New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
The ATP Finals is the second highest tier of annual men's tennis tournament after the four Grand Slam tournaments. A week-long event, the tournament is held annually each November at the O2 Arena in London, United Kingdom; the ATP Finals are the season-ending championships of the ATP Tour and feature the top eight singles players and doubles teams of the ATP Rankings. The tournament was first held in 1970. Roger Federer holds the record for the most singles titles with six, while Peter Fleming and John McEnroe hold the record for the most doubles titles with seven. In the current tournament, winners are awarded up to 1500 ranking points; the event is the fourth evolution of a championship which began in 1970. It was known as the Masters Grand Prix and was part of the Grand Prix Tennis Circuit, it was organised by the International Lawn Tennis Federation. It ran alongside the competing WCT Finals the season-ending championships for the rival World Championship Tennis Tour; the Masters was a year-end showpiece event between the best players on the men's tour, but did not count for any world ranking points.
In 1990, the Association of Tennis Professionals took over the running of the men's tour and replaced the Masters with the ATP Tour World Championship. World ranking points were now at stake, with an undefeated champion earning the same number of points they would for winning one of the four Grand Slam events; the ITF, who continued to run the Grand Slam tournaments, created a rival year-end event known as the Grand Slam Cup, contested by the 16 players with the best records in Grand Slam competitions that year. In December 1999, the ATP and ITF agreed to discontinue the two separate events and create a new jointly-owned event called the Tennis Masters Cup; as with the Masters Grand Prix and the ATP Tour World Championships, the Tennis Masters Cup was contested by eight players. However, player, ranked number eight in the ATP Champion's Race world rankings does not have a guaranteed spot. If a player who wins one of the year's Grand Slam events finishes the year ranked outside the top eight but still within the top 20, he is included in the Tennis Masters Cup instead of the eighth-ranked player.
If two players outside the top eight win Grand Slam events, the higher placed player in the world rankings takes the final spot in the Tennis Masters Cup. In 2009, the Masters was renamed the ATP World Tour Finals and was held at The O2 in London from 2009 to 2013. In 2012, the organisers extended the contract by two years up to 2015. In 2015, the contract was extended again for three years up to 2018. In 2017 the event was renamed the ATP Finals and the contract with the O2 Arena was extended to 2020. In December 2018 it was announced that London, along with Manchester, Singapore and Turin were on a shortlist of five cities which made the cut from an initial list of 40 to host the event from 2021. For many years, the doubles event was held as a separate tournament the week after the singles competition, but more they have been held together in the same week and venue. For most of its history, the event has been considered as the most important indoor tennis tournament on the world tour, allowing for controlled conditions of play, regarding both surface type and illumination system.
In recent years it has been played on indoor hard courts, indoor carpet has featured for many editions previously. Once when Melbourne hosted it in 1974 the grass courts of Kooyong Stadium were used and occurred a few weeks before the 1974 Australian Open, which were played on grass. Apart from 1974, all tournaments have been on a hard court variant, which has prompted calls from Rafael Nadal to feature a mix of surfaces and include clay courts. However, this has drawn criticism as well as suggestions to reduce the number of clay court tournaments in the season and the ATP are not keen to change this aspect of the tournament. There are eight players or teams, playing is mandatory except for injury or other good cause. Qualification is as follows: the top seven players in the ATP rankings up to two grand slam winners ranked between 8 and 20 the next players in the ATP rankings, until the quota of eight is reached; the ATP Finals rewards the following points and prize money, per victory: 1 Prize money for doubles is per team.
There is an appearance fee of $203,000 singles, $100,000 per doubles team. The two alternates are paid $110,000 and $38,000. An undefeated champion would earn the maximum 1,500 points, $2,712,000 in singles or $517,000 in doubles. In addition, prizes include the Barclays ATP Singles and Doubles World Tour Finals Trophies and the ATP Tour World No.1 Trophy, all made by London-based silversmiths Thomas Lyte. Unlike all other singles events on the men's tour, the ATP Finals is not a straightforward knock-out tournament. Eight players are divided into two groups of four and play three round-robin matches each against the other players in their group; the two players with the best records in each group progress to the semifinals, with the winners meeting in the final to determine the champion. Though it is theoretically possible to advance to the semi-finals of the tournament with two round-robin losses no player in the history of the singles tournament has won the title after losing more than one round-robin match.
The current round robin format of two groups of four players progressing to a semifinal and final, has been in place for all editions of the tournament except the
The French Open called Roland-Garros, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland-Garros in Paris, France. The venue is named after the French aviator Roland Garros, it is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments, the other three being the Australian Open and the US Open. The French Open is the only Grand Slam event held on clay, it is the zenith of the spring clay court season; because of the seven rounds needed for a championship, the slow-playing surface and the best-of-five-set men's singles matches, the event is considered to be the most physically demanding tennis tournament in the world. Named in French Championnats Internationaux de France de tennis and Tournoi de Roland-Garros, the tournament is referred to in English as the "French Open" and alternatively as "Roland Garros", the designation used by the tournament itself in all languages. French spelling rules dictate that in the name of a place or event named after a person, the elements of the name are joined together with a hyphen.
Therefore, the names of the stadium and the tournament are hyphenated as Roland-Garros. In 1891 the Championnat de France, referred to in English as the French Championships, began, they were only open to tennis players. The first winner was a Briton—H. Briggs—who was a Paris resident; the first women's singles tournament, with four entries, was held in 1897. The mixed doubles event was added in 1902 and the women's doubles in 1907; this "French club members only" tournament was played until 1924, using four different venues during that period: Île de Puteaux, in Puteaux, played on sand laid out on a bed of rubble. The Racing Club de France, played on clay. For one year, 1909, it was played at the Société Athlétique de la Villa Primrose in Bordeaux, on clay. Tennis Club de Paris, at Auteuil, played on clay. Another tournament, the World Hard Court Championships, is sometimes considered the precursor to the French Open as it was open to international competitors, it was held on clay courts at Stade Français in Saint-Cloud from 1912 to 1914 after World War I, was contested there again in 1920, 1921 and 1923, with the 1922 tournament held at Brussels, Belgium.
Winners of this tournament included world No. 1's such as Tony Wilding from New Zealand and Bill Tilden from the US. In 1924 there was no World Hard Court Championships due to tennis being played at the Paris Olympic Games. In 1925, the French Championships became open to all amateurs internationally and was designated a major championship by the ILTF, it was held at the Stade Français on clay courts. In 1926 the Racing Club de France hosted the event in Paris, site of the previous French Championship on clay. After the Mousquetaires or Philadelphia Four won the Davis Cup on American soil in 1927, the French decided to defend the cup in 1928 at a new tennis stadium at Porte d'Auteuil; the Stade de France had offered the tennis authorities three hectares of land with the condition that the new stadium must be named after the World War I pilot, Roland Garros. The new Stade de Roland Garros, its Center Court hosted that Davis Cup challenge. In 1928, the French Internationals were moved there, the event has been held there since.
During World War II the tournament was held from 1941 through 1945 on the same grounds but these editions are not recognized by the French governing body, Fédération Française de Tennis. In 1946 and 1947, the French Championships were held after Wimbledon, making it the third Grand Slam event of the year. In 1968, the French Championships became the first Grand Slam tournament to go open, allowing both amateurs and professionals to compete. Since 1981, new prizes have been presented: the Prix Citron and the Prix Bourgeon. In another novelty, since 2006 the tournament has begun on a Sunday, featuring 12 singles matches played on the three main courts. Additionally, on the eve of the tournament's opening, the traditional Benny Berthet exhibition day takes place, where the profits go to different charity associations. In March 2007, it was announced that the event would provide equal prize money for both men and women in all rounds for the first time. In 2010, it was announced that the French Open was considering a move away from Roland Garros as part of a continuing rejuvenation of the tournament.
Plans to renovate and expand Roland Garros have put aside any such consideration, the tournament remains in its long time home. Clay courts slow down the ball and produce a high bounce when compared to grass courts or hard courts. For this reason, clay courts take away some of the advantages of big servers and serve-and-volleyers, which makes it hard for these types of players to dominate on the surface. For example, Pete Sampras, known for his huge serve and who won 14 Grand Slam titles, never won the French Open – his best result was reaching the semi-finals in 1996. Other notable players who have won multiple Grand Slam events but have never won the French Open i
1979 Grand Prix (tennis)
The 1979 Colgate-Palmolive Grand Prix was a professional tennis circuit held that year. It consisted of four Grand Slam tournaments, the Grand Prix tournaments and the Nations Cup, a team event; the table below shows the 1979 Colgate-Palmolive Grand Prix schedule. The tournaments listed above were divided into twelve point categories; the highest points were allocated to the Grand Slam tournaments. Points were allocated based on these categories and the finishing position of a player in a tournament; the points table is based on a 32 player draw. No points were awarded to first-round losers and advancements by default were equal to winning a round; the points allocation, with doubles points listed in brackets, is as follows: 1- John McEnroe 2. Björn Borg 3. Jimmy Connors 4. Guillermo Vilas 5. Vitas Gerulaitis 6. Roscoe Tanner 7. José Higueras 8. Harold Solomon 9. Eddie Dibbs 10. Víctor Pecci The list of winners and number of singles titles won, alphabetically by last name: John Alexander Louisville Victor Amaya Surbiton Vijay Amritraj Bombay Björn Borg Richmond WCT, Boca Raton, Monte Carlo, Las Vegas, French Open, Wimbledon, Båstad, Palermo, Tokyo Indoor, WCT Challenge Cup José Luis Clerc Johannesburg Jimmy Connors Birmingham, Memphis, Indianapolis, Hong Kong Phil Dent Brisbane, Sydney Outdoor Eddie Dibbs Forest Hills WCT Peter Feigl Linz, Cairo Wojciech Fibak Denver, Stuttgart Indoor Peter Fleming Cincinnati, Los Angeles Vitas Gerulaitis Rome, Kitzbühel, Sydney Indoor Hans Gildemeister Barcelona, Santiago Brian Gottfried Columbus, Basel José Higueras Houston, Boston Hans Kary Lagos Johan Kriek Sarasota Robert Lutz Taiwan Gene Mayer Cologne John McEnroe New Orleans, San Jose, Dallas WCT, Queen's Club, South Orange, US Open, San Francisco, Wembley Peter McNamara Berlin Bernard Mitton Costa Rica Terry Moor Tokyo Outdoor Yannick Noah Nancy, Bordeaux Tom Okker Tel Aviv Manuel Orantes Munich Andrew Pattison Johannesburg Victor Pecci Nice, Bogotá Ulrich Pinner Gstaad Raúl Ramírez Florence Marty Riessen Lafayette Bill Scanlon Maui Tomáš Šmíd Stuttgart Outdoor Stan Smith Cleveland, Vienna Harold Solomon Baltimore WCT, North Conway, Bercy Roscoe Tanner Rancho Mirage, Washington Indoor Balázs Taróczy Brussels, Hilversum Brian Teacher Newport Guillermo Vilas Hobart, Washington, D.
C. Buenos Aires, Australian Open Butch Walts Dayton, Bologna Kim Warwick Adelaide Tim Wilkison AucklandThe following players won their first title in 1979: Hans Gildemeister Barcelona Hans Kary Lagos Johan Kriek Sarasota Peter McNamara Berlin World Championship Tennis 1979 WTA Tour ATP Archive 1979: Colgate Palmolive Grand Prix Tournaments. ATP – History Mens Professional Tours. Collins, Bud; the Bud Collins History of Tennis: An Authoritative Encyclopedia and Record Book. New York: New Chapter Press. ISBN 978-0-942257-70-0
1981 Grand Prix (tennis)
The 1981 Volvo Grand Prix was the only men's professional tennis circuit held that year. It consisted of the Grand Prix tournaments; the World Championship Tennis Tour was incorporated into the Grand Prix circuit. The WCT tour consisted of eight regular tournaments, a season's final, three tournaments categorized as special events and a doubles championship. In total 89 tournaments were held divided over 29 countries; the circuit was administered by the Men's International Professional Tennis Council. The table below shows the 1981 Volvo Grand Prix schedule; the tournaments listed above were divided into twelve point categories. The highest points were allocated to the Grand Slam tournaments. Points were allocated based on these categories and the finishing position of a player in a tournament; the points table is based on a 32 player draw. No points were awarded to first-round losers and advancements by default were equal to winning a round; the points allocation, with doubles points listed in brackets, is as follows: 1.
Ivan Lendl 2. John McEnroe 3. Jimmy Connors 4. José Luis Clerc 5. Guillermo Vilas 6. Björn Borg 7. Roscoe Tanner 8. Eliot Teltscher 9. Vitas Gerulaitis 10. Yannick Noah The list of winners and number of singles titles won, alphabetically by last name: Björn Borg French Open, Stuttgart Outdoor, Geneva José Luis Clerc Florence, Boston, Washington, D. C. North Conway, Indianapolis Jimmy Connors La Quinta, Rotterdam, Wembley Kevin Curren Johannesburg Eddie Dibbs Forest Hills WCT, Quito Mark Edmondson Adelaide, Brisbane Wojciech Fibak Gstaad Jaime Fillol Mexico City John Fitzgerald Kitzbühel Vitas Gerulaitis Johannesburg Sammy Giammalva Napa Hans Gildemeister Santiago Shlomo Glickstein South Orange Andrés Gómez Bordeaux Brian Gottfried Stowe Johan Kriek Monterrey WCT, Australian Open Ramesh Krishnan Manila Ivan Lendl Stuttgart Indoor, Las Vegas, Barcelona, Vienna, Buenos Aires Chris Lewis Munich Mario Martínez Venice Gene Mayer Memphis, Cleveland, Stockholm Sandy Mayer Bologna John McEnroe Boca Raton, Frankfurt, Los Angeles, Dallas WCT, Cincinnati, US Open, Sydney Indoor Peter McNamara Hamburg, Melbourne Indoor Richard Meyer Sofia Yannick Noah Richmond WCT, Nice Gianni Ocleppo Linz Manuel Orantes Palermo Marko Ostoja Brussels Víctor Pecci Viña del Mar, Bournemouth Mel Purcell Tampa, Tel Aviv Bill Scanlon Auckland, Bangkok Pavel Složil Nancy Roscoe Tanner Philadelphia Balázs Taróczy Monte Carlo, Tokyo Outdoor Brian Teacher Columbus Eliot Teltscher Puerto Rico, San Francisco Thierry Tulasne Båstad Vince Van Patten Tokyo Indoor Robert Van't Hof Taiwan Guillermo Vilas Mar del Plata, Houston Mark Vines Bercy Tim Wilkison Sydney Outdoor Van Winitsky Hong KongThe following players won their first title in 1981: Kevin Curren Johannesburg John Fitzgerald Kitzbühel Sammy Giammalva Napa Andrés Gómez Bordeaux Ramesh Krishnan Manila Mel Purcell Tampa Pavel Složil Nancy Thierry Tulasne Båstad World Championship Tennis 1981 WTA Tour ATP Archive 1981 Volvo Grand Prix Tournaments Collins, Bud.
The Bud Collins History of Tennis: An Authoritative Encyclopedia and Record Book. New York: New Chapter Press. ISBN 978-0-942257-70-0
The Championships, Wimbledon
The Championships, Wimbledon known as Wimbledon, is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, is regarded by many as the most prestigious. It has been held at the All England Club in Wimbledon, since 1877 and is played on outdoor grass courts. Wimbledon is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, the others being the Australian Open, the French Open and the US Open. Since the Australian Open shifted to hardcourt in 1988, Wimbledon is the only major still played on grass; the tournament traditionally took place over two weeks in late June and early July, starting on the last Monday in June and culminating with the Ladies' and Gentlemen's Singles Finals, scheduled for the Saturday and Sunday at the end of the second week. However recent changes to the tennis calendar have seen the event moved back by a week to begin in early July. Five major events are held each year, with additional junior and invitational competitions taking place. Wimbledon traditions include a strict dress code for Royal patronage.
Strawberries and cream is traditionally consumed at the tournament. In 2017, fans consumed 10,000 litres of cream; the tournament is notable for the absence of sponsor advertising around the courts, except the advertisements of Rolex. In 2009, Wimbledon's Centre Court was fitted with a retractable roof to lessen the loss of playing time due to rain; the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club is a private club founded on 23 July 1868 as "The All England Croquet Club". Its first ground was at Nursery Road off Worple Road, Wimbledon. In 1876, lawn tennis, a game devised by Major Walter Clopton Wingfield a year or so earlier as an outdoor version of court tennis and given the name Sphairistikè, was added to the activities of the club. In spring 1877, the club was renamed "The All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club" and signalled its change of name by instituting the first Lawn Tennis Championship. A new code of laws, replacing the code administered by the Marylebone Cricket Club, was drawn up for the event.
Today's rules are similar except for details such as the height of the net and posts and the distance of the service line from the net. The inaugural 1877 Wimbledon Championship started on 9 July 1877 and the Gentlemen's Singles was the only event held, it was won by Spencer Gore, an old Harrovian rackets player, from a field of 22. About 200 spectators paid one shilling each to watch the final; the lawns at the ground were arranged so that the principal court was in the middle with the others arranged around it, hence the title "Centre Court". The name was retained when the Club moved in 1922 to the present site in Church Road, although no longer a true description of its location. However, in 1980 four new courts were brought into commission on the north side of the ground, which meant the Centre Court was once more described; the opening of the new No. 1 Court in 1997 emphasised the description. By 1882, activity at the club was exclusively confined to lawn tennis and that year the word "croquet" was dropped from the title.
However, for sentimental reasons it was restored in 1899. In 1884, the club added Gentlemen's Doubles competitions. Ladies' Doubles and Mixed Doubles events were added in 1913; until 1922, the reigning champion had to play only in the final, against whomever had won through to challenge him/her. As with the other three Major or Grand Slam events, Wimbledon was contested by top-ranked amateur players; this changed with the advent of the open era in 1968. No British man won the singles event at Wimbledon between Fred Perry in 1936 and Andy Murray in 2013, while no British woman has won since Virginia Wade in 1977, although Annabel Croft and Laura Robson won the Girls' Championship in 1984 and 2008 respectively; the Championship was first televised in 1937. Though properly called "The Championships, Wimbledon", depending on sources the event is known as "The All England Lawn Tennis Championships", "The Wimbledon Championships" or "Wimbledon". From 1912 to 1924, the tournament was recognized by the International Lawn Tennis Federation as the "World Grass Court Championships".
Wimbledon is considered the world's premier tennis tournament and the priority of the Club is to maintain its leadership. To that end a long-term plan was unveiled in 1993, intended to improve the quality of the event for spectators, players and neighbours. Stage one of the plan was completed for the 1997 championships and involved building the new No. 1 Court in Aorangi Park, a broadcast centre, two extra grass courts and a tunnel under the hill linking Church Road and Somerset Road. Stage two involved the removal of the old No. 1 Court complex to make way for the new Millennium Building, providing extensive facilities for players, press and members, the extension of the West Stand of the Centre Court with 728 extra seats. Stage three has been completed with the construction of an entrance building, club staff housing, museum and ticket office. A new retractable roof was built in time for the 2009 championships, marking the first time that rain did not stop play for a lengthy time on Centre Court.
The Club tested the new roof at an event called A Centre Court Celebration on Sunday, 17 May 2009, which featured exhibition matches involving Andre Agassi, Steffi Graf, Kim Clijsters and Tim Henman. The first Championship match to take place under the roof was the completion of the fourth round women's singles match between Dinara Safina and Amélie Mauresmo; the first match to be played in its entirety under the new roof took place between Andy Murray and Stanislas Wawrinka on 29 June 2009. Murray was involve