Steel frame is a building technique with a "skeleton frame" of vertical steel columns and horizontal I-beams, constructed in a rectangular grid to support the floors and walls of a building which are all attached to the frame. The development of this technique made the construction of the skyscraper possible; the rolled steel "profile" or cross section of steel columns takes the shape of the letter "I". The two wide flanges of a column are thicker and wider than the flanges on a beam, to better withstand compressive stress in the structure. Square and round tubular sections of steel can be used filled with concrete. Steel beams are connected to the columns with bolts and threaded fasteners, connected by rivets; the central "web" of the steel I-beams is wider than a column web to resist the higher bending moments that occur in beams. Wide sheets of steel deck can be used to cover the top of the steel frame as a "form" or corrugated mold, below a thick layer of concrete and steel reinforcing bars.
Another popular alternative is a floor of precast concrete flooring units with some form of concrete topping. In office buildings, the final floor surface is provided by some form of raised flooring system with the void between the walking surface and the structural floor being used for cables and air handling ducts; the frame needs to be protected from fire because steel softens at high temperature and this can cause the building to collapse. In the case of the columns this is done by encasing it in some form of fire resistant structure such as masonry, concrete or plasterboard; the beams may be cased in concrete, plasterboard or sprayed with a coating to insulate it from the heat of the fire or it can be protected by a fire-resistant ceiling construction. Asbestos was a popular material for fireproofing steel structures up until the early 1970s, before the health risks of asbestos fibres were understood; the exterior "skin" of the building is anchored to the frame using a variety of construction techniques and following a huge variety of architectural styles.
Bricks, reinforced concrete, architectural glass, sheet metal and paint have been used to cover the frame to protect the steel from the weather. This is known as LSF or Lightweight Steel Framing. Thin sheets of galvanized steel can be cold formed into steel studs for use as a structural or non structural building material for both external and partition walls in both residential and industrial construction projects; the dimension of the room is established with horizontal track, anchored to the floor and ceiling to outline each room. The vertical studs are arranged in the tracks spaced 16" apart, fastened at the top and bottom; the typical profiles used in residential construction are the C-shape stud and the U-shaped track, a variety of other profiles. Framing members are produced in a thickness of 12 to 25 gauge. Heavy gauges, such as 12 and 14 gauge, are used when axial loads are high such as in loadbearing construction. Medium-heavy gauges, such as 16 and 18 gauge, are used when there are no axial loads but heavy lateral loads such as exterior wall studs that need to resist hurricane-force wind loads along coasts.
Light gauges, such as 25 gauge, are used where there are no axial loads and light lateral loads such as in interior construction where the members serve as framing for demising walls between rooms. The wall finish is anchored to the two flange sides of the stud, which varies from 1-1/4" to 3" thick, the width of web ranges from 1-5/8" to 14". Rectangular sections are removed from the web to provide access for electrical wiring. Steel mills produce galvanized sheet steel, the base material for the manufacture of cold formed steel profiles. Sheet steel is roll-formed into the final profiles used for framing; the sheets are zinc coated to prevent corrosion. Steel framing provides excellent design flexibility due to the high strength to weight ratio of steel, which allows it to span over a long distances, resist wind and earthquake loads. Steel framed walls can be designed to offer excellent thermal and acoustic properties - one of the specific considerations when building using cold formed steel is that thermal bridging can occur across the wall system between the outside environment and interior conditioned space.
Thermal bridging can be protected against by installing a layer of externally fixed insulation along the steel framing - referred to as a'thermal break'. The spacing between studs is 16 inches on center for homes exterior and interior walls depending on designed loading requirements. In office suites the spacing is 24 inches on center for all walls except for elevator and staircasewells; the use of steel for structural purposes was slow. The Bessemer process in 1855 made steel production more efficient, cheap steels, which had high tensile and compressive strengths plus good ductility were available from about 1870, but wrought and cast iron continued to satisfy most of the demand for iron-based building products, due to problems of producing steel from alkaline ores; these problems, caused principally by the presence of phosphorus, were solved by Sidney Gilchrist Thomas in 1879. It was not until 1880. By that date the quality of steels being produced had become reasonably consistent; the Home Insurance Building, completed in 1885, was the first to use skeleton frame construction removing the load bearing function of its masonry cladding.
In this case the iron columns are embedded in the walls, thei
University of Toronto
The University of Toronto is a public research university in Toronto, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in the colony of Upper Canada. Controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed the present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution; as a collegiate university, it comprises eleven colleges, which differ in character and history, each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs. It has two satellite campuses in Mississauga; the university is ranked as the best Canadian university, according to various major publications. Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for influential movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory, known collectively as the Toronto School; the university was the birthplace of insulin and stem cell research, was the site of the first practical electron microscope, the development of deep learning, multi-touch technology, the identification of the first black hole Cygnus X-1, the development of the theory of NP-completeness.
By a significant margin, it receives the most annual scientific research funding of any Canadian university. It is one of two members of the Association of American Universities outside the United States, the other being McGill University in Montreal, Canada; the Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, with long and storied ties to gridiron football and ice hockey. The earliest recorded college football game was played in the University of Toronto's University College in the 1860s; the university's Hart House is an early example of the North American student centre serving cultural and recreational interests within its large Gothic-revival complex. The University of Toronto has educated three Governors General of Canada, four Prime Ministers of Canada, four foreign leaders, fourteen Justices of the Supreme Court; as of March 2019, ten Nobel laureates, five Turing Award winners, 94 Rhodes Scholars, one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with the university.
The founding of a colonial college had long been the desire of John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada. As an Oxford-educated military commander who had fought in the American Revolutionary War, Simcoe believed a college was needed to counter the spread of republicanism from the United States; the Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 that a college be established in York, the colonial capital. On March 15, 1827, a royal charter was formally issued by King George IV, proclaiming "from this time one College, with the style and privileges of a University... for the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion, for their instruction in the various branches of Science and Literature... to continue for to be called King's College." The granting of the charter was the result of intense lobbying by John Strachan, the influential Anglican Bishop of Toronto who took office as the college's first president. The original three-storey Greek Revival school building was built on the present site of Queen's Park.
Under Strachan's stewardship, King's College was a religious institution aligned with the Church of England and the British colonial elite, known as the Family Compact. Reformist politicians opposed the clergy's control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college secularized. In 1849, after a lengthy and heated debate, the newly elected responsible government of Upper Canada voted to rename King's College as the University of Toronto and severed the school's ties with the church. Having anticipated this decision, the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open Trinity College as a private Anglican seminary. University College was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto. During the American Civil War, the threat of Union blockade on British North America prompted the creation of the University Rifle Corps, which saw battle in resisting the Fenian raids on the Niagara border in 1866; the Corps was part of the Reserve Militia lead by Professor Henry Croft.
Established in 1878, the School of Practical Science was precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, nicknamed Skule since its earliest days. While the Faculty of Medicine opened in 1843, medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887, when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine. Meanwhile, the university continued to confer medical degrees; the university opened the Faculty of Law in 1887, followed by the Faculty of Dentistry in 1888, when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate. Women were first admitted to the university in 1884. A devastating fire in 1890 gutted the interior of University College and destroyed 33,000 volumes from the library, but the university restored the building and replenished its library within two years. Over the next two decades, a collegiate system took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges, including Strachan's Trinity College in 1904; the university operated the Royal Conservatory of Music from 1896 to 1991 and the Royal Ontario Museum from 1912 to 1968.
The University of Toronto Press was founded in 1901 as Canada's first academic publishing house. The Faculty of Forestry, founded in 1907 with Bernhard Fernow as dean, was Canada's first university faculty devoted to forest science. In 1910, the Faculty of Education opened its laboratory school, the University of Toro
The Canadian dollar is the currency of Canada. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or sometimes Can$ or C$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies, it is divided into 100 cents. Owing to the image of a loon on the one-dollar coin, the currency is sometimes referred to as the loonie by foreign exchange traders and analysts, as it is by Canadians in general, or huard in French. Accounting for 2% of all global reserves, the Canadian dollar is the fifth most held reserve currency in the world, behind the U. S. dollar, the euro, the yen and the pound sterling. The Canadian dollar is popular with central banks because of Canada's relative economic soundness, the Canadian government's strong sovereign position, the stability of the country's legal and political systems; the 1850s were a decade of wrangling over whether to adopt a sterling monetary system or a decimal monetary system based on the US dollar. The British North American provinces, for reasons of practicality in relation to the increasing trade with the neighbouring United States, had a desire to assimilate their currencies with the American unit, but the imperial authorities in London still preferred sterling as the sole currency throughout the British Empire.
The British North American provinces nonetheless adopted currencies tied to the American dollar. In 1841, the Province of Canada adopted a new system based on the Halifax rating; the new Canadian pound was equal to four US dollars, making one pound sterling equal to 1 pound, 4 shillings, 4 pence Canadian. Thus, the new Canadian pound was worth 5.3 pence sterling. In 1851, the Parliament of the Province of Canada passed an act for the purposes of introducing a pound sterling unit in conjunction with decimal fractional coinage; the idea was that the decimal coins would correspond to exact amounts in relation to the U. S. dollar fractional coinage. In response to British concerns, in 1853 an act of the Parliament of the Province of Canada introduced the gold standard into the colony, based on both the British gold sovereign and the American gold eagle coins; this gold standard was introduced with the gold sovereign being legal tender at £1 = US$4.86 2⁄3. No coinage was provided for under the 1853 act.
Sterling coinage was made legal tender and all other silver coins were demonetized. The British government in principle allowed for a decimal coinage but held out the hope that a sterling unit would be chosen under the name of "royal". However, in 1857, the decision was made to introduce a decimal coinage into the Province of Canada in conjunction with the U. S. dollar unit. Hence, when the new decimal coins were introduced in 1858, the colony's currency became aligned with the U. S. currency, although the British gold sovereign continued to remain legal tender at the rate of £1 = 4.86 2⁄3 right up until the 1990s. In 1859, Canadian colonial postage stamps were issued with decimal denominations for the first time. In 1861, Canadian postage stamps were issued with the denominations shown in cents. In 1860, the colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia followed the Province of Canada in adopting a decimal system based on the U. S. dollar unit. Newfoundland went decimal in 1865, but unlike the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, it decided to adopt a unit based on the Spanish dollar rather than on the U.
S. dollar, there was a slight difference between these two units. The U. S. dollar was created in 1792 on the basis of the average weight of a selection of worn Spanish dollars. As such, the Spanish dollar was worth more than the U. S. dollar, the Newfoundland dollar, until 1895, was worth more than the Canadian dollar. The Colony of British Columbia adopted the British Columbia dollar as its currency in 1865, at par with the Canadian dollar; when British Columbia joined Confederation in 1871, the Canadian dollar replaced the British Columbia dollar. In 1871, Prince Edward Island went decimal within the U. S. dollar unit and introduced coins for 1¢. However, the currency of Prince Edward Island was absorbed into the Canadian system shortly afterwards, when Prince Edward Island joined the Dominion of Canada in 1873. In 1867, the provinces of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia united in a federation named Canada and the three currencies were merged into the Canadian dollar; the Canadian Parliament passed the Uniform Currency Act in April 1871, tying up loose ends as to the currencies of the various provinces and replacing them with a common Canadian dollar.
The gold standard was temporarily abandoned during the First World War and definitively abolished on April 10, 1933. At the outbreak of the Second World War, the exchange rate to the U. S. dollar was fixed at C$1.10 = US$1.00. This was changed to parity in 1946. In 1949, sterling was devalued and Canada followed, returning to a peg of C$1.10 = US$1.00. However, Canada allowed its dollar to float in 1950, whereupon the currency rose to a slight premium over the U. S. dollar for the next decade. But the Canadian dollar fell after 1960 before it was again pegged in 1962 at C$1.00 = US$0.925. This was sometimes pejoratively referred to as the "Diefenbuck" or the "Diefendollar", after the Prime Minister, John Diefenbaker; this peg lasted until 1970. Canadian English, like American English, used the slang term "buck" for a former paper dollar; the Canadian origin of this term derives from a coin struck by the Hudson's Bay Company during the 17th century with a value equal to the pelt of a male beaver – a "buck".
Because of the appearance of the common loon on the back of the $1 coin that replaced the dollar bill in 1987, the word "loonie" was adopted in Canadian parla
A rose window or Catherine window is used as a generic term applied to a circular window, but is used for those found in churches of the Gothic architectural style that are divided into segments by stone mullions and tracery. The name "rose window" was not used before the 17th century and according to the Oxford English Dictionary, among other authorities, comes from the English flower name rose; the term "wheel window" is applied to a window divided by simple spokes radiating from a central boss or opening, while the term "rose window" is reserved for those windows, sometimes of a complex design, which can be seen to bear similarity to a multi-petalled rose. Rose windows are called Catherine windows after Saint Catherine of Alexandria, sentenced to be executed on a spiked wheel. A circular window without tracery such as are found in many Italian churches, is referred to as an ocular window or oculus. Rose windows are characteristic of Gothic architecture and may be seen in all the major Gothic Cathedrals of Northern France.
Their origins are much earlier and rose windows may be seen in various forms throughout the Medieval period. Their popularity was revived, with other medieval features, during the Gothic revival of the 19th century so that they are seen in Christian churches all over the world. Oculi: These could be open or blind, could be filled with thin alabaster. During the late Gothic period large ocular windows were common in Italy, being used in preference to traceried windows and being filled with elaborate pictures in stained glass designed by the most accomplished Late Medieval and Early Renaissance designers including Duccio, Donatello and Ghiberti. Wheel Windows: These windows had a simple tracery of spokes radiating either from a central boss or from a central roundel. Popular during the Romanesque period and Gothic Italy, they are found across Europe but Germany and Italy, they occur in Romanesque Revival buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries. Plate Tracery: Rose windows with pierced openings rather than tracery occur in the transition between Romanesque and Gothic in France and most notably at Chartres.
The most notable example in England is the north transept window, known as the "Dean's Eye" in Lincoln Cathedral. These windows are found in 19th-century Revival buildings. Early Gothic: Rose windows with tracery comprising overlapping arcs like flower petals and square shapes; this form occurs in Northern France, notably at Laon Cathedral and England. This style of window is popular in Gothic Revival architecture for the similarity that it has to a flower and is utilised with specific reference to Our Lady of the Rosary. Rayonnant Gothic: The rose windows are divided by mullions radiating from a central roundel, overlapping in a complex design, each light terminating in a pointed arch and interspersed with quatrefoils and other such shapes. Many of the largest rose windows in France are of this type, notably those at Paris and in the transepts of St Denis. An example in England is that in the north transept of Westminster Abbey; this style occurs in Gothic churches and is widely imitated in Gothic Revival buildings.
Flamboyant Gothic: The style is marked by S-curves in the tracery causing each light to take on a flamelike or "flamboyant" shape. Many windows are composed of regularly shaped lights the richness of design dependent on the multiplicity of parts. Good examples are at Paris; some Late Gothic rose windows are of immense complexity of design using elements of the Gothic style in unexpected ways. A magnificent example is that of the façade of Amiens Cathedral. Although the design radiates from a central point, it may not be symmetrical about each axis; this may be seen in the Flamboyant Decorated Gothic window called the "Bishop’s Eye" at Lincoln Cathedral in which the design takes the form of two ears of wheat. Renaissance: The Renaissance made a break with the Gothic style, a return to the Classical. Plain untraceried oculi were sometimes employed, either in Classical pediments or around domes as at the Pazzi Chapel, Florence. Baroque: The Baroque style saw much greater use of ocular windows, which were not always circular, but oval or of a more complex shape.
They were untraceried or crossed by mullions of simple form but were surrounded by ornate carving. The purpose of such windows was the subtle illumination of interior spaces, without resorting to large windows offering external visibility, they form a dominant visual element to either the façade or the interior as do the great Gothic windows. However, there are some notable exceptions, in particular the glorious burst of light which pours through the oval alabaster window depicting the Holy Spirit in the Reredos behind the High Altar of St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome. Modern: Modern circular windows, which are most of a simple ocular type, have an eclectic range of influences which includes abstract art, ship's portholes and the unglazed circular openings of Oriental architecture; the origin of the rose. These large circular openings let in both light and air, the best known being that at the top of the dome of the Pantheon. Windows with stone tracery make their emergence in Antiquity. Geometrical patterns of roses are developed and common in Roman mosaic.
In Early Christian and Byzantine architecture, there are examples of the use of circular oculi. They occur either around the drum of a dome, as at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, or high in the end of a gable of low-pitched Classical pediment form, as at Sant'Agnese fuori le mura and Torcello Cathedral. A window of
Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs. It is commonplace in wooden buildings from the 19th century and earlier. If the structural frame of load-bearing timber is left exposed on the exterior of the building it may be referred to as half-timbered, in many cases the infill between timbers will be used for decorative effect; the country most known for this kind of architecture is Germany. Timber framed houses are spread all over the country except in the southeast; the method comes from working directly from trees rather than pre-cut dimensional lumber. Hewing this with broadaxes and draw knives and using hand-powered braces and augers and other woodworking tools, artisans or framers could assemble a building. Since this building method has been used for thousands of years in many parts of the world, many styles of historic framing have developed.
These styles are categorized by the type of foundation, walls and where the beams intersect, the use of curved timbers, the roof framing details. A simple timber frame made of straight vertical and horizontal pieces with a common rafter roof without purlins; the term box frame has been used for any kind of framing. The distinction presented here is. Purlins are found in plain timber frames. A cruck is a pair of curved timbers which form a bent or crossframe. More than 4,000 cruck frame buildings have been recorded in the UK. Several types of cruck frames are used. True cruck or full cruck: blades, straight or curved, extend from ground or foundation to the ridge acting as the principal rafters. A full cruck does not need a tie beam. Base cruck: tops of the blades are truncated by the first transverse member such as by a tie beam. Raised cruck: blades land on masonry wall, extend to the ridge. Middle cruck: blades land on masonry wall, are truncated by a collar. Upper cruck: blades land on a tie beam similar to knee rafters.
Jointed cruck: blades are made from pieces joined near eaves in a number of ways. See also: hammerbeam roof End cruck is not a style, but on the gable end of a building. Aisled frames have one or more rows of interior posts; these interior posts carry more structural load than the posts in the exterior walls. This is the same concept of the aisle in church buildings, sometimes called a hall church, where the center aisle is technically called a nave. However, a nave is called an aisle, three-aisled barns are common in the U. S. the Netherlands, Germany. Aisled buildings are wider than the simpler box-framed or cruck-framed buildings, have purlins supporting the rafters. In northern Germany, this construction is known as variations of a Ständerhaus. Half-timbering refers to a structure with a frame of load-bearing timber, creating spaces between the timbers called panels, which are filled-in with some kind of nonstructural material known as infill; the frame is left exposed on the exterior of the building.
The earliest known type of infill, called opus craticum by the Romans, was a wattle and daub type construction. Opus craticum is now confusingly applied to a Roman stone/mortar infill as well. Similar methods to wattle and daub were used and known by various names, such as clam staff and daub, cat-and-clay, or torchis, to name only three. Wattle and daub was the most common infill in ancient times; the sticks were not always technically wattlework, but individual sticks installed vertically, horizontally, or at an angle into holes or grooves in the framing. The coating of daub has many recipes, but was a mixture of clay and chalk with a binder such as grass or straw and water or urine; when the manufacturing of bricks increased, brick infill replaced the less durable infills and became more common. Stone laid in mortar as an infill was used in areas where mortar were available. Other infills include bousillage, fired brick, unfired brick such as adobe or mudbrick, stones sometimes called pierrotage, planks as in the German ständerbohlenbau, timbers as in ständerblockbau, or cob without any wooden support.
The wall surfaces on the interior were “ceiled” with wainscoting and plastered for warmth and appearance. Brick infill sometimes called nogging became the standard infill after the manufacturing of bricks made them more available and less expensive. Half-timbered walls may be covered by siding materials including plaster, tiles, or slate shingles; the infill may be covered by other materials, including weatherboarding or tiles. or left exposed. When left exposed, both the framing and infill were sometimes done in a decorative manner. Germany is famous for its decorative half-timbering and the figures sometimes have names and meanings; the decorative manner of half-timbering is promoted in Germany by the German Timber-Frame Road, several planned routes people can drive to see notable examples of Fachwerk buildings. Gallery of infill types: Gallery of some named figures and decorations: The collection of elements in half timbering are sometimes given specific names: The term half-timbering is not as old as the German name Fachwerk or the French name colombage, but it is the standard English name for this style.
One of the first people to publish the term "half-timbered" was Mary Martha Sherwood, who employed it in her book, T
Edwardian architecture is an architectural style popular during the reign of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom. Architecture up to the year 1914 may be included in this style. Edwardian architecture is less ornate than high or late Victorian architecture, apart from a subset – used for major buildings – known as Edwardian Baroque architecture; the Victorian Society campaigns to preserve architecture built between 1837 and 1914, so includes Edwardian as well as Victorian architecture within its remit. Colour: lighter colours were used. Patterns: "Decorative patterns were less complex. Clutter: "There was less clutter than in the Victorian era. Ornaments were grouped rather than everywhere." Victorian Art Nouveau Georgian Arts and Crafts Federation Edwardian era Edwardian Baroque architecture Federation architecture Victorian architecture Gray, A. S. Edwardian Architecture: a Biographical Dictionary. Long, H; the Edwardian House: the Middle-Class Home in Britain 1880-1914. Hockman, H. Service, A. Edwardian Architecture: Edwardian House Style Handbook David & Charles ISBN 0-7153-2780-1 Thames & Hudson ISBN 0-500-18158-6 www.buildinghistory.org Edwardian Architecture www.bbc.co.uk Period Style: Edwardian
A facade is one exterior side of a building the front. It is a foreign loan word from the French façade, which means "frontage" or "face". In architecture, the facade of a building is the most important aspect from a design standpoint, as it sets the tone for the rest of the building. From the engineering perspective of a building, the facade is of great importance due to its impact on energy efficiency. For historical facades, many local zoning regulations or other laws restrict or forbid their alteration; the word comes from the French foreign loan word façade, which in turn comes from the Italian facciata, from faccia meaning face from post-classical Latin facia. The earliest usage recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is 1656, it was quite common in the Georgian period for existing houses in English towns to be given a fashionable new facade. For example, in the city of Bath, The Bunch of Grapes in Westgate Street appears to be a Georgian building, but the appearance is only skin deep and some of the interior rooms still have Jacobean plasterwork ceilings.
This new construction has happened in other places: in Santiago de Compostela the 3-metres-deep Casa do Cabido was built to match the architectural order of the square, the main Churrigueresque facade of the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, facing the Praza do Obradoiro, is encasing and concealing the older Portico of Glory. In modern highrise building, the exterior walls are suspended from the concrete floor slabs. Examples include precast concrete walls; the facade can at times be required to have a fire-resistance rating, for instance, if two buildings are close together, to lower the likelihood of fire spreading from one building to another. In general, the facade systems that are suspended or attached to the precast concrete slabs will be made from aluminium or stainless steel. In recent years more lavish materials such as titanium have sometimes been used, but due to their cost and susceptibility to panel edge staining these have not been popular. Whether rated or not, fire protection is always a design consideration.
The melting point of aluminium, 660 °C, is reached within minutes of the start of a fire. Firestops for such building joints can be qualified, too. Putting fire sprinkler systems on each floor has a profoundly positive effect on the fire safety of buildings with curtain walls; some building codes limit the percentage of window area in exterior walls. When the exterior wall is not rated, the perimeter slab edge becomes a junction where rated slabs are abutting an unrated wall. For rated walls, one may choose rated windows and fire doors, to maintain that wall's rating. On a film set and within most themed attractions, many of the buildings are only facades, which are far cheaper than actual buildings, not subject to building codes. In film sets, they are held up with supports from behind, sometimes have boxes for actors to step in and out of from the front if necessary for a scene. Within theme parks, they are decoration for the interior ride or attraction, based on a simple building design. Façades: Principles of Construction.
By Ulrich Knaack, Tillmann Klein, Marcel Bilow and Thomas Auer. Boston/Basel/Berlin: Birkhaüser-Verlag, 2007. ISBN 978-3-7643-7961-2 ISBN 978-3-7643-7962-9 Giving buildings an illusion of grandeur Facades of Casas Chorizo in Buenos Aires, Argentina Poole, Thomas. "Façade". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company; the article outlines the development of the facade in ecclesiastical architecture from the early Christian period to the Renaissance