2003 New Democratic Party leadership election
The New Democratic Party leadership election of 2003 was held to replace New Democratic Party of Canada leader Alexa McDonough, after her retirement. It ended on January 25, 2003, with the first ballot victory of popular Toronto city councillor Jack Layton; the election was the first to be conducted under the NDP's new partial one member, one vote system, in which the popular vote of the members is weighted for 75% of the result. The rest are votes cast by delegates for affiliated organizations, it was the first Canadian leadership convention to allow Internet voting. The race was heated, with the leaders campaigning to NDP audiences across Canada. One of the most notable events of the campaign occurred at the convention in Toronto, the day before the election, when candidate Pierre Ducasse made a stirring speech. Ducasse's speech attracted widespread praise, although its late delivery was unable to sway the postal and internet votes, cast. At the time of the election, Jack Layton was the Toronto City Councillor for Ward 30 and vice chair of Toronto Hydro, a former university lecturer and environmental consultant.
He had lost in both the 1993 and 1997 federal elections. His emphases included homelessness, affordable housing, opposing violence, the natural environment and the green economy. While other campaigns stressed federal experience, Layton's campaign contended that his record on Toronto council and as former president of the Federation of Canadian Municipalities encompassed national issues and would transfer to the federal stage, that as Alexa McDonough had on her election as leader, he could lead the party from outside Parliament until winning his own seat. Endorsements: Ed Broadbent, Svend Robinson, Libby Davies, former Ontario NDP leader Stephen Lewis Date campaign launched: July 22, 2002 At the time of the election, Bill Blaikie was the MP for Winnipeg-Transcona, the NDP House leader and the critic on intergovernmental affairs, the Solicitor General, parliamentary reform, he had been a Member of Parliament for over 20 years. His emphases included trade, Medicare and the environment, his parliamentary experience.
An ordained minister in the United Church of Canada, Blaikie was a prominent heir to the Social Gospel, Christian left tradition rooted in the NDP. Endorsements: MPs Wendy Lill, Judy Wasylycia-Leis, Pat Martin, Bev Desjarlais, Dick Proctor and Yvon Godin, Manitoba Premier Gary Doer, Ontario New Democratic Party leader Howard Hampton and several former MPs Date campaign launched: June 17, 2002 Lorne Nystrom was the MP for Regina—Qu'Appelle at the time of the election, the NDP critic of economic policy, banks, national revenue, public accounts, Crown corporations and electoral reform. Through his 29 years in Parliament, it was the third time. Nystrom campaigned on the issue of electoral reform. Other emphases included practical left-wing economics. Date campaign launched: July 31, 2002 Joe Comartin was the MP for Windsor—St. Clair and the environment critic at the time of the election, his election in 2000 had been the first federal win for the NDP in Ontario in ten years, he helped add a second Ontario seat with Brian Masse's win in the neighbouring Windsor West in 2002.
His emphases included Mideast peace and support for UN resolutions on Palestine, his campaign reached out prominently to the Muslim Canadian community. Endorsements: MP Brian Masse Pierre Ducasse was the Associate President of the NDP at the time of the election, his underdog campaign stressed building the party toward electoral success. It drew on Ducasse's background in co-operative economics. Endorsements: Ken Georgetti, president of the Canadian Labour Congress Bev Meslo was a Vancouver-area activist and represented the New Democratic Party Socialist Caucus in the leadership election. NOTES:The labour votes at convention were weighted to equal 1/3 of the total membership votes cast; this was done to ensure that labour held 25% of the total votes cast for Leader, as required by the NDP Constitution. As a result, the vote of each labour delegate was equal to 15.2 membership votes. Campaign contributions were those reported on the interim financial statements, as of November 30, 2002. June 5: Alexa McDonough announces she will step down as leader.
June 17: Bill Blaikie declares his candidacy. July 5–7: The NDP Federal Council convenes to adopt rules. June 25: Pierre Ducasse declares his candidacy. July 22: Jack Layton declares his candidacy. July 30: Bev Meslo declares her candidacy. July 31: Lorne Nystrom declares his candidacy. August 13: Joe Comartin declares his candidacy. November 26: Final day for candidates to declare candidacy. December 12: Last day to become an NDP member who can vote. January 24: The convention begins in Toronto, Ontario. January 25: Ballots are cast, Layton declared victorious
New Democratic Party
The New Democratic Party is a social democratic federal political party in Canada. The party was founded in 1961 out of the merger of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation with the Canadian Labour Congress; the party sits to the left of the Liberal Party of Canada within the Canadian political spectrum. The current leader of the federal NDP is Jagmeet Singh; the NDP has been Canada's third- or fourth-largest party in Parliament. Following the 1993 federal election the NDP was reduced to fourth place behind the Bloc Québécois, a position it would maintain for the next 18 years. In the 2011 federal election under the leadership of Jack Layton, the NDP won the second largest number of seats in the House of Commons, gaining the position of Official Opposition for the first time in the party's history; the NDP lost 59 seats during the 2015 federal election and fell to third place in Parliament, though it is their second best seat count to date. The federal and provincial level NDPs are more integrated than other political parties in Canada, have shared membership.
In 1956, after the birth of the Canadian Labour Congress by a merger of two previous labour congresses, negotiations began between the CLC and the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation to bring about an alliance between organized labour and the political left in Canada. In 1958 a joint CCF-CLC committee, the National Committee for the New Party, was formed to create a "new" social-democratic political party, with ten members from each group; the NCNP spent the next three years laying down the foundations of the New Party. During this process, a large number of New Party Clubs were established to allow like-minded Canadians to join in its founding, six representatives from New Party Clubs were added to the National Committee. In 1961, at the end of a five-day long Founding Convention which established its principles and structures, the New Democratic Party was born and Tommy Douglas, the long-time CCF Premier of Saskatchewan, was elected its first leader. In 1960, before the NDP was founded, one candidate, Walter Pitman, won a by-election under the New Party banner.
The influence of organized labour on the party is still reflected in the party's conventions as affiliated trade unions send delegates on a formula based on their number of members. Since one-quarter of the convention delegates have been from affiliated labour groups, after the party changed to an one member, one vote method of electing leaders in leadership races, labour delegate votes are scaled to 25% of the total number of ballots cast for leader. At the 1971 leadership convention, an activist group called The Waffle tried to take control of the party, but were defeated by David Lewis with the help of the union members; the following year, most of The Waffle formed their own party. The NDP itself supported the minority government formed by the Pierre Trudeau–led Liberals from 1972 to 1974, although the two parties never entered into a coalition. Together they succeeded in passing several progressive initiatives into law such as pension indexing and the creation of the crown corporation Petro-Canada.
In 1974, the NDP worked with the Progressive Conservatives to pass a motion of non-confidence, forcing an election. However, it backfired as Trudeau's Liberals regained a majority government at the expense of the NDP, which lost half its seats. Lewis resigned as leader the following year. Under the leadership of Ed Broadbent, the NDP attempted to find a more populist image to contrast with the governing parties, focusing on more pocketbook issues than on ideological fervor; the party played a critical role during Joe Clark's minority government of 1979–1980, moving the non-confidence motion on John Crosbie's budget that brought down the Progressive Conservative government, forced the election that brought Trudeau's Liberal Party back to power. The result in 1980 created two unexpected results for the party: The first was an offer by Trudeau to form a coalition government to allow for greater Western representation in Cabinet and a "united front" regarding the upcoming Quebec referendum. Broadbent, aware that the NDP would have no ability to hold the balance of power and thus no leverage in the government, declined out of fear the party would be subsumed.
The second was Trudeau's Canada Bill to patriate the Constitution of Canada unilaterally and to bring about what would become the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Broadbent endorsed the initiative, directly opposed by the NDP government of Saskatchewan and many of the party's Western parties and members, creating severe internal tension. Broadbent would act as a moderating influence on Trudeau during the debates, the eventual compromise that brought about the Constitution Act, 1982 was authored by Saskatchewan NDP Attorney General and future premier Roy Romanow. In the 1984 election, which saw the Progressive Conservatives win the most seats in Canadian history, the NDP won 30 seats, while the governing Liberals fell to 40 seats. Struggles within the governing Conservatives and opposition Liberals would see dramatic rise in the NDP's polling fortunes; the NDP set a then-record of 43 Members of Parliament elected to the house in the election of 1988. The Liberals, had reaped most of the benefits of opposing free trade to emerge as the dominant alternative to the ruling government.
In 1989, Broadbent stepped down after 14 years as federal leader of the NDP. At the party's leadership convention in 1989, former B. C. Premier Dave Barrett and Yukon MP Audrey McLaughlin
1985 Ontario general election
The Ontario general election of 1985 was held on May 2, 1985, to elect members of the 33rd Legislative Assembly of the Province of Ontario, Canada. The Progressive Conservatives won the most seats, but not a majority. Shortly after, the Progressive Conservatives' 42 years of governance in Ontario came to an end via a confidence vote defeating Premier Frank Miller's minority government. David Peterson's Liberals formed a minority government with the support of Bob Rae's NDP. Near Thanksgiving of 1984, longstanding Premier Bill Davis announced that he would be stepping down as Premier and leader of the Ontario PCs in early 1985. Davis, in office since 1971, had rung up a string of electoral victories by pursuing a moderate agenda and relying on the skill of the Big Blue Machine team of advisors. Davis, who remained popular throughout his term in office, would unveil a surprise legacy project: Full funding for Ontario's separate Catholic school system, which would become known as Bill 30; this decision was supported by both other parties, but was unpopular amongst the Tory base.
The subsequent leadership race saw. The moderate and urban wing was represented by second-place finisher Larry Grossman; the more conservative rural faction backed eventual victor Frank Miller. After Miller's victory at the convention the party factions failed to reconcile. Despite these problems, the PCs remained far ahead in the polls, when Miller called an election just six weeks after becoming premier, he was some twenty percentage points ahead of the Liberals. Over the campaign the Tory lead began to shrink as the Liberals waged a effective campaign. Part way into the campaign, the separate schools question re-emerged when the Anglican prelate of Toronto, Archbishop Lewis Garnsworthy, held a news conference on the issue where he compared Bill Davis' methods in pushing through the reform to Adolf Hitler: "This is how Hitler changed education in Germany, by the same process, by decree. I won't take that back.". Garnsworthy was much criticized for his remarks, but the issue was revived, alienating the conservative base, some of whom chose to stay home on election day.
The election held May 2, 1985 ended in a stalemate. The PCs emerged with a much-reduced caucus of 52 seats; the Liberals won 48 seats, but won more of the popular vote. The NDP held the balance of power with 25 seats. Despite taking 14 seats from the PCs, the result was something of a disappointment for the Liberals, as they felt they had their first realistic chance of winning government in recent memory; the NDP was disappointed by the election result. It had been nearly tied with the Liberals for popular support for several years, had hoped to surpass them; the PCs intended to remain in power with a minority government, as they had done on two occasions under Davis' leadership. Rae and the NDP had little interest in supporting a continuation of PC rule, began negotiations on May 13 to reach an agreement with the Liberals. Rae and Peterson signed an Accord May 29 that would see a number of NDP priorities put into law in exchange for an NDP motion of non-confidence in Miller's government, the NDP's support of the Liberals.
The NDP agreed to support a Liberal minority government for two years, the Liberals agreed not to call an election during that time. Miller, apprised of negotiations, considered a plan to address the province on television two days before the throne speech, disown funding for Catholic schools, announce he was meeting with the Lieutenant Governor to request an election before a confidence vote could take place. While believing that the Lieutenant Governor would have to call an election if requested before the confidence vote, Miller refused, believing the party's finances to be too fragile for a second campaign, that repudiating a key Davis policy would tear the party apart. On June 18, 1985, the PCs were defeated by the passage of a motion of no confidence introduced by Rae. Lieutenant-Governor John Black Aird asked Peterson to form a government. Miller resigned eight days and Peterson's minority government was sworn in the same day; the Revolutionary Workers League fielded one candidate. Algoma: Bud Wildman 7575 Jim Thibert 3694 Bryan McDougall 2995Algoma—Manitoulin: John Lane 7174 Tom Farquhar 4704 Len Hembruf 3309Armourdale: Bruce McCaffrey 13394 Gino Matrundola 13182 Bob Hebdon 5429 Simon Srdarev 456Beaches—Woodbine: Marion Bryden 12672 Paul Christie 7301 Sally Kelly 5065 Steve Thistle 396Bellwoods: Ross McClellan 8088 Walter Bardyn 6655 Bento de Sao Jose 1964 Ronald Rodgers 324Brampton: Bob Callahan 25656 Jeff Rice 21239 Terry Gorman 8313 Jim Bridgewood 531 Dave Duqette 500Brantford: Phil Gillies 13444 Jack Tubman 12303 Herb German 6533Brant—Oxford—Haldimand: Robert Nixon 15317 Ian Birnie 5817 Irene Heltner 3487Brock: Peter Partington 9741 Bill Andres 9081 Robert Woolston 3867 Brian Dolby 755Burlington South: Cam Jackson 16479 Doug Redfearn 11822 Walter Mukewich 10820Cambridge: Bill Barlow 12888 Alec Dufresne 11985 Bob Jeffrey 7083Carleton: Bob Mitchell 17732 Hans Daigeler 15093 Bea Murray 7165Carleton East: Gilles Morin 23221 Bob MacQuarrie 16188 Joan Gullen 8829Carleton-Grenville: Norm Sterling 15524 Dan Maxwell 8019 Alan White 3468Chatham—Kent: Maurice Bossy 10340 Andy Watson 9206 Ron Franko 5535Cochrane North: René Fontaine 8793 René
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
Wilfrid Laurier University
Wilfrid Laurier University is a public university in Waterloo, Canada. Laurier has a second campus in Brantford and offices in Kitchener and Chongqing, China, it is named in honour of the seventh Prime Minister of Canada. The university offers undergraduate and graduate programs in a variety of fields, with nearly 15,000 full-time undergraduate students, over 900 full‑time grad students and nearly 3,000 part-time students as of Fall 2016. Laurier's varsity teams, known as the Wilfrid Laurier Golden Hawks, compete in the West Conference of the Ontario University Athletics, affiliated to the U Sports. In 1910, the Lutheran Synod established a seminary, which opened to students in 1911, as the Evangelical Lutheran Theological Seminary of Eastern Canada. In 1914 the seminary developed non-theological courses under the name "the Waterloo College School". In 1924, the Waterloo College of Arts was established. Waterloo College of Arts became affiliated with the University of Western Ontario in 1925 and soon began to offer honours degree programs in the arts.
In 1960, the Lutheran church relinquished its sponsorship of Waterloo College obtained a revised charter changing the name of the seminary to Waterloo Lutheran University. On November 1, 1973, the name was again changed to Wilfrid Laurier University when the relevant provincial law was given Royal Assent by the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario Ross Macdonald, who served as Laurier's Chancellor. Waterloo Lutheran University's seminary and theological programs continued to be offered by the affiliated Waterloo Lutheran Seminary. Laurier's school colours and gold, extend from its early affiliation with Western. While Laurier's colours remain, it ended its affiliation with Western in 1960. Laurier opened a second campus, in Brantford, Ontario, in 1999, in 2006 the Lyle S. Hallman Faculty of Social Work moved from the Waterloo campus to a campus in downtown Kitchener; the Brantford campus is centred on a number of historic properties in the downtown area which have been restored for university use.
They include a former Carnegie library, Brantford's 1880 post office, 1870 mansion, a 1950 Odeon Theatre. The Kitchener campus is located in the historic and renovated former St. Jerome's high school building. On April 18, 2018, Wilfrid Laurier University was granted approval for a new campus location in Milton, Ontario. In partnership with Conestoga College, the new campus will be built in the Milton Education Village. According to WLU's webpage on the Milton campus with respect to program offerings, "In fall 2017, the university's Board of Governors endorsed the Laurier Milton proposal, the university Senate approved a Milton Academic Plan in principle; this academic plan aligns with the province's desire to offer programming with a focus on science, engineering and mathematics." In November 2017, the university became the subject of a free speech and academic freedom controversy for censuring a teaching assistant, Lindsay Shepherd, who used a three-minute recording of a debate involving Jordan Peterson about the compelled use of gender-neutral pronouns in a communications class.
The case was criticized by several newspaper editorial boards and national newspaper columnists as an example of the suppression of free speech on university campuses. After the release of the audio recording of the meeting in which the TA was censured, WLU President Deborah MacLatchy and the TA's supervising professor Nathan Rambukkana published letters of formal apology. An independent investigation found, it found that the subsequent meeting held by several professors berating her for using the recording was conducted with "significant overreach." Peterson and Shepherd are each suing the university as well as the professors. The university has an enrollment of about 17,000 full-time and part-time undergraduate students, over 1,500 full-time and part-time graduate students, it has over 500 staff members. Laurier has been transitioning from a undergraduate university to a mid-size research university. In the 2019 Maclean's magazine survey of Canadian universities, Laurier was ranked 6th out of 15 Canadian universities placed in the comprehensive category.
The Registrar's Report for Winter 2016 indicates that the six most popular majors at Laurier, across the entire university, were: Business, Communications Studies, Criminology and Biology. The internationally renowned Faculty of Music at Laurier is considered one of the best in the country. A September 2017 report indicated. Second year Bachelor of Music students could take Music Therapy as an option. In addition, Laurier is home to the Penderecki String Quartet - an internationally recognised group playing new compositions; the music faculty boasts two performance spaces, the Theatre Auditorium and the Maureen Forrester Recital Hall. The faculty attracts a greater percentage of students from outside Ontario than any other faculty at Laurier. Laurier's music program offers the only master's degree in Music Therapy. Laurier's strength in "music and business education" has been identified as one of the reasons that the Waterloo Region is a "powerful educational hub" by former University of Waterloo preside
Jim Bradley (politician)
James J. Bradley is a politician in Ontario, Canada, he was a long-serving Liberal member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, sitting as an MPP from 1977 until 2018. He represented the riding of St. Catharines and served in the provincial cabinets of David Peterson, Dalton McGuinty and Kathleen Wynne, he was elected as a regional councillor in the St. Catharines municipal election of 2018, he is the Chair of the Regional Municipality of Niagara. His 41 year term as an MPP is the second longest tenure behind only Harry Nixon. Before entering politics, Bradley was a teacher with the Lincoln County Board of Education, he was elected as a city councillor to the St. Catharines city council in 1970, but remained in the classroom until 1977. After failed bids in the elections of 1967 and 1971, Bradley was elected to the Ontario legislature in the 1977 election in the riding of St. Catharines, served as MPP for that riding until the 2018 election, he fended off strong challenges from the New Democratic Party in the 1990 election and the Progressive Conservative Party in 1995 election.
On all other occasions until 2018, he was re-elected. When the Liberals came to power under David Peterson following the 1985 election, Bradley became Minister of the Environment and held that position until the Liberals were defeated in the 1990 election, he is regarded as Ontario's most effective Environment Minister, although some believe that his ambitions for the portfolio were undermined by Peterson and Finance Minister Robert Nixon. As Environment Minister, Bradley expanded Blue Box Recycling, making it a province-wide initiative, as well as instituting tough new penalties for polluters, enforced by a strengthened investigation and enforcement branch. Bradley was a vocal opponent of Peterson's plans to call an election in 1990, preferring that the party wait until 1992 before going to the polls. While the Liberals were defeated, Bradley was re-elected and had a prominent position in the Opposition benches; when Nixon, the interim leader of the Liberals, left Queen's Park to accept an appointment, he was replaced by Murray Elston.
Elston resigned as interim leader to run in the 1992 leadership convention, Bradley became interim leader of the party and interim Leader of the Opposition from November 1991 until the election of Lyn McLeod in February 1992. He remained an opposition stalwart. There was some speculation that Bradley would be re-appointed Minister of the Environment in McGuinty's government, but this did not occur. Instead, he was named Minister of Tourism and Recreation on October 23, 2003, he was given ministerial responsibility for Seniors on June 29, 2005. On October 11, 2005, Bradley was appointed to replace Dwight Duncan as Government House Leader, following Duncan's appointment as Minister of Finance. Bradley is the province's wine secretary, as well as the minister responsible for the Greenbelt. On October 30, 2007, Bradley was sworn in as Minister of Transportation in McGuinty's new cabinet; as Transportation Minister, Bradley supervised the introduction of an Ontario Enhanced driver's licenses to be used at Canada/US border crossings.
He introduced legislation to merge GO Metrolinx. Enacted tougher penalties for drivers who have a BAC of.05 or higher. Mandated that all commercial trucks that operate in Ontario be equipped with speed limiters to ensure heavy trucks don't exceed 105 km/h, and in April 2009, it was announced that GO Transit would be expanded to the Niagara region, with bus service to Burlington in September and with weekend rail service to Toronto starting at the end of June. On January 18, 2010, Bradley moved to the position of Minister of Municipal Affairs and Housing. In August he was moved to the Ministry of Community Correctional Services. On October 20, 2011, Bradley moved to become Minister of Environment once again in the wake of the 2011 election that saw the previous Minister of Environment, John Wilkinson, defeated. Bradley continued as Environment Minister in Kathleen Wynne's first cabinet after she won the leadership of the Liberal Party. Following the 2014 provincial election, the 69-year-old Bradley became a minister without portfolio with the title of Chair of Cabinet and was appointed Deputy Government House Leader.
He left cabinet in June 2016 as part of a cabinet shuffle, served as Chief Government Whip and Deputy Government House Leader. In the 2018 election, Bradley lost his seat as the Liberal Party was defeated, losing official party status and suffering the greatest loss for any governing party in provincial history, he had served as St. Catharines MPP for 41 years. On July 27 2018, the last day registration was open, Bradley registered to run for Niagara Regional Council.. Bradley was elected on October 2018, finishing first out of 23 candidates with 18,954 votes. On December 6, 2018, Bradley was selected as the Niagara Regional Chair, being elected on the first ballot receiving 19 out of 31 votes against two other candidates. Source: The 1999, 2003 and 2007 expenditure entries are taken from official candidate reports as listed by Elections Ontario; the figures cited are the Total Candidate's Campaign Expenses Subject to Limitation, include transfers from constituency associations. The 1995 expenditures are taken from an official listing of election expenses published by Elections Ontario.
Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history
1988 Canadian federal election
The 1988 Canadian federal election was held November 21, 1988, to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 34th Parliament of Canada. It was an election fought on a single issue: the Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement. Incumbent Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, leader of the Progressive Conservative Party, had signed the agreement; the Liberal Party, led by John Turner, was opposed to the agreement, as was the New Democratic Party led by Ed Broadbent. The Conservatives went into the election suffering from a number of scandals. Despite winning a large majority only four years before, they looked vulnerable at the outset; the Liberals had some early struggles, notably during one day in Montreal where three different costs were given for the proposed Liberal daycare program. The campaign was hampered by a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation report that stated there was a movement in the backroom to replace Turner with Jean Chrétien though Turner had passed a leadership review in 1986.
Support swung forth between the Conservatives and Liberals over free trade. With mid-campaign polls suggesting a Liberal government, this prompted the Conservatives to stop the calm campaign they had been running, go with Allan Gregg's suggestion of "bombing the bridge" that joined anti-FTA voters and the Liberals: Turner's credibility; the ads focused on Turner's leadership struggles, combined with over $6 million CAD in pro-FTA ads, managed to stop the Liberals' momentum. The Liberals reaped most of the benefits of opposing the FTA and doubled their representation to 83 seats to emerge as the main opposition; the Progressive Conservatives won a strong majority government with 169 seats. Despite the Liberals' improved standing, the results were considered a disappointment for Turner, after polls in mid-campaign predicted a Liberal government; the election loss sealed Turner's fate and he resigned in 1990, was succeeded by Jean Chrétien. Although most Canadians voted for parties opposed to free trade, the Tories were returned with a majority government, implemented the deal.
Until the 2011 federal election, the 1988 election was the most successful in the New Democratic Party's history. The party dominated in British Columbia and Saskatchewan, won significant support in Ontario and elected its first member from Alberta; this was the second election contested by the Green Party, it saw a more than 50% increase in its vote, but it remained a minor party. The election was the last for Canada's Social Credit movement: the party won no seats, had an insignificant portion of the popular vote; the newly founded Reform Party contested the election, but was considered little more than a fringe group, did not win any seats. For the Progressive Conservatives, this was the last federal election. For a complete list of MPs elected in the 1988 election see 34th Canadian Parliament. Note: "% change" refers to change from previous election A number of unregistered parties contested the election; the Western Canada Concept party, led by Doug Christie, fielded three candidates in British Columbia.
The Western Independence Party ran one candidate in British Columbia, seven in Alberta, three in Manitoba. The Liberal candidate in Etobicoke-Lakeshore, Emmanuel Feuerwerker, withdrew from the race after suffering a heart attack, resulting in the Liberals not running a candidate in all 295 ridings during this election; the Marxist–Leninist Party fielded candidates in several ridings. Blair T. Longley campaigned in British Columbia as a representative of the "Student Party". Newspaper reports indicate that this was a tax-avoidance scheme; the moribund Social Credit Party fielded fewer candidates than was required for official recognition, but the Chief Electoral Officer allowed the party's name to appear on the ballot by virtue of its history as a recognized party. Xx - less than 0.05% of the popular vote. Note: Parties that captured less than 1% of the vote in a province are not recorded. Number of parties: 11 First appearance: Christian Heritage Party, Reform Party Final appearance: Confederation of Regions Party, Rhinoceros Party, Social Credit Party Final appearance before hiatus: Communist Party London-Middlesex, ON: Terry Clifford def.
Garnet Bloomfield by 8 votes Northumberland, ON: Christine Stewart def. Reg Jewell by 28 votes Hamilton Mountain, ON: Beth Phinney def. Marion Dewar by 73 votes York North, ON: Maurizio Bevilacqua def. Michael O'Brien by 77 votes ON: David MacDonald def. Bill Graham by 80 votes London East, ON: Joe Fontana def. Jim Jepson by 102 votes ON: Bob Speller def. Bud Bradley by 209 votes PE: George Proud def. Thomas McMillan by 259 votes Cariboo—Chilcotin, BC: Dave Worthy def. Jack Langford by 269 votes Vancouver Centre, BC: Kim Campbell def. Johanna Den Hertog by 269 votes Canadian federal election, 1911, an election contested over free trade with the United States. List of Canadian federal general elections List of political parties in CanadaArticles on parties' candidates in this election: Riding map Election 1988, by Stephen Azzi Debate'88