Emacs or EMACS is a family of text editors that are characterized by their extensibility. The manual for the most used variant, GNU Emacs, describes it as "the extensible, self-documenting, real-time display editor". Development of the first Emacs began in the mid-1970s, work on its direct descendant, GNU Emacs, continues as of 2019. Emacs has over 10,000 built-in commands and its user interface allows the user to combine these commands into macros to automate work. Implementations of Emacs feature a dialect of the Lisp programming language that provides a deep extension capability, allowing users and developers to write new commands and applications for the editor. Extensions have been written to manage email, outlines, RSS feeds, as well as clones of ELIZA, Conway's Life and Tetris; the original EMACS was written in 1976 by Carl Mikkelsen, David A. Moon and Guy L. Steele Jr. as a set of Editor MACroS for the TECO editor. It was inspired by the ideas of the TECO-macro editors TECMAC and TMACS.
The most popular, most ported, version of Emacs is GNU Emacs, created by Richard Stallman for the GNU Project. XEmacs is a variant that branched from GNU Emacs in 1991. GNU Emacs and XEmacs are for the most part compatible with each other. Emacs is, along with vi, one of the two main contenders in the traditional editor wars of Unix culture. Emacs is among the open source projects still under development. Emacs development began during the 1970s at the MIT AI Lab, whose PDP-6 and PDP-10 computers used the Incompatible Timesharing System operating system that featured a default line editor known as Tape Editor and Corrector. Unlike most modern text editors, TECO used separate modes in which the user would either add text, edit existing text, or display the document. One could not place characters directly into a document by typing them into TECO, but would instead enter a character in the TECO command language telling it to switch to input mode, enter the required characters, during which time the edited text was not displayed on the screen, enter a character to switch the editor back to command mode.
This behavior is similar to that of the program ed. Richard Stallman visited the Stanford AI Lab in 1972 or 1974 and saw the lab's E editor, written by Fred Wright, he was impressed by the editor's intuitive WYSIWYG behavior, which has since become the default behavior of most modern text editors. He returned to MIT where Carl Mikkelsen, a hacker at the AI Lab, had added to TECO a combined display/editing mode called Control-R that allowed the screen display to be updated each time the user entered a keystroke. Stallman reimplemented this mode to run efficiently and added a macro feature to the TECO display-editing mode that allowed the user to redefine any keystroke to run a TECO program. E had another feature: random-access editing. TECO was a page-sequential editor, designed for editing paper tape on the PDP-1 and allowed editing on only one page at a time, in the order of the pages in the file. Instead of adopting E's approach of structuring the file for page-random access on disk, Stallman modified TECO to handle large buffers more efficiently and changed its file-management method to read and write the entire file as a single buffer.
All modern editors use this approach. The new version of TECO became popular at the AI Lab and soon accumulated a large collection of custom macros whose names ended in MAC or MACS, which stood for macro. Two years Guy Steele took on the project of unifying the diverse macros into a single set. Steele and Stallman's finished implementation included facilities for extending and documenting the new macro set; the resulting system was called EMACS, which stood for Editing MACroS or, alternatively, E with MACroS. Stallman picked the name Emacs "because <E> was not in use as an abbreviation on ITS at the time." An apocryphal hacker koan alleges that the program was named after Emack & Bolio's, a popular Cambridge ice cream store. The first operational EMACS system existed in late 1976. Stallman saw a problem in too much customization and de facto forking and set certain conditions for usage, he wrote: "EMACS was distributed on a basis of communal sharing, which means all improvements must be given back to me to be incorporated and distributed."The original Emacs, like TECO, ran only on the PDP-10 running ITS.
Its behavior was sufficiently different from that of TECO that it could be considered a text editor in its own right, it became the standard editing program on ITS. Mike McMahon ported Emacs from ITS to the TOPS-20 operating systems. Other contributors to early versions of Emacs include Kent Pitman, Earl Killian, Eugene Ciccarelli. By 1979, Emacs was the main editor used in its Laboratory for Computer Science. In the following years, programmers wrote a variety of Emacs-like editors for other computer systems; these included EINE and ZWEI, which were written for the Lisp machine by Mike McMahon and Daniel Weinreb, Sine, written by Owen Theodore Anderson. Weinreb's EINE was the first Emacs written in Lisp. In 1978, Bernard Greenberg wrote Multics Emacs entirely in Multics Lisp at Honeywell's Cambridge Information Systems Lab. Multics Emacs was maintained by Richard Soley, who went on to develop the NILE Emacs-like editor for the NIL Project, by Barry Margolin. Many versions of Emacs, including GNU Emacs, would adopt Lisp as an extension language.
James Gosling, who would invent Ne
WordPress is a free and open-source content management system based on PHP & MySQL. Features include a template system, it is most associated with blogging but supports other types of web content including more traditional mailing lists and forums, media galleries, online stores. Used by more than 60 million websites, including 33.6% of the top 10 million websites as of April 2019, WordPress is the most popular website management system in use. WordPress has been used for other application domains such as pervasive display systems. WordPress was released on May 27, 2003, by its founders, Matt Mullenweg and Mike Little, as a fork of b2/cafelog; the software is released under the GPLv2 license. To function, WordPress has to be installed on a web server, either part of an Internet hosting service like WordPress.com or a computer running the software package WordPress.org in order to serve as a network host in its own right. A local computer may be used for single-user learning purposes. "WordPress is a factory that makes webpages" is a core analogy designed to clarify what WordPress is & does.
It stores your content that allows you to create & publish webpages only requiring a domain and a hosting site to work. WordPress has a web template system using a template processor, its architecture is a front controller, routing all requests for non-static URIs to a single PHP file which parses the URI and identifies the target page. This allows support for more human-readable permalinks. WordPress users may switch among different themes. Themes allow users to change the look and functionality of a WordPress website without altering the core code or site content; every WordPress website requires at least one theme to be present and every theme should be designed using WordPress standards with structured PHP, valid HTML, Cascading Style Sheets. Themes may be directly installed using the WordPress "Appearance" administration tool in the dashboard, or theme folders may be copied directly into the themes directory, for example via FTP; the PHP, HTML and CSS found in themes can be directly modified to alter theme behavior, or a theme can be a "child" theme which inherits settings from another theme and selectively overrides features.
WordPress themes are classified into two categories: free and premium. Many free themes are listed in the WordPress theme directory, premium themes are available for purchase from marketplaces and individual WordPress developers. WordPress users may create and develop their own custom themes; the free theme Underscores created by the WordPress developers has become a popular basis for new themes. WordPress' plugin architecture allows users to extend the features and functionality of a website or blog; as of February 2019, WordPress.org has 54,402 plugins available, each of which offers custom functions and features enabling users to tailor their sites to their specific needs. However, this does not include the premium plugins that are available, which may not be listed in the WordPress.org repository. These customizations range from search engine optimization, to client portals used to display private information to logged in users, to content management systems, to content displaying features, such as the addition of widgets and navigation bars.
Not all available plugins are always abreast with the upgrades and as a result they may not function properly or may not function at all. Most plugins are available through WordPress themselves, either via downloading them and installing the files manually via FTP or through the WordPress dashboard. However, many third parties offer plugins through their own websites, many of which are paid packages. Web developers who wish to develop plugins need to learn WordPress' hook system which consists of over 300 hooks divided into two categories: action hooks and filter hooks. Native applications exist for WebOS, Android, iOS, Windows Phone, BlackBerry; these applications, designed by Automattic, have options such as adding new blog posts and pages, moderating comments, replying to comments in addition to the ability to view the stats. WordPress features integrated link management. Automatic filters are included, providing standardized formatting and styling of text in posts. WordPress supports the Trackback and Pingback standards for displaying links to other sites that have themselves linked to a post or an article.
WordPress posts can be edited in HTML, using the visual editor, or using one of a number of plugins that allow for a variety of customized editing features. Prior to version 3, WordPress supported one blog per installation, although multiple concurrent copies may be run from different directories if configured to use separate database tables. WordPress Multisites was a fork of WordPress created to allow multiple blogs to exist within one installation but is able to be administered by a centralized maintainer. WordPress MU makes it possible for those with websites to host their own blogging communities, as well as control and moderate all the blogs from a single dashboard. WordPress MS adds eight new data tables for each blog; as of the release of WordPress 3, WordPress MU has merged with WordPress. B2/cafelog, more known as b2 or cafelog, was the precursor to WordPress. B2/cafelog was estimated to have been installed on 2,000 blogs as of May 2003, it was written in PHP for use with MySQL by Michel Valdrighi
WYSIWYG is an acronym for "what you see is what you get". In computing, a WYSIWYG editor is a system in which content can be edited in a form resembling its appearance when printed or displayed as a finished product, such as a printed document, web page, or slide presentation. WYSIWYG implies a user interface that allows the user to view something similar to the end result while the document is being created. In general, WYSIWYG implies the ability to directly manipulate the layout of a document without having to type or remember names of layout commands; the actual meaning depends on the user's perspective, e.g. In presentation programs, compound documents, web pages, WYSIWYG means the display represents the appearance of the page displayed to the end-user, but does not reflect how the page will be printed unless the printer is matched to the editing program, as it was with the Xerox Star and early versions of the Apple Macintosh. In word processing and desktop publishing applications, WYSIWYG means that the display simulates the appearance and represents the effect of fonts and line breaks on the final pagination using a specific printer configuration, so that, for example, a citation on page 1 of a 500-page document can refer to a reference three hundred pages later.
WYSIWYG describes ways to manipulate 3D models in stereo-chemistry, computer-aided design, 3D computer graphics. Modern software does a good job of optimizing the screen display for a particular type of output. For example, a word processor is optimized for output to a typical printer; the software emulates the resolution of the printer in order to get as close as possible to WYSIWYG. However, not the main attraction of WYSIWYG, the ability of the user to be able to visualize what they are producing. In many situations, the subtle differences between what the user sees and what the user gets are unimportant. In fact, applications may offer multiple WYSIWYG modes with different levels of "realism", including A composition mode, in which the user sees something somewhat similar to the end result, but with additional information useful while composing, such as section breaks and non-printing characters, uses a layout, more conducive to composing than to layout. A layout mode, in which the user sees something similar to the end result, but with some additional information useful in ensuring that elements are properly aligned and spaced, such as margin lines.
A preview mode, in which the application attempts to present a representation, as close to the final result as possible. Before the adoption of WYSIWYG techniques, text appeared in editors using the system standard typeface and style with little indication of layout. Users were required to enter special non-printing control codes to indicate that some text should be in boldface, italics, or a different typeface or size. In this environment there was little distinction between text editors and word processors; these applications used an arbitrary markup language to define the codes/tags. Each program had its own special way to format a document, it was a difficult and time-consuming process to change from one word processor to another; the use of markup tags and codes remains popular today in some applications due to their ability to store complex formatting information. When the tags are made visible in the editor, they occupy space in the unformatted text and so disrupt the desired layout and flow.
Bravo, a document preparation program for the Alto produced at Xerox PARC by Butler Lampson, Charles Simonyi and colleagues in 1974, is considered the first program to incorporate WYSIWYG technology, displaying text with formatting. The Alto monitor was designed so that one full page of text could be seen and printed on the first laser printers; when the text was laid out on the screen, 72 PPI font metric files were used, but when printed 300 PPI files were used—thus one would find characters and words off, a problem that continues to this day. Bravo was released commercially and the software included in the Xerox Star can be seen as a direct descendant of it. In parallel with but independent of the work at Xerox PARC, Hewlett Packard developed and released in late 1978 the first commercial WYSIWYG software application for producing overhead slides or what today are called presentation graphics; the first release, named BRUNO, ran on the HP 1000 minicomputer taking advantage of HP's first bitmapped computer terminal the HP 2640.
BRUNO was ported to the HP-3000 and re-released as "HP Draw". By 1981 MicroPro advertised that its WordStar word processor had WYSIWYG, but its display was limited to displaying styled text in WYSIWYG fashion. In 1983 the Weekly Reader advertised its Stickybear educational software with the slogan "what you see is what you get", with photographs of its Apple II graphics, but home computers of the 1970s and early 1980s lacked the sophisticated graphics capabilities necessary to display WYSIWYG documents, meaning that such applications were confined to limited-purpose, high-end workstations that were too expensive for the general public to afford. Towards the mid-1980s, things began to change. Improving technology allowed the production of cheaper bitmapped displays, WYSIWYG software started to appear for more popular computers, including LisaWrite
Cursor (user interface)
In computer user interfaces, a cursor is an indicator used to show the current position for user interaction on a computer monitor or other display device that will respond to input from a text input or pointing device. The mouse cursor is called a pointer, owing to its resemblance in usage to a pointing stick. Cursor is Latin for'runner.' A cursor is the name given to the transparent slide engraved with a hairline, used for marking a point on a slide rule. The term was transferred to computers through analogy. In most command-line interfaces or text editors, the text cursor known as a caret, is an underscore, a solid rectangle, or a vertical line, which may be flashing or steady, indicating where text will be placed when entered. In text mode displays, it was not possible to show a vertical bar between characters to show where the new text would be inserted, so an underscore or block cursor was used instead. In situations where a block was used, the block was created by inverting the pixels of the character using the boolean math exclusive or function.
On text editors and word processors of modern design on bitmapped displays, the vertical bar is used instead. In a typical text editing application, the cursor can be moved by pressing various keys; these include the four arrow keys, the Page Up and Page Down keys, the Home key, the End key, various key combinations involving a modifier key such as the Control key. The position of the cursor may be changed by moving the mouse pointer to a different location in the document and clicking; the blinking of the text cursor is temporarily suspended when it is being moved. Some interfaces use an underscore or thin vertical bar to indicate that the user is in insert mode, a mode where text will be inserted in the middle of the existing text, a larger block to indicate that the user is in overtype mode, where inserted text will overwrite existing text. In this way, a block cursor may be seen as a piece of selected text one character wide, since typing will replace the text "in" the cursor with the new text.
A vertical line text cursor with a small left-pointing or right-pointing appendage are for indicating the direction of text flow on systems that support bi-directional text, is thus known among programmers as a'bidi cursor'. In some cases, the cursor may split into two parts, each indicating where left-to-right and right-to-left text would be inserted; the pointer or mouse cursor echoes movements of the pointing device a mouse, touchpad or trackball. This kind of cursor is used to manipulate elements of graphical user interfaces such as menus, scrollbars or any other widget, it may be called a "mouse pointer," because the mouse is the dominant type of pointing device used with desktop computers. The I-beam pointer is a cursor shaped like a serifed capital letter "I"; the purpose of this cursor is to indicate that the text beneath the cursor can be highlighted, sometimes inserted or changed. The idea of a cursor being used as a marker or insertion point for new data or transformations, such as rotation, can be extended to a 3D modeling environment.
Blender, for instance, uses a 3D cursor to determine. Susan Kare, designer of several of the common cursor shapes Creating and controlling browser cursors Cross-browser CSS custom cursors Installing A Cursor On Your Computer
Google Web Designer
Open-source software is a type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose. Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. Open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration. Open-source software development generates an more diverse scope of design perspective than any company is capable of developing and sustaining long term. A 2008 report by the Standish Group stated that adoption of open-source software models have resulted in savings of about $60 billion per year for consumers. In the early days of computing and developers shared software in order to learn from each other and evolve the field of computing; the open-source notion moved to the way side of commercialization of software in the years 1970-1980. However, academics still developed software collaboratively. For example Donald Knuth in 1979 with the TeX typesetting system or Richard Stallman in 1983 with the GNU operating system.
In 1997, Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar, a reflective analysis of the hacker community and free-software principles. The paper received significant attention in early 1998, was one factor in motivating Netscape Communications Corporation to release their popular Netscape Communicator Internet suite as free software; this source code subsequently became the basis behind SeaMonkey, Mozilla Firefox and KompoZer. Netscape's act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the Free Software Foundation's free software ideas and perceived benefits to the commercial software industry, they concluded that FSF's social activism was not appealing to companies like Netscape, looked for a way to rebrand the free software movement to emphasize the business potential of sharing and collaborating on software source code. The new term they chose was "open source", soon adopted by Bruce Perens, publisher Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, others; the Open Source Initiative was founded in February 1998 to encourage use of the new term and evangelize open-source principles.
While the Open Source Initiative sought to encourage the use of the new term and evangelize the principles it adhered to, commercial software vendors found themselves threatened by the concept of distributed software and universal access to an application's source code. A Microsoft executive publicly stated in 2001 that "open source is an intellectual property destroyer. I can't imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business and the intellectual-property business." However, while Free and open-source software has played a role outside of the mainstream of private software development, companies as large as Microsoft have begun to develop official open-source presences on the Internet. IBM, Oracle and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in today's competitive open-source market. There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of FOSS; the free-software movement was launched in 1983. In 1998, a group of individuals advocated that the term free software should be replaced by open-source software as an expression, less ambiguous and more comfortable for the corporate world.
Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be reserved by copyright law to the copyright holder. Several open-source software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the Open Source Definition; the most prominent and popular example is the GNU General Public License, which "allows free distribution under the condition that further developments and applications are put under the same licence", thus free. The open source label came out of a strategy session held on April 7, 1998 in Palo Alto in reaction to Netscape's January 1998 announcement of a source code release for Navigator. A group of individuals at the session included Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, Tom Paquin, Jamie Zawinski, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Sameer Parekh, Eric Allman, Greg Olson, Paul Vixie, John Ousterhout, Guido van Rossum, Philip Zimmermann, John Gilmore and Eric S. Raymond, they used the opportunity before the release of Navigator's source code to clarify a potential confusion caused by the ambiguity of the word "free" in English.
Many people claimed that the birth of the Internet, since 1969, started the open-source movement, while others do not distinguish between open-source and free software movements. The Free Software Foun