Ontario New Democratic Party
The Ontario New Democratic Party is a social-democratic political party in Ontario, Canada. The Ontario NDP, led by Andrea Horwath since March 2009 forms the Official Opposition in Ontario following the 2018 general election, it is a provincial section of the federal New Democratic Party. It was formed in October 1961 from the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation and the Ontario Federation of Labour. For many years, the Ontario NDP was the most successful provincial NDP branch outside the national party's western heartland, it had its first breakthrough under its first leader, Donald C. MacDonald in the 1967 provincial election, when the party elected 20 Members of Provincial Parliament to the Ontario Legislative Assembly. After the 1970 leadership convention, Stephen Lewis became leader, guided the party to Official Opposition status in 1975, the first time since the Ontario CCF did it twice in the 1940s. After the party's disappointing performance in the 1977 provincial election, that included losing second party status, Lewis stepped down and Michael Cassidy was elected leader in 1978.
Cassidy led the party through the 1981 election. The party did poorly again, Cassidy resigned. In 1982, Bob Rae was elected leader. Under his leadership, in 1985, the party held the balance-of-power with the signing of an accord with the newly elected Liberal minority government. After the 1987 Ontario general election, the ONDP became the Official Opposition again; the 1990 Ontario general election produced the ONDP's breakthrough first government in 1990. The victory produced the first NDP provincial government east of Manitoba, but it took power just when Canada's economy was in a recession, as a result of unpopular economic policies it was defeated in 1995. Rae stepped down as leader in 1996. Howard Hampton was elected leader in at the 1996 Hamilton convention, led the party through three elections. Hampton's period as leader saw the ONDP lose official party status twice: after the 1999 and 2003 elections, he was able to regain party status the first time after the governing Progressive Conservatives revised party status requirements in accordance with that election's reduction in the number of seats in the legislature, the second time after winning a string of by-elections in the mid-2000s.
The party maintained party status after the 2007 Ontario general election and he stepped down as leader in 2009. Andrea Horwath replaced him after she was elected leader at the 2009 leadership convention in Hamilton. Under her leadership in the 2011 Ontario general election, the party elected 17 MPPs to the legislature and in the 2014 Ontario general election, the party elected 21 MPPs. Under Horwath, the party achieved its second highest seat count when it formed the Official Opposition with 40 MPPs after the 2018 Ontario general election; the NDP's predecessor, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, was a democratic socialist political party, founded in 1932. The Ontario CCF in turn was indirectly the successor to the 1919–23 United Farmers of Ontario–Labour coalition that formed the government in Ontario under Ernest C. Drury; as the Ontario Co-operative Commonwealth Federation under Ted Jolliffe as their first leader, the party nearly won the 1943 provincial election, winning 34 seats and forming the official opposition for the first time.
Two-years they would be reduced to 8 seats. The final glory for the Ontario CCF came in the 1948 provincial election, when party elected 21 MPPs, again formed the official opposition, they were able to defeat Premier George A. Drew in his own constituency, when the CCF's Bill Temple won in High Park though the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario won another majority government; the breaking point for the Ontario CCF came in 1951. They were reduced to two MPP's in that year's provincial election, never recovered. In the two remaining elections while it existed, the party never had more than five members in the legislature. Jolliffe resigned as leader in 1953. Donald C. MacDonald became leader in 1953, spent the next fifteen years rebuilding the party, from two seats when he took over the party's helm, to ten times that number when he stepped down in 1970. Delegates from the Ontario CCF, delegates from affiliated union locals, delegates from New Party Clubs took part in the founding convention of the New Democratic Party of Ontario held in Niagara Falls at the Sheraton Brock hotel from 7–9 October 1961 and elected MacDonald as their leader.
The Ontario CCF Council ceased to exist formally on Sunday, 8 October 1961, when the newly elected NDP executive took over. The Ontario NDP picked up seats through the 1960s, it achieved a breakthrough in the 1967 provincial election, when its popular vote rose from 15% to 26%. The party increased its presence in the legislature from 8 to 20 seats. In that election the party ran on the themes of the cost of living, tax distribution, education costs, Canadian unity, housing. Stephen Lewis took over the party's leadership in 1970, the NDP's popularity continued to grow. With the 1975 provincial election, the governing Progressive Conservative party was reduced to a minority government for the first time in thirty years; the charismatic and dynamic Lewis ran a strong election campaign that forced the Tories to promise to implement the NDP's rent control policies. The NDP overtook the Liberals to become the Official Opposition with 29 % of the vote. However, the Tories retained power as a minority government.
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New Democratic Party
The New Democratic Party is a social democratic federal political party in Canada. The party was founded in 1961 out of the merger of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation with the Canadian Labour Congress; the party sits to the left of the Liberal Party of Canada within the Canadian political spectrum. The current leader of the federal NDP is Jagmeet Singh; the NDP has been Canada's third- or fourth-largest party in Parliament. Following the 1993 federal election the NDP was reduced to fourth place behind the Bloc Québécois, a position it would maintain for the next 18 years. In the 2011 federal election under the leadership of Jack Layton, the NDP won the second largest number of seats in the House of Commons, gaining the position of Official Opposition for the first time in the party's history; the NDP lost 59 seats during the 2015 federal election and fell to third place in Parliament, though it is their second best seat count to date. The federal and provincial level NDPs are more integrated than other political parties in Canada, have shared membership.
In 1956, after the birth of the Canadian Labour Congress by a merger of two previous labour congresses, negotiations began between the CLC and the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation to bring about an alliance between organized labour and the political left in Canada. In 1958 a joint CCF-CLC committee, the National Committee for the New Party, was formed to create a "new" social-democratic political party, with ten members from each group; the NCNP spent the next three years laying down the foundations of the New Party. During this process, a large number of New Party Clubs were established to allow like-minded Canadians to join in its founding, six representatives from New Party Clubs were added to the National Committee. In 1961, at the end of a five-day long Founding Convention which established its principles and structures, the New Democratic Party was born and Tommy Douglas, the long-time CCF Premier of Saskatchewan, was elected its first leader. In 1960, before the NDP was founded, one candidate, Walter Pitman, won a by-election under the New Party banner.
The influence of organized labour on the party is still reflected in the party's conventions as affiliated trade unions send delegates on a formula based on their number of members. Since one-quarter of the convention delegates have been from affiliated labour groups, after the party changed to an one member, one vote method of electing leaders in leadership races, labour delegate votes are scaled to 25% of the total number of ballots cast for leader. At the 1971 leadership convention, an activist group called The Waffle tried to take control of the party, but were defeated by David Lewis with the help of the union members; the following year, most of The Waffle formed their own party. The NDP itself supported the minority government formed by the Pierre Trudeau–led Liberals from 1972 to 1974, although the two parties never entered into a coalition. Together they succeeded in passing several progressive initiatives into law such as pension indexing and the creation of the crown corporation Petro-Canada.
In 1974, the NDP worked with the Progressive Conservatives to pass a motion of non-confidence, forcing an election. However, it backfired as Trudeau's Liberals regained a majority government at the expense of the NDP, which lost half its seats. Lewis resigned as leader the following year. Under the leadership of Ed Broadbent, the NDP attempted to find a more populist image to contrast with the governing parties, focusing on more pocketbook issues than on ideological fervor; the party played a critical role during Joe Clark's minority government of 1979–1980, moving the non-confidence motion on John Crosbie's budget that brought down the Progressive Conservative government, forced the election that brought Trudeau's Liberal Party back to power. The result in 1980 created two unexpected results for the party: The first was an offer by Trudeau to form a coalition government to allow for greater Western representation in Cabinet and a "united front" regarding the upcoming Quebec referendum. Broadbent, aware that the NDP would have no ability to hold the balance of power and thus no leverage in the government, declined out of fear the party would be subsumed.
The second was Trudeau's Canada Bill to patriate the Constitution of Canada unilaterally and to bring about what would become the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Broadbent endorsed the initiative, directly opposed by the NDP government of Saskatchewan and many of the party's Western parties and members, creating severe internal tension. Broadbent would act as a moderating influence on Trudeau during the debates, the eventual compromise that brought about the Constitution Act, 1982 was authored by Saskatchewan NDP Attorney General and future premier Roy Romanow. In the 1984 election, which saw the Progressive Conservatives win the most seats in Canadian history, the NDP won 30 seats, while the governing Liberals fell to 40 seats. Struggles within the governing Conservatives and opposition Liberals would see dramatic rise in the NDP's polling fortunes; the NDP set a then-record of 43 Members of Parliament elected to the house in the election of 1988. The Liberals, had reaped most of the benefits of opposing free trade to emerge as the dominant alternative to the ruling government.
In 1989, Broadbent stepped down after 14 years as federal leader of the NDP. At the party's leadership convention in 1989, former B. C. Premier Dave Barrett and Yukon MP Audrey McLaughlin
1974 Canadian federal election
The 1974 Canadian federal election was held on July 8, 1974, to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 30th Parliament of Canada. The governing Liberal Party was reelected, going from a minority to a majority government, gave Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau his third term; the Progressive Conservatives, led by Robert Stanfield, did well in the Atlantic provinces, in the West, but the Liberal support in Ontario and Quebec ensured a majority Liberal government. The previous election had resulted in the Liberals emerging as the largest party, but far short of a majority, only two seats ahead of the Progressive Conservatives, they were able to form a government with the support of the New Democratic Party, but the NDP withdrew their backing in May 1974 and voted with the Progressive Conservatives to bring down Trudeau's government in protest of a budget proposed by finance minister John Turner, which the opposition parties felt did not go far enough to control spiralling inflation.
The issue of inflation would become key in the election campaign. Stanfield had proposed a "90-day price freeze" to break the momentum of inflation. Trudeau had ridiculed this policy as an intrusion on the rights of businesses and employees to set or negotiate their own prices and wages with the catch-phrase, "Zap! You're frozen!" In 1975, Trudeau introduced his own wage and price control system under the auspices of the "Anti-Inflation Board". While polls at the election's outset had projected that the Progressive Conservatives would at least win a minority government, they in fact lost nearly a dozen seats; the Conservative campaign was hurt by other factors, including Stanfield giving what was considered to be a poor interview after the vote of no confidence in Trudeau's government, in which he could not name any potential Tory policies for the forthcoming election, by a bungled photo op in the campaign when he attempted to play catch with some assembled journalists, only to fumble and drop the football.
The New Democratic Party, led by David Lewis, lost less than two-and-a-half percentage points in the popular vote, but lost half of their seats in the House of Commons. It was the worst result in the party's history up until that point, with only their performances in 1993 and 2000 to date being worse, they were hurt principally by the collapse of their vote in British Columbia. Their poor showing was blamed on Lewis hinting prior to the election that he would back Stanfield over Trudeau in the event of another hung parliament - which may have caused left-wing voters to vote for the Liberals in order to keep the Tories out of power - and by an unpopular mineral tax introduced by the provincial British Columbia government of Dave Barrett, which would lead to Barrett's government suffering a landslide loss in the following year's provincial election; the Social Credit Party of Canada, led by Réal Caouette, continued to lose ground, fell to 11 seats, one short of the number required to be recognized as a party in the House of Commons.
This status was nonetheless extended to the party by the governing Liberals, who believed that Social Credit's support came at the expense of the Tories. One seat was won in New Brunswick by independent candidate Leonard Jones. Jones, the former mayor of Moncton, had secured the Progressive Conservative nomination, but PC leader Stanfield refused to sign Jones' nomination papers because he was a vocal opponent of official bilingualism, which the PC Party supported. Jones had opposed providing services in French in the City of Moncton though 30% of the city's population was francophone. Jones won as an independent. After the election, Social Credit leader Caouette invited Jones to join the Socred caucus, which would have given that party enough members for official status. Caouette justified the invitation on the basis that Jones agreed with providing bilingual education at the primary school level. Jones declined Caouette's invitation, sat as an independent. Of the four major party leaders, only Trudeau would remain in place for the following federal election five years later.
Stanfield, having failed to defeat the Liberals in any of his three elections as leader, faced pressure to stand down and did so in 1976, being succeeded by Joe Clark. Lewis's position was rendered untenable by the loss of his own seat, he was forced to stand down within a year of the election. Caouette, who had only been able to play a minimal role in the election due to injuries sustained in a snowmobiling accident, stood down as leader of the Socreds in late 1976 and died not long afterwards. Note: "% change" refers to change from previous election xx - less than 0.05% of the popular vote. Number of parties: 6 First appearance: Marxist–Leninist Party of Canada Final appearance: none List of Canadian federal general elections List of political parties in Canada 30th Canadian parliament
Gilbert "Gib" Parent, was a Canadian Member of Parliament. He is best known in his role of Speaker of the House of Commons of Canada between 1994 and 2001. Parent was born on July 25, 1935, in Mattawa and his janitor father moved the young family to Welland, Ontario, he went to St. Joseph's College on a football scholarship, earned a teaching certificate from the Ontario College of Education. Prior to his election to the House of Commons, he worked as a teacher and was vice-principal at Thorold Secondary School. Parent was elected to Parliament six times as a member of the Liberal Party of Canada, he was first elected in the 1974 election representing the riding of St. Catharines, he was re-elected in the 1979, 1980. Parent was defeated in the 1984 election as Brian Mulroney's Progressive Conservative Party swept to power, but regained his seat four years in 1988, was re-elected in the 1993 and 1997 elections, his riding's name was subsequently changed to Welland Welland—St. Catharines—Thorold and Niagara Centre.
Under Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, Parent served, at different times between 1977 and 1981, as Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Veterans Affairs, to the Minister of Labour and to the Minister of State. Parent was first elected Speaker in January 1994. In the House, Parent was forced into the challenge of presiding over a five-party Parliament that resulted from the emergence of the Bloc Québécois and the Reform Party. Upon being re-elected to the position in September 1997, he told the Montreal Gazette that he expected the different voices in Parliament, informed by strong opinions on all sides, would make the House the lively place it should be. Parent died at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto at the age of 73 of pneumonia while recovering from colon cancer surgery, he is survived by his brothers, Gerald Parent and Romeo Parent, wife of 39 years, Joan Parent, their 4 daughters, Michele Hundertmark, Monique Finley, Madeleine Thomas, Terri Perruzza and 13 grandchildren, partner Sandra Page, 2 daughters and 1 grandchild.
Gilbert Parent – Parliament of Canada biography
Liberal Party of Canada
The Liberal Party of Canada is the oldest and longest-serving governing political party in Canada. The Liberals form the current government, elected in 2015; the party has dominated federal politics for much of Canada's history, holding power for 69 years in the 20th century—more than any other party in a developed country—and as a result, it is sometimes referred to as Canada's "natural governing party". The party espouses the principles of liberalism, sits at the centre to centre-left of the Canadian political spectrum, with the Conservative Party positioned to the centre-right and the New Democratic Party, occupying the left. Like their federal Conservative Party rivals, the party is defined as a "big tent", attracting support from a broad spectrum of voters. In the late 1970s, Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau claimed that his Liberal Party adhered to the "radical centre"; the Liberals' signature policies and legislative decisions include universal health care, the Canada Pension Plan, Canada Student Loans, multilateralism, official bilingualism, official multiculturalism, patriating the Canadian constitution and the entrenchment of Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Clarity Act, making same-sex marriage and cannabis use legal nationwide.
In the 2015 federal election, the Liberal Party under Justin Trudeau had its best result since the 2000 election, winning 39.5 percent of the popular vote and 184 seats, gaining a majority of seats in the House of Commons. The Liberals are descended from the mid-19th century Reformers who agitated for responsible government throughout British North America; these included George Brown, Alexander Mackenzie, Robert Baldwin, William Lyon Mackenzie and the Clear Grits in Upper Canada, Joseph Howe in Nova Scotia, the Patriotes and Rouges in Lower Canada led by figures such as Louis-Joseph Papineau. The Clear Grits and Parti rouge sometimes functioned as a united bloc in the legislature of the Province of Canada beginning in 1854, a united Liberal Party combining both English and French Canadian members was formed in 1861. At the time of confederation of the former British colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the radical Liberals were marginalized by the more pragmatic Conservative coalition assembled under Sir John A. Macdonald.
In the 29 years after Canadian confederation, the Liberals were consigned to opposition, with the exception of one stint in government. Alexander Mackenzie was the de facto leader of the Official Opposition after Confederation and agreed to become the first official leader of the Liberal Party in 1873, he was able to lead the party to power for the first time in 1873, after the MacDonald government lost a vote of no confidence in the House of Commons due to the Pacific Scandal. Mackenzie subsequently won the 1874 election, served as Prime Minister for an additional four years. During the five years the Liberal government brought in many reforms, which include the replacement of open voting by secret ballot, confining elections to one day and the creation of the Supreme Court of Canada, the Royal Military College of Canada, the Office of the Auditor General; however the party was only able to build a solid support base in Ontario, in 1878 lost the government to MacDonald. The Liberals would spend the next 18 years in opposition.
In their early history, the Liberals were the party of opposition to imperialism. The Liberals became identified with the aspirations of Quebecers as a result of the growing hostility of French Canadians to the Conservatives; the Conservatives lost the support of French Canadians because of the role of Conservative governments in the execution of Louis Riel and their role in the Conscription Crisis of 1917, their opposition to French schools in provinces besides Quebec. It was. Laurier was able to capitalize on the Tories' alienation of French Canada by offering the Liberals as a credible alternative. Laurier was able to overcome the party's reputation for anti-clericalism that offended the still-powerful Quebec Roman Catholic Church. In English-speaking Canada, the Liberal Party's support for reciprocity made it popular among farmers, helped cement the party's hold in the growing prairie provinces. Laurier led the Liberals to power in the 1896 election, oversaw a government that increased immigration in order to settle Western Canada.
Laurier's government created the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta out of the North-West Territories, promoted the development of Canadian industry. Until the early part of the century, the Liberal Party was a loose, informal coalition of local and regional bodies with a strong national party leader and caucus but with an informal and regionalized extra-parliamentary organizational structure. There was no national membership of the party, an individual became a member by joining a provincial Liberal party. Laurier called the party's first national convention in 1893 in order to unite Liberal supporters behind a programme and build the campaign that brought the party to power in 1896; as a result of the party's defeats in the 1911 and 1917 federal elections, Laurier attempted to organize the party on a national level by creating three bodies: the Central Liberal Information Office, the National Liberal Advisory Committee, the National Liberal Organization Committee. Howev
St. Catharines is the largest city in Canada's Niagara Region and the sixth largest urban area in Ontario, with 96.13 square kilometres of land and 133,113 residents in 2016. It lies in Southern Ontario, 51 kilometres south of Toronto across Lake Ontario, is 19 kilometres inland from the international boundary with the United States along the Niagara River, it is the northern entrance of the Welland Canal. Residents of St. Catharines are known as St. Cathariners. St. Catharines carries the official nickname "The Garden City" due to its 1,000 acres of parks and trails. St. Catharines is between the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area and the Canada–U. S. Border at Fort Erie. Manufacturing is the city's dominant industry, as noted by the heraldic motto, "Industry and Liberality". General Motors of Canada, Ltd. the Canadian subsidiary of General Motors, was the city's largest employer, a distinction now held by the District School Board of Niagara. THK Rhythm Automotive TRW, operates a plant in the city, though in recent years employment there has shifted from heavy industry and manufacturing to services.
St. Catharines lies on one of the main telecommunications backbones between Canada and the United States, as a result a number of call centres operate in the city, it is designated an Urban Growth Centre by the Growth Plan for the Greater Golden Horseshoe, intended to achieve a minimum density target of 150 jobs and residents combined per hectare by 2031 or earlier. The city was first settled by Loyalists in the 1780s; the Crown granted them land in compensation for losses in the United States. Early histories credit Serjeant Jacob Dittrick and Private John Hainer of Butler's Rangers, as among the first to come to the area, they took their Crown Patents where Dick's Creek and 12 Mile Creek merge, now the city centre of St. Catharines. Although never documented, some local St. Catharines historians speculate that Dick's Creek was named after Richard Pierpoint, a Black Loyalist and former American slave. Secondary to water routes, native trails provided transportation networks, resulting in the present-day radial road pattern from the City centre.
The surrounding land was surveyed and Townships created between 1787 and 1789. After the Butler's Rangers disbanded in 1784 and settled the area, Duncan Murray as a former Quartermaster in the 84th Regiment of Foot was appointed by the Crown to distribute free Government supplies for 2 years to the resettled Loyalists, he did this from his mill, built on the 12 Mile Creek in Power Glen. After his death in 1786, his holdings were forfeited to merchant Robert Hamilton of Queenston. Hamilton tried to operate for profit the well-established Murray's Distribution Centre and Mill under the management of his cousin. Among other ventures, Hamilton became land wealthy, expropriating lands from subsistence Loyalist settlers who were incapable of settling their debts. Murray's distribution centre Hamilton's warehouse, its location have long been a mystery. Hamilton's major profits were derived from transhipping supplies for the military and civic establishments from his Queenston enterprise, not from charitably supplying the subsistence Loyalist settlers.
Hamilton lacked interest in social development and sold his business to Jesse Thompson before the turn of the 18th century. The small settlement was known as "The Twelve" and as "Murray's District" to military and civic officials, but the local residents in 1796 and earlier referred to it as St. Catharines; this is confirmed in St. Catharines’ first history, written by J. P. Merritt: "to be accurate the name St. Catharines preceded all of these..."The Merritt family arrived after this time, among the Loyalists to relocate following the American Revolution. They were from New York state and New Brunswick. In 1796, Thomas Merritt arrived to build on his relationship with his former Commander and Queen's Ranger, John Graves Simcoe, now the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada. At an unknown early date, an inn was built by Thomas Adams on the east side of what is now Ontario Street, it became a community meeting place, election centre, stagecoach stop, mail delivery deposit. This was preceded by the church and a log school house completed before 1797, all on the east bank of the 12 Mile Creek at the extreme west end of what was known at that time as Main Street.
This was an extension of the old Iroquois Trail and was renamed St. Paul Street by the settlers and descendant by the mid-19th century. Several mills, salt works, numerous retail outlets, a ship building yard and various other businesses were developed next; the first Welland Canal was constructed from 1824 to 1833 behind what is now known as St. Paul Street, using Twelve Mile and Dick's Creek. William Hamilton Merritt worked to promote the ambitious venture, both by raising funds and by enlisting government support; the canal established St. Catharines as the hub of industry for the Niagara Peninsula. Incorporated as a village in 1845, St. Catharines had a population of about 3500 in 1846; the primary industry was flour milling. Other industry included ship repairs, four grist mills, a brewery, three distilleries, a tannery, a foundry, a machine and pump factory. There were tradesmen of many types, three bank agencies, eight taverns; the train had not yet arrived but stage coaches offered service to other towns and villages.
There were six churches or chapels, a post office that received mail daily, a grammar school and a weekly newspaper. William Hamilton Merritt played a role in making St. Catharines a centre of abolitionist activity. In 1855, the British Methodist Episcopal Church, Salem Chapel was established at the