civilian dual purposes air station, with a 12/30 runway. Haeju has one of the major economic and military ports in North Korea, it is connected to Sariwŏn via the Hwanghae Ch'ŏngnyŏn Line of the Korean State Railway. Haeju is home to Haeju University of Education, Haeju College of Art, Kim Je Won Haeju University of Agriculture.
Sohyon Academy was a Confucian academy founded by the famous scholar Yi Yulgok. It is situated in the Unbyong Valley west of Haeju; the Korean Central Broadcasting Station airs on AM 1080 kHz using a 1.5-megawatt mediumwave transmitter. Guaranda, Ecuador Ulan-Ude, Russia Choe Chung, Confucian scholar and poet Choe Yun-ui, Confucian scholar Choe Manri, minister of Hall of Worthies Syngman Rhee, the first president of South Korea Kim Koo, last president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea An Jung-geun, independence activist who assassinated Itō Hirobumi Mirok Li, writer Kang Joon-ho, bronze-medalist Olympic boxer Jong Song-ok, marathon gold-medalist & Olympic runnerHaeju is the home of the Haeju Choi and the Haeju Oh clan. List of cities in North Korea "Corea",'Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1878, pp. 390–394. Dormels, Rainer. North Korea's Cities: Industrial facilities, internal structures and typification.
Jimoondang, 2014. ISBN 978-89-6297-167-5 Haeju at Curlie North Korea Uncovered Haeju photos. Traveller's blog with pictures from North Korea City profile of Haeju
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o
Geography of North Korea
North Korea is located in East Asia on the Northern half of the Korean Peninsula. North Korea shares a border with three countries; the Yellow Sea and the Korea Bay are off the west coast and the Sea of Japan is off the east coast. Most of North Korea is a series of medium-sized to large-sized Mountain Ranges and large hills, separated by deep, narrow valleys; the highest peak, Paektu-san on the volcanic Baekdu Mountain, is located on its northern border with China, rises 9,002 ft.. Along the west coast there are wide coastal plains, while along the Sea of Japan coastline, narrow plains rise into mountains. Similar to South Korea, dozens of small islands dot the western coastline. North Korea's longest river is the Yulu. Other large rivers include the Tumen and Imjin; the terrain consists of hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys. The coastal plains are wide in discontinuous in the east. Early European visitors to Korea remarked that the country resembled "a sea in a heavy gale" because of the many successive mountain ranges that crisscross the peninsula.
Some 80 percent of North Korea's land area is composed of mountains and uplands, with all of the peninsula's mountains with elevations of 2,000 metres or more located in North Korea. The great majority of the population lives in the lowlands. Paektu Mountain, the highest point in North Korea at 2,743 m, is a volcanic mountain near Manchuria with basalt lava plateau with elevations between 1,400 metres and 2,000 metres above sea level; the Hamgyong Range, located in the extreme northeastern part of the peninsula, has many high peaks, including Kwanmobong at 2,541 metres. Other major ranges include the Rangrim Mountains, which are located in the north-central part of North Korea and run in a north-south direction, making communication between the eastern and western parts of the country rather difficult. Geumgangsan written Mt Kumgang, or Diamond Mountain, in the Thaebaek Range, which extends into South Korea, is famous for its scenic beauty. For the most part, the plains are small; the most extensive are the Pyongyang and Chaeryŏng plains, each covering about 500 km2.
Because the mountains on the east coast drop abruptly to the sea, the plains are smaller there than on the west coast. The mountain ranges in the northern and eastern parts of North Korea form the watershed for most of its rivers, which run in a westerly direction and empty into the Yellow Sea and Korea Bay; the longest is the Amnok River, navigable for 678 km of its 790 kilometres. The Tuman River, one of the few major rivers to flow into the Sea of Japan, is the second longest at 521 kilometres but is navigable for only 85 kilometres because of the mountainous topography; the third longest river, the Taedong River, flows through Pyongyang and is navigable for 245 of its 397 km. Lakes tend to be small because of the lack of glacial activity and the stability of the Earth's crust in the region. Unlike neighboring Japan or northern China, North Korea experiences few severe earthquakes; the country has a number of natural spas and hot springs, which number 124 according to one North Korean source.
North Korea has a combination of a continental climate and an oceanic climate, with four distinct seasons. Most of North Korea is classified as being of a humid continental climate within the Köppen climate classification scheme, with warm summers and cold, dry winters. In summer, there is a short rainy season called changma. Long winters bring bitter cold and clear weather interspersed with snow storms as a result of northern and northwestern winds that blow from Siberia; the daily average high and low temperatures for Pyongyang in January are −3 and −13 °C. On average, it snows thirty-seven days during the winter. Winter can be harsh in the northern, mountainous regions. Summer tends to be short, hot and rainy because of the southern and southeastern monsoon winds that bring moist air from the Pacific Ocean. Spring and autumn are transitional seasons marked by mild temperatures and variable winds and bring the most pleasant weather; the daily average high and low temperatures for Pyongyang in August are 29 and 20 °C.
On average 60% of all precipitation occurs from June to September. Natural hazards include late spring droughts which are followed by severe flooding. Typhoons affect the peninsula on an average of at least early autumn; the drought that started in June 2015, according to the Korean Central News Agency, has been the worst seen in 100 years. The environment of North Korea is diverse, encompassing alpine, farmland and marine ecosystems. In recent years, the environment has been reported to be in a state of "crisis", "catastrophe", or "collapse". Cultivation and natural disasters have all put pressure on North Korea's forests. During the economic crisis of the 1990s, deforestation accelerated, as people turned to the woodlands to provide firewood and food; this in turn has led to soil erosion, soil depletion, increased risk of flooding. In response, the government has promoted a tree planting program. Based on satellite imagery, it has been estimated that 40 percent of forest cover has been lost since 1985.
North Korea has an area of 120,538 km², of which 120,408 km² is land and 130 km² is water. It has 1,671.5 kilometres of land boundaries.
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
Ongjin County, Incheon
Ongjin County is a county in Incheon Metropolitan City, South Korea. It consists of a group of islands in the Yellow Sea. Four of the islands, Yeonpyeong Island, Baengnyeong and Socheong Islands, are near the Northern Limit Line, they are close to the Ongjin Peninsula of South Hwanghae Province in North Korea, at a considerable distance from the nearest part of the South Korean mainland. These islands are popular destinations for tourism. In historical contexts these three islands and their smaller neighbors are sometimes known as the Sir James Hall Group after Sir James Hall, whose son Basil Hall was an early Western visitor to Korea. Once a part of the Lolang district of the Han Empire before the 4th century, this area was known as Ongcheon during the Three Kingdoms period, it was bestowed with the name in use today - Ongjin - during the reign of King Taejo of Goryeo, the founder of the Goryeo Dynasty. In 1018, during the 9th year of King Hyeonjong's reign over Goryeo, the county was established as one of the major administrative divisions in the heartland of the kingdom.
The Ongjin County seat is located outside in Nam-gu, Incheon. There is an Ongjin County in South Hwanghae Province, North Korea; this chain of islands was a part of South Hwanghae province before the Partition of Korea in 1948. Ongjin County is divided into seven townships. Bukdo-myeon, which includes Sindo and Modo Yeonpyeong-myeon, on Yeonpyeong Island Baengnyeong-myeon, on Baengnyeong Island Daecheong-myeon, on Daecheong Island and Socheong Island Deokjeok-myeon, which includes Deokjeokdo Jawol-myeon Yeongheung-myeon It is difficult to reach Ongjin County because of its proximity to North Korea and its distance from South Korean areas; the coast and islands feature many gravel beaches, some of which feature fantastic eroded stone outcroppings. There are large mudflats, which are a popular tourist destination. Onjin county has been used as a setting for several popular television dramas. There are many soap operas featuring the coastlines of Onjin county such as Sad Love Story, Full House. Geography of South Korea County government web site
Sinwŏn County is a county in South Hwanghae province, North Korea. Sinwŏn county is divided into 1 ŭp, 1 rodongjagu and 18 ri: Sinwŏn county is served by the Hwanghae Ch'ŏngnyŏn Line of the Korean State Railway