Evan Williams (Internet entrepreneur)
Evan Clark Williams is an American computer programmer and Internet entrepreneur who has founded several Internet companies. Williams was chairman and CEO of Twitter, one of the top ten websites on the Internet, he founded Blogger and Medium, two of the largest and most notable blog distribution websites. Williams was born in Nebraska, as the third child of Laurie Howe and Monte Williams, he grew up on a farm in Clarks. He attended the University of Nebraska–Lincoln for a year and a half, where he joined FarmHouse Fraternity, leaving to pursue his career. After leaving college, Williams worked at various technology jobs and start-up firms in Florida, at Key West, in Texas, at Dallas and Austin, before returning to his family farm in Nebraska. In 1996 Williams moved to Sebastopol, California in Sonoma County to work for the technology publishing company O'Reilly Media, he started at O'Reilly in a marketing position becoming an independent contractor writing computer code, which led to freelance opportunities with companies including Intel and Hewlett-Packard.
While he was working at O'Reilly, he started a website called EvHead.com, where he first began blogging about his personal thoughts. Evan Williams and Meg Hourihan co-founded Pyra Labs to make project management software. A note-taking feature spun off as Blogger, one of the first web applications for creating and managing weblogs. Williams coined the term "blogger" and was instrumental in the popularization of the term "blog". Pyra survived the departure of Hourihan and other employees, was acquired by Google on February 13, 2003. In 2003, Williams was named to the MIT Technology Review TR100 as one of the top 100 innovators in the world under the age of 35. In 2004, he was named one of PC Magazine's "People of the Year", along with Hourihan and Paul Bausch, for their work on Blogger. Williams left Google in June 2004, to a podcast company. In late 2006, Williams co-founded Obvious Corporation with Biz Stone and other former Odeo employees, to acquire all previous properties from Odeo's former backers.
In April 2007, Odeo was acquired by Sonic Mountain. Among Obvious Corporation's projects was Twitter, a popular, free social networking and micro-blogging service. Twitter was spun out into a new company in April 2007, with Williams as co-founder, board member, investor. In October 2008, Williams became CEO of Twitter, displacing Jack Dorsey, who became chairman of the board. By February 2009, Compete.com ranked Twitter the third most-used social network, based on their count of 6 million unique monthly visitors and 55 million monthly visits. As of February 2013, Twitter had 200 million registered users, it gets 300,000 new users a day and, was ranked twelfth in the world. It receives more than 300 million unique visitors and more than five billion people in traffic a month. 75% of its traffic comes from outside of Twitter.com. In October 2010, Williams stepped down from the CEO position, explaining that he would be "completely focused on product strategy," and appointed Dick Costolo as his replacement.
Following the announcement of Twitter's initial public offering in 2013, the company was valued at between US$14 billion and US$20 billion. One media report anticipated that Williams, with a 30 to 35 percent stake in the company, would see his personal wealth grow from US$2 billion to US$8 billion in the wake of Twitter's stock flotation. On April 6, 2017, an article announced Williams would sell 30 percent of his stock in Twitter, for "personal reasons." On September 25, 2012, Williams created Medium. It was available only to early adopters, but was opened to the public in 2013. On April 5, 2013, Williams and Stone announced that they would be unwinding Obvious Corporation as they focused on individual startups. Williams presented at the 2013 XOXO Festival in Portland and explained his understanding of Internet commerce. During his XOXO session, Williams likened the Internet to "a lot of other major technological revolutions that have taken place in the history of the world," such as agriculture, asserted that the Internet is not a utopia.
Williams is a vegetarian. He lives in the San Francisco area with his wife, with whom he raises two children. Williams has been quoted as having a philosophy that it is important to conserve time, do fewer things, to avoid distractions. Despite having a net worth higher than USD $1B, having a reputation for media business savvy, none of Williams' notable businesses have been profitable. After Donald Trump credited his election to the use of Twitter, Evan Williams stated that if true, he was sorry, he was concerned that the Internet platform rewarded extremes. Williams told the Associated Press that he was wrong to think that an open platform where people could speak would make the world a better place, his musings about future business objectives include considerations about the effect of the Internet upon society. Evan Williams @ Medium Evan Williams on Twitter
The Edmonton Journal is a daily newspaper in Edmonton, Alberta. It is part of the Postmedia Network; the Journal was founded in 1903 by three local businessmen — John Macpherson, Arthur Moore and J. W. Cunningham — as a rival to Alberta's first newspaper, the 23-year-old Edmonton Bulletin. Within a week, the Journal took over another newspaper, The Edmonton Post, established an editorial policy supporting the Conservative party against the Bulletin's pro-Liberal stance. In 1912, the Journal was sold to the Southam family, it remained under Southam ownership until 1996. The Journal was subsequently sold to Canwest in 2000, came under its current ownership, Postmedia Network Inc. in 2010. In 1905, The Journal began operating from a building on the corner of a lot on 102nd Avenue and 101st Street, its present location at 101st Street and 100th Avenue was established in 1921, Alberta's first radio station, CJCA, began broadcasting from the building a year later. In 1937, the Journal came into conflict with Alberta Premier William Aberhart's attempt to pass the Accurate News and Information Act requiring newspapers to print government rebuttals to stories the provincial cabinet deemed "inaccurate."
After fighting the law, the Journal became the first non-American newspaper to be honoured by the Pulitzer Prize committee, receiving a special bronze plaque in 1938 for defending the freedom of the press. After the Bulletin folded in 1951, the Journal was left as Edmonton's oldest and only remaining daily newspaper; the monopoly continued until The Edmonton Sun began publishing in 1978. Today, the Journal publishes six days a week, with regular sections including News, Opinion, A&E, Business; the newspaper participates in the Critics and Awards Program for High School Students, has partnerships with a number of arts organizations in Edmonton, including the Edmonton Symphony Orchestra and the Alberta Ballet Company. It supports community events such as the Canspell National Spelling Bee; the Journal has begun operating under a new commitment to digital media in addition to traditional print. The Edmonton Journal has seen like most Canadian daily newspapers a decline in circulation, its total circulation dropped by 22 percent to 92,542 copies daily from 2009 to 2015.
Daily average List of newspapers in Canada Official website Historical Columnists Blogs "Subscription Information". Edmonton Journal. Postmedia Network
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing and hardware. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies, alongside Amazon and Facebook. Google was founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph. D. students at Stanford University in California. Together they own about 14 percent of its shares and control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock, they incorporated Google as a held company on September 4, 1998. An initial public offering took place on August 19, 2004, Google moved to its headquarters in Mountain View, nicknamed the Googleplex. In August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google is Alphabet's leading subsidiary and will continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Sundar Pichai was appointed CEO of Google.
The company's rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products and partnerships beyond Google's core search engine. It offers services designed for work and productivity, email and time management, cloud storage, instant messaging and video chat, language translation and navigation, video sharing, note-taking, photo organizing and editing; the company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser, Chrome OS, a lightweight operating system based on the Chrome browser. Google has moved into hardware. Google has experimented with becoming an Internet carrier. Google.com is the most visited website in the world. Several other Google services figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTube and Blogger. Google is the most valuable brand in the world as of 2017, but has received significant criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns, tax avoidance, antitrust and search neutrality. Google's mission statement is "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful".
The companies unofficial slogan "Don't be evil" was removed from the company's code of conduct around May 2018. Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in Stanford, California. While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, the two theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships among websites, they called this new technology PageRank. Page and Brin nicknamed their new search engine "BackRub", because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site, they changed the name to Google. The domain name for Google was registered on September 15, 1997, the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998, it was based in the garage of a friend in California. Craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee. Google was funded by an August 1998 contribution of $100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems.
Google received money from three other angel investors in 1998: Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos, Stanford University computer science professor David Cheriton, entrepreneur Ram Shriram. Between these initial investors and family Google raised around 1 million dollars, what allowed them to open up their original shop in Menlo Park, California After some additional, small investments through the end of 1998 to early 1999, a new $25 million round of funding was announced on June 7, 1999, with major investors including the venture capital firms Kleiner Perkins and Sequoia Capital. In March 1999, the company moved its offices to Palo Alto, home to several prominent Silicon Valley technology start-ups; the next year, Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords against Page and Brin's initial opposition toward an advertising-funded search engine. To maintain an uncluttered page design, advertisements were text-based. In June 2000, it was announced that Google would become the default search engine provider for Yahoo!, one of the most popular websites at the time, replacing Inktomi.
In 2003, after outgrowing two other locations, the company leased an office complex from Silicon Graphics, at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California. The complex became known as the Googleplex, a play on the word googolplex, the number one followed by a googol zeroes. Three years Google bought the property from SGI for $319 million. By that time, the name "Google
Vivek Kundra is an American administrator who served as the first chief information officer of the United States from March, 2009 to August, 2011 under President Barack Obama. He is the Chief Operating Officer at Sprinklr, a provider of enterprise social media management software based in NYC, he was a visiting Fellow at Harvard University. He served in D. C. Mayor Adrian Fenty's cabinet as the District's Chief Technology Officer and in Virginia Governor Tim Kaine's cabinet as Assistant Secretary of Commerce and Technology. Kundra was born in New Delhi, India, on October 9, 1974, he moved to Tanzania with his family at the age of one, when his father joined a group of professors and teachers to provide education to local residents. Kundra learned Swahili as his first language, in addition to English, his family moved to the Washington, D. C. metropolitan area when he was eleven. Kundra attended college at the University of Maryland, College Park where he received a degree in Psychology, he earned a master's degree in Information Technology, from University of Maryland University College.
Additionally, he is a graduate of the University of Virginia's Sorensen Institute for Political Leadership. Kundra served as director of Infrastructure Technology for Arlington County, starting September 11, 2001. Governor Tim Kaine appointed Kundra in January 2006 to the post of Assistant Secretary of Commerce and Technology for Virginia, the first dual cabinet role in the state's history. Mayor Adrian Fenty appointed him on March 27, 2007 to the cabinet post of Chief Technology Officer for the District of Columbia. Kundra worked on developing programs to spur open source and crowdsourced applications using publicly accessible Web services from the District of Columbia. Building on the work of Suzanne Peck, who preceded him as DC's CTO and created the D. C. Data Catalog, he used; the contest yielded 47 iPhone and Facebook applications from residents in 30 days. Mayor Fenty stated that the program cost the District "50 thousand dollars total and we estimate that we will save the district millions of dollars in program development costs".
This cost-benefit was claimed by the D. C. government as savings in internal operational and contractual costs. Taking a page from Kundra this initiative was mirrored by New York City's mayor Michael Bloomberg in launching a "BigApps" contest housed at NYC BigApps as well as New York City's DataMine; the city of San Francisco launched a data portal similar DC's in 2009. Kundra won recognition for the project management system he implemented for the District government; the system imagined projects as publicly traded companies, project schedules as quarterly reports, user satisfaction as stock prices. Buying or selling a stock corresponded to adding resources to a project or taking them away; the goal of management was to optimize the project portfolio for return on investment. The system replaced subjective judgments about projects with objective, data driven analytics. Kundra's efforts to use cloud-based web applications in the D. C. government have been considered innovative. Following the D. C. example driven by Kundra, the city of Los Angeles is now taking steps to adopt the cloud computing model for its IT needs.
A D. C. spokeswoman said that the District of Columbia paid $479,560 for the Enterprise Google Apps license, $3.5 million less than what it had planned to spend on an alternative plan. Since its deployment in July 2008 Google Apps is available to 38,000 D. C. city employees, but only 1,000–2,000 are using Google Docs. Only 200 employees are using Gmail. In late 2010, hoping to spur use of Gmail, the city ran a pilot program, selecting about 300 users and having them use the Google product for three months. Google participated in the project, but Gmail didn't pass the "as good or better" test with the users, who preferred Exchange/Outlook. In July 2011, the General Services Administration became the first federal agency to migrate its email services for 17,000 employees and contractors to the cloud-based Google Apps for Government, saving $15.2 million over 5 years. As of July 2011, government agencies in 42 states are leveraging cloud-based messaging and collaboration services. Kundra moved the city's geographic information systems department to a middle school.
Before his appointment as CIO, Mr. Kundra served as technology adviser on President Barack Obama's transition team. Kundra was named by President Obama on March 5, 2009, to the post of Federal CIO; the Federal Chief Information Officer is responsible for directing the policy and strategic planning of federal information technology investments as well as for oversight of federal technology spending. Until Kundra, the position had been more limited within the Office of Management and Budget where a federal chief information officer role had been created by the E-Government Act of 2002; the Federal CIO establishes and oversees enterprise architecture to ensure system interoperability and information sharing and maintains information security and privacy across the federal government. According to President Obama, as Chief Information Officer, Kundra "will play a key role in making sure our government is running in the most secure and efficient way possible". To further President Obama's overall technology agenda, Vivek Kundra, Jeffrey Zients, the Chief Performance Officer, Aneesh Chopra, the Chief Technology Officer, will work together.
Kundra and Chopra worked in Governor Tim Kaine's administration. Kundra made it a priority to focus on the following areas: Cybersecurity Ensuring openness and transparency Innovation Lowering t
The Chronicle of Higher Education
The Chronicle of Higher Education is a newspaper and website that presents news and jobs for college and university faculty and student affairs professionals. A subscription is required to read some articles; the Chronicle, based in Washington, D. C. is a major news service in United States academic affairs. It is published every weekday online and appears weekly in print except for every other week in June and August and the last three weeks in December. In print, The Chronicle is published in two sections: section A with news and job listings, section B, The Chronicle Review, a magazine of arts and ideas, it publishes The Chronicle of Philanthropy, a newspaper for the nonprofit world. Corbin Gwaltney was the founder and had been the editor of the alumni magazine of the Johns Hopkins University since 1949. In 1957, he joined in with editors from magazines of several other colleges and universities for an editorial project to investigate issues in higher education in perspective; the meeting occurred on the day the first Sputnik circled the Earth, October 4, 1957, so the "Moonshooter" project was formed as a supplement on higher education for the college magazines.
The college magazine editors promised 60 percent of one issue of their magazine to finance the supplement. The first Moonshooter Report was 32 pages long and titled American Higher Education, 1958, they sold 1.35 million copies to universities. By the project's third year, circulation was over three million for the supplement. In 1959, Gwaltney left Johns Hopkins Magazine to become the first full-time employee of the newly created "Editorial Projects for Education" starting in an office in his apartment in Baltimore and moving to an office near the Johns Hopkins campus, he realized. He and other board members of EPE met to plan a new publication which would be called The Chronicle of Higher Education; the Chronicle of Higher Education was founded in 1966 by Corbin Gwaltney. and its first issue was launched in November 1966. Although it was meant for those involved in higher education, one of the founding ideas was that the general public had little knowledge about what was going on in higher education and the real issues involved.
It didn't accept any advertising and didn't have any staff-written editorial opinions. It was supported by grants from the Ford Foundation. On in its history, advertising would be accepted for jobs in higher education, this would allow the newspaper to be financially independent. By the 1970s, the Chronicle was attracting enough advertising to become self-sufficient, in 1978 the board of EPE agreed to sell the newspaper to its editors. EPE sold the Chronicle to the editors for $2,000,000 in cash and $500,000 in services that Chronicle would provide to EPE. Chronicle went from a legal non-profit status to a for-profit company; this sale shifted the focus of non-profit EPE to K-12 education. Inspired by the model established by the Chronicle, with the support of the Carnegie Corporation and other philanthropies, EPE founded Education Week in September 1981. In 1993, the Chronicle was one of the first newspapers to appear on the Internet, as a Gopher service, it released an iPad version in 2011. The Chronicle grossed $33 million in advertising revenues and $7 million in circulation revenues in 2003.
Over the years, the paper has been a winner of several journalism awards. In 2005, two special reports – on diploma mills and plagiarism – were selected as finalists in the reporting category for a National Magazine Award, it was a finalist for the award in general excellence every year from 2001 to 2005. In 2007, The Chronicle won an Utne Reader Independent Press Award for political coverage. In its award citation, Utne called The Chronicle Review "a fearless, free-thinking section where academia's best and brightest can take their gloves off and swing with abandon at both sides of the predictable political divide." The New Republic, The Nation and The American Prospect were among the finalists in the category. Baldwin, Joyce, "Chronicling Higher Education for Nearly Forty Years,", Carnegie Results, Carnegie Corporation of New York, Winter, 2006 issue Baldwin, Patricia L. Covering the Campus: The History of The Chronicle of Higher Education, 1966–1993, Texas: University of North Texas Press, 1995.
ISBN 0-929398-96-3 Connell, Christopher. 8, pp. 12–24, 27, journal published for the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching by Heldref Publications Official website
Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism
The Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism is the journalism school of Columbia University. It is located in Pulitzer Hall on Columbia's Morningside Heights campus in New York City. Founded in 1912 by Joseph Pulitzer, Columbia Journalism School is the only journalism school in the Ivy League and one of the oldest in the world, it offers four degree programs: 1) master of science. The school houses arguably journalism's most prestigious award, it directly administers several other prizes, including the Alfred I. duPont–Columbia University Award, honoring excellence in broadcast and digital journalism in the public service. It co-sponsors the National Magazine Awards known as the Ellie Awards, publishes the Columbia Journalism Review, a respected voice on press criticism since 1961. In addition to offering professional development programs and workshops, the school is home to the Tow Center for Digital Journalism, which explores technological changes in journalism, the Brown Institute for Media Innovation, which supports innovation in storytelling in the digital age.
Admission to the school is selective and has traditionally drawn a international student body. A faculty of experienced professionals preeminent in their respective fields, including politics and culture, science, education and economics, investigative reporting, national and international affairs, instruct students. A Board of Visitors meets periodically to advise the dean's office and support the school's initiatives. In 1892, Pulitzer, a Hungarian-born newspaper magnate, offered Columbia University President Seth Low funding to establish the world's first school of journalism, he sought to elevate a profession viewed more as a common trade learned through an apprenticeship. His idea was for a center of enlightened journalism in pursuit of knowledge as well as skills in the service of democracy. "It will impart knowledge - not for its own sake, but to be used for the public service," Pulitzer wrote in a now landmark, lead essay of the May 1904 issue of the North American Review. The university was resistant to the idea.
But Low's successor, Nicholas Murray Butler, was more receptive to the plan. Pulitzer was set on creating his vision at Columbia and offered it a $2 million gift, one-quarter of, to be used to establish prizes in journalism and the arts, it took Pulitzer's death in October 1911 to finalize plans. On September 30, 1912, classes began with 79 undergraduate and postgraduate students, including a dozen women. Veteran journalist Talcott Williams was installed as the school's director; when not attending classes and lectures, students scoured the city for news. Their more advanced classmates were assigned to cover a visit by President William Howard Taft, a sensational police murder trial and a women's suffrage march. A student from China went undercover to report on a downtown cocaine den. A journalism building was constructed the following year at Broadway and 116th Street on the western end of the campus. In 1935, Dean Carl Ackerman, a 1913 alumnus, led the school's transition to become the first graduate school of journalism in the United States.
As the school's reach and reputation spread, due in part to distinguished early scholars who included Douglas Southall Freeman, Walter B. Pitkin and Henry F. Pringle, it began offering coursework in television news and documentary in addition to its focus on newspapers and radio; the Maria Moors Cabot Prizes, the oldest international awards in journalism, were founded in 1938, honoring reporting in Latin America and the Caribbean. The Alfred I. duPont-Columbia Awards for excellence in broadcast journalism was created in 1942. In 1958, the Columbia Journalism Award, the school's highest honor, was established to recognize a person of overarching accomplishment and distinguished service to journalism. Three years the school began publishing the Columbia Journalism Review. In 1966, the school began awarding the National Magazine Awards in association with the American Society of Magazine Editors. Former CBS News president, Fred W. Friendly, was appointed the same year to the tenured faculty and enhanced the broadcast journalism program.
By the 1970s, the Reporting and Writing 1 course had become the cornerstone of the school's basic curriculum. The Knight‐Bagehot Fellowship was created in 1975 to business journalism. In 1985, the Delacorte Center for Magazine Journalism was founded. A doctoral program was established in 2001. In 2005, Nicholas Lemann, two years into his tenure as dean, created a second more specialized master's program leading to a master of arts degree; as a result of industry changes forced by digital media, the school in 2013 erased distinctions between types of media, such as newspaper, broadcast and new media, as specializations in its master of science curriculum. The Toni Stabile Center for Investigative Journalism, dedicated to training select students interested in pursuing careers in investigative journalism, opened in 2006. A year the Spencer Fellowship was created to focus on long-form reporting; the Dart Center for Journalism and Trauma relocated to Columbia in 2009 to focus on media coverage of trauma and tragedy.
In 2010, the Tow Center for Digital Journalism was created. The Brown Institute for Media Innovation was launched in 2012; the school's ten-month master of science program offers aspiring and experienced journalists the opportunity to study the skills and the ethics of journalism by reporting and writing stories that range from short news pieces to complex
The Associated Press is a U. S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a unincorporated association, its members are U. S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its practices; the AP has earned 52 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917. The AP has counted the vote in U. S. elections since 1848, including national and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish and town across the U. S. and declares winners in over 5,000 contests. The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English and Arabic. AP content is available on the agency's app, AP News. A 2017 study by NewsWhip revealed that AP content was more engaged with on Facebook than content from any individual English-language publisher; as of 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters.
The AP operates 263 news bureaus in 106 countries. It operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative; as part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP employs the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing which enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials. Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States' primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States.
The Associated Press was formed in May 1846 by five daily newspapers in New York City to share the cost of transmitting news of the Mexican–American War. The venture was organized by Moses Yale Beach, second publisher of The Sun, joined by the New York Herald, the New York Courier and Enquirer, The Journal of Commerce, the New York Evening Express; some historians believe. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851. Known as the New York Associated Press, the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press, which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. An investigation completed in 1892 by Victor Lawson and publisher of the Chicago Daily News, revealed that several principals of the NYAP had entered into a secret agreement with United Press, a rival organization, to share NYAP news and the profits of reselling it; the revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, the Western Associated Press was incorporated in Illinois as The Associated Press.
A 1900 Illinois Supreme Court decision —that the AP was a public utility and operating in restraint of trade—resulted in AP's move from Chicago to New York City, where corporation laws were more favorable to cooperatives. When the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity; the invention of the rotary press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour. During the Civil War and Spanish–American War, there was a new incentive to print vivid, on-the-spot reporting. Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP General Manager from 1893 to 1921, he embraced the standards of accuracy and integrity. The cooperative grew under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and, the Middle East, he introduced the "telegraph typewriter" or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914. In 1935, AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken.
This gave AP a major advantage over other news media outlets. While the first network was only between New York and San Francisco AP had its network across the whole United States. In 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. United States that the AP had been violating the Sherman Antitrust Act by prohibiting member newspapers from selling or providing news to nonmember organizations as well as making it difficult for nonmember newspapers to join the AP; the decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955. AP entered the broadcast field in 1941. In 1994, it established a global video newsgathering agency. APTV merged with WorldWide Television News in 1998 to form APTN, which provides video to international broadcasters and websites. In 2004, AP moved its world headquarters from its longtime home at 50 Rockefeller Plaza to a huge building at 450 West 33rd Street in Manhattan—which houses the New York Daily News and the studios of New York's public television station, WNET.
In 2009, AP had more than 240 bureaus globally. Its mission—"to gather with economy and efficiency an accurate and impartial report of the news"—has not changed since its founding, but digital technology has made the distribution of the AP news report an interact