House of Commons of Canada
The House of Commons of Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign and the Senate. The House of Commons meets in a temporary Commons chamber in the West Block of the parliament buildings on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, while the Centre Block, which houses the traditional Commons chamber, undergoes a ten-year renovation; the House of Commons is a democratically elected body whose members are known as Members of Parliament. There were 308 members in the last parliament, but that number has risen to 338 following the election on Monday October 19, 2015. Members are elected by simple plurality in each of the country's electoral districts, which are colloquially known as ridings. MPs may hold office until Parliament is dissolved and serve for constitutionally limited terms of up to five years after an election. However, terms have ended before their expiry and the sitting government has dissolved parliament within four years of an election according to a long-standing convention.
In any case, an Act of Parliament now limits each term to four years. Seats in the House of Commons are distributed in proportion to the population of each province and territory. However, some ridings are more populous than others, the Canadian constitution contains some special provisions regarding provincial representation; as a result, there is some regional malapportionment relative to population. The House of Commons was established in 1867, when the British North America Act—now called the Constitution Act, 1867—created the Dominion of Canada, was modelled on the British House of Commons; the lower of the two houses making up the parliament, the House of Commons in practice holds far more power than the upper house, the Senate. Although the approval of both Houses is necessary for legislation, the Senate rarely rejects bills passed by the commons. Moreover, the Cabinet is responsible to the House of Commons; the prime minister stays in office only as long as they retain the support, or "confidence", of the lower house.
The term derives from the Anglo-Norman word communes, referring to the geographic and collective "communities" of their parliamentary representatives and not the third estate, the commonality. This distinction is made clear in the official French name of the body, Chambre des communes. Canada and the United Kingdom remain the only countries to use the name "House of Commons" for a lower house of parliament; the House of Commons came into existence in 1867, when the British Parliament passed the British North America Act, uniting the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick into a single federation called the Dominion of Canada. The new Parliament of Canada consisted of the Senate and the House of Commons; the Parliament of Canada was based on the Westminster model. Unlike the UK Parliament, the powers of the Parliament of Canada were limited in that other powers were assigned to the provincial legislatures; the Parliament of Canada remained subordinate to the British Parliament, the supreme legislative authority for the entire British Empire.
Greater autonomy was granted by the Statute of Westminster 1931, after which new acts of the British Parliament did not apply to Canada, with some exceptions. These exceptions were removed by the Canada Act 1982. From 1867, the Commons met in the chamber used by the Legislative Assembly of Canada until the building was destroyed by fire in 1916, it relocated to the amphitheatre of the Victoria Memorial Museum—what is today the Canadian Museum of Nature, where it met until 1922. Until the end of 2018, the Commons sat in Centre Block chamber. Starting with the final sitting before the 2019 federal election, the Commons sits in a temporary chamber in the West Block until at least 2028, while renovations are undertaken in the Centre Block of Parliament; the House of Commons comprises 338 members. The constitution specifies a basic minimum of 295 electoral districts, but additional seats are allocated according to various clauses. Seats are distributed among the provinces in proportion to population, as determined by each decennial census, subject to the following exceptions made by the constitution.
Firstly, the "senatorial clause" guarantees that each province will have at least as many MPs as Senators. Secondly, the "grandfather clause" guarantees each province has at least as many Members of Parliament now as it had in 1985; as a result of these clauses, smaller provinces and provinces that have experienced a relative decline in population have become over-represented in the House. Ontario, British Columbia, Alberta are under-represented in proportion to their populations, while the other seven provinces are over-represented. Boundary commissions, appointed by the federal government for each province, have the task of drawing the boundaries of the electoral districts in each province. Territorial representation is independent of population; the calculation for the provinces is done with a base of 279 seats. The total population of the provinces is divided by 279 to equal the electoral quotient; the population of the province is divided by the electoral q
Liberal Party of Canada
The Liberal Party of Canada is the oldest and longest-serving governing political party in Canada. The Liberals form the current government, elected in 2015; the party has dominated federal politics for much of Canada's history, holding power for 69 years in the 20th century—more than any other party in a developed country—and as a result, it is sometimes referred to as Canada's "natural governing party". The party espouses the principles of liberalism, sits at the centre to centre-left of the Canadian political spectrum, with the Conservative Party positioned to the centre-right and the New Democratic Party, occupying the left. Like their federal Conservative Party rivals, the party is defined as a "big tent", attracting support from a broad spectrum of voters. In the late 1970s, Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau claimed that his Liberal Party adhered to the "radical centre"; the Liberals' signature policies and legislative decisions include universal health care, the Canada Pension Plan, Canada Student Loans, multilateralism, official bilingualism, official multiculturalism, patriating the Canadian constitution and the entrenchment of Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Clarity Act, making same-sex marriage and cannabis use legal nationwide.
In the 2015 federal election, the Liberal Party under Justin Trudeau had its best result since the 2000 election, winning 39.5 percent of the popular vote and 184 seats, gaining a majority of seats in the House of Commons. The Liberals are descended from the mid-19th century Reformers who agitated for responsible government throughout British North America; these included George Brown, Alexander Mackenzie, Robert Baldwin, William Lyon Mackenzie and the Clear Grits in Upper Canada, Joseph Howe in Nova Scotia, the Patriotes and Rouges in Lower Canada led by figures such as Louis-Joseph Papineau. The Clear Grits and Parti rouge sometimes functioned as a united bloc in the legislature of the Province of Canada beginning in 1854, a united Liberal Party combining both English and French Canadian members was formed in 1861. At the time of confederation of the former British colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the radical Liberals were marginalized by the more pragmatic Conservative coalition assembled under Sir John A. Macdonald.
In the 29 years after Canadian confederation, the Liberals were consigned to opposition, with the exception of one stint in government. Alexander Mackenzie was the de facto leader of the Official Opposition after Confederation and agreed to become the first official leader of the Liberal Party in 1873, he was able to lead the party to power for the first time in 1873, after the MacDonald government lost a vote of no confidence in the House of Commons due to the Pacific Scandal. Mackenzie subsequently won the 1874 election, served as Prime Minister for an additional four years. During the five years the Liberal government brought in many reforms, which include the replacement of open voting by secret ballot, confining elections to one day and the creation of the Supreme Court of Canada, the Royal Military College of Canada, the Office of the Auditor General; however the party was only able to build a solid support base in Ontario, in 1878 lost the government to MacDonald. The Liberals would spend the next 18 years in opposition.
In their early history, the Liberals were the party of opposition to imperialism. The Liberals became identified with the aspirations of Quebecers as a result of the growing hostility of French Canadians to the Conservatives; the Conservatives lost the support of French Canadians because of the role of Conservative governments in the execution of Louis Riel and their role in the Conscription Crisis of 1917, their opposition to French schools in provinces besides Quebec. It was. Laurier was able to capitalize on the Tories' alienation of French Canada by offering the Liberals as a credible alternative. Laurier was able to overcome the party's reputation for anti-clericalism that offended the still-powerful Quebec Roman Catholic Church. In English-speaking Canada, the Liberal Party's support for reciprocity made it popular among farmers, helped cement the party's hold in the growing prairie provinces. Laurier led the Liberals to power in the 1896 election, oversaw a government that increased immigration in order to settle Western Canada.
Laurier's government created the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta out of the North-West Territories, promoted the development of Canadian industry. Until the early part of the century, the Liberal Party was a loose, informal coalition of local and regional bodies with a strong national party leader and caucus but with an informal and regionalized extra-parliamentary organizational structure. There was no national membership of the party, an individual became a member by joining a provincial Liberal party. Laurier called the party's first national convention in 1893 in order to unite Liberal supporters behind a programme and build the campaign that brought the party to power in 1896; as a result of the party's defeats in the 1911 and 1917 federal elections, Laurier attempted to organize the party on a national level by creating three bodies: the Central Liberal Information Office, the National Liberal Advisory Committee, the National Liberal Organization Committee. Howev
1995 Ontario general election
The Ontario general election of 1995 was held on June 8, 1995, to elect members of the 36th Legislative Assembly of the province of Ontario, Canada. The writs for the election were dropped on April 28, 1995; the governing New Democratic Party, led by Premier Bob Rae, was defeated by voters, who were angry with the actions of the Rae government such as the Social Contract legislation in 1993. The Social Contract caused the NDP to lose much of their base in organized labour, further reducing support for the party. At the 1993 federal election, the NDP tumbled to just six percent support, lost all 11 of its federal seats in Ontario. By the time the writs were dropped for the 1995 provincial election, it was obvious that the NDP would not be reelected; the Liberal Party under Lyn McLeod had been leading in the polls for most of the period from 1992 to 1995, were favoured to benefit from the swing in support away from the NDP. However, the party hurt its credibility through a series of high-profile policy reversals in the period leading up to the election.
The most notable of these occurred when McLeod withdrew Liberal support from the Equality Rights Statute Amendment Act introduced by the NDP government in 1994, which would have provided same-sex couples with rights and obligations equal to those of opposite-sex common law couples and introduced a form of civil unions. Her decision was seen as cynical and opportunistic in light of the Liberals' earlier rural by-election loss in the conservative riding of Victoria—Haliburton; this gave the McLeod Liberals a reputation for "flip-flopping" and inconsistency while offending its progressive supporters. The Progressive Conservative Party, led by Mike Harris, found success with its Common Sense Revolution campaign to cut personal income taxes, social assistance rates, government spending dramatically. Half of his party's seats came from the more affluent regions of the Greater Toronto Area the suburban belt surrounding Metro Toronto called the'905' for its telephone area code. In addition, by presenting himself as a populist, representing "ordinary Ontarians" over "special interests", Harris was able to build Tory support among working-class voters.
Although there were regional variations, many working-class voters shifted directly from the NDP to the Tories during the election, enabling the latter to win NDP ridings such as Cambridge and Oshawa. The televised party leaders' debate is regarded as the turning point of the campaign. During the event, McLeod further alienated many voters with an overly aggressive performance. Harris used his time to speak directly to the camera to convey his party's Common Sense Revolution platform ignoring all questions asked of him by Rae and McLeod and avoiding getting caught up in their debate. Since Liberal support was regarded by many political insiders as soft and unsteady, many voters who were leaning to the Liberals shifted to the Progressive Conservatives after the debate. Due to the above factors, voters gave the Tories a majority while the Liberals finished with less support than they had in the 1990 election; the NDP, despite improving their standing in some Northern Ontario ridings, were defeated, falling to 17 seats and third party status.
The New Democrats would remain the third party until 2018 when they returned to Official Opposition status. McLeod and Rae resigned their party leadership posts not long after the campaign, it was the worst result for an incumbent Ontario governing party up to that time and would remain so until 2018 when the NDP surpassed the then-governing Liberals. One independent candidate was elected: Peter North in the riding of Elgin. North had been elected in 1990 as a New Democrat, but left the NDP and declared his intention to run as a Progressive Conservative; the PC Party did not accept him as a candidate, however. Notes: At least five unregistered parties fielded candidates in this election; the Reform Association of Ontario ran fifteen candidates. Their leader was Kimble Ainslie. An article of The Globe and Mail for August 19, 1995 indicates. John Steele campaigned as a candidate of the Communist League; the Ontario Renewal Party ran a number of candidates under the leadership of Diane Johnston. This was the Marxist-Leninist party under a different name.
Amani Oakley and Joe Flexer ran as "Independent Labour" candidates in Toronto with the support of dissident or former members of the Ontario New Democratic Party and with the support of OPSEU in the case of Oakley and the Canadian Auto Workers in the case of Flexer. John Turmel's Abolitionist Party ran at least two candidates. Candidates from the aforementioned parties appeared on the ballot as independents, it is possible that some candidates listed below as independents belonged to these or other parties. Due to resignations, five by-elections were held between the 1995 and 1999 elections. Politics of Ontario List of Ontario political parties Premier of Ontario Leader of the Opposition
1993 Canadian federal election
The 1993 Canadian federal election was held on October 25 of that year to elect members to the House of Commons of Canada of the 35th Parliament of Canada. Fourteen parties competed for the 295 seats in the House at that time, it was one of the most eventful elections in Canada's history, with more than half of the electorate switching parties from the 1988 election. The Liberals, led by Jean Chrétien, won a strong majority in the House and formed the next government of Canada; the election was called on September 8, 1993, by the new Progressive Conservative Party leader, Prime Minister Kim Campbell, near the end of her party's five-year mandate. When she assumed office, the party was unpopular, was further weakened by the emergence of new parties that were competing for its core supporters. Campbell's initial efforts helped the party recover somewhat in pre-election polls before the writs were issued. However, this momentum did not last, the Progressive Conservatives suffered the most lopsided defeat for a Canadian governing party at the federal level, among the worst suffered by a governing party in the Western world.
They lost more than half their vote from all but two of their 156 seats. Though they recovered in the 1997 election, the Progressive Conservatives lost seats in 2000 and would never be a major force in Canadian politics again. In 2003, the Progressive Conservative Party disappeared when it merged with the larger Canadian Alliance party to create the new Conservative Party of Canada. Two new parties emerged in this election from former supporters of the Progressive Conservatives; the sovereigntist Bloc Québécois won half the votes in Quebec and became the Official Opposition. To date, this is the only time that a party committed to the political secession of a region of Canada has become the Official Opposition of Canada; the Reform Party won nearly as many seats and replaced the PCs as the major right-wing party in the Commons, although it won only one seat east of Manitoba. The traditional third party, the NDP, collapsed to nine seats only one election after having what was its best performance.
It remains the NDP's worst result in a federal election since its formation and the only election where the party polled fewer than one million votes. Voter turnout was 70.9%, adjusted from initial tallies of 69.6% to account for deceased electors. The Liberal Party had dominated Canadian politics for much of the 20th century; the party had been in office for all but 22 years between 1896 and 1984. The Conservatives only formed government six times in this period. In 1984 Brian Mulroney led the Progressive Conservatives to the biggest majority government in Canadian history, winning a majority of the seats in every province; the Liberals lost 95 seats in the worst defeat for a governing party at the federal level at the time. The PCs made a strong showing in Quebec, a province where they had held few seats for much of the century. Between 1896 and 1984, the Conservatives had only managed to win the majority of seats in that province once, in their landslide of 1958—the only other time besides 1984 that a party has won 200 seats in an election.
After winning only one seat in the province in 1980, the Tories won 58 seats in 1984, leaving the Liberals with no seats outside of Montreal. Mulroney's government was based on a "grand coalition" of conservative populists from the West, fiscal conservatives from Atlantic Canada and Ontario, Quebec nationalists; this coalition helped him win reelection in 1988, with a smaller mandate. That election was wholly focused on the proposed Free Trade Agreement with the United States. Over the next five years, the popularity of Mulroney and his party collapsed; the late 1980s recession badly harmed the Canadian economy, as unemployment increased and the federal budget deficit grew. When the Conservatives had come to office in 1984, the federal deficit was at an unprecedented $34.5 billion. Despite pledges to reduce it, the deficit had grown to over $40 billion by 1993; the federal debt had grown to $500 billion. In an attempt to restore the fiscal balance, Mulroney had brought in the unpopular Goods and Services Tax.
Mulroney had promised to change the constitutional status quo in favour of increasing provincial autonomy. This was one of the most important reasons for his party's support in Quebec, he attempted to amend the constitution twice. The Meech Lake Accord failed when the provincial legislatures of Newfoundland and Manitoba adjourned without bringing the issue to a vote; the Charlottetown Accord was defeated by the Canadian people in a 1992 referendum. In the case of the Charlottetown Accord, the majority of Canada's population voted against an agreement endorsed by every First Minister and most other political groups; this stinging rebuke against the "political class" in Canada was a preview of things to come, as the upcoming election would be held on October 25, 1993, a year less a day after the Charlottetown referendum. These factors combined to make Mulroney the least popular leader since opinion polling began in the 1940s; the Progressive Conservative Party's popularity reached a low of just over 15% in 1991.
With polls showing him facing certain defeat in the next election, in February 1993, Mulroney announced his retirement from politics. While several senior members of cabinet had passed over contesting the leadership, Minister of Justice Kim Campbell emerged as the leading candidate to replace Mulroney as party leader and prime minister. Despite a vigorous challenge from Environment Minister Jean Charest, Campbe
Scarborough is an administrative division in Toronto, Canada. Situated atop the Scarborough Bluffs, it occupies the eastern part of the city. Scarborough is contained within the borders of Victoria Park Avenue on the west, Steeles Avenue to the north, Rouge River and the city of Pickering to the east, Lake Ontario to the south, it borders East York and North York in the west and the city of Markham in the north. Scarborough was named after the English town of North Yorkshire. First settled by Europeans in the 1790s, Scarborough has grown from a collection of small rural villages and farms to become urbanized with a diverse cultural community. Incorporated in 1850 as a township, Scarborough became part of Metropolitan Toronto in 1953 and was reconstituted as a borough in 1967. Scarborough developed as a suburb of Old Toronto over the next decade and became a city in 1983. In 1998, Scarborough and the rest of Metropolitan Toronto were amalgamated into the present city of Toronto. Scarborough still exists as an unofficial borough of Toronto.
The Scarborough Civic Centre, the former city‘s last place of government, is occupied by City of Toronto offices. Scarborough is a popular destination for new immigrants in Canada to reside; as a result, it is one of the most diverse and multicultural areas in the Greater Toronto Area, being home to various religious groups and places of worship. It includes some such as the Toronto Zoo and Rouge Park; the northeast corner of Scarborough is rural with some of Toronto’s last remaining farms, leading to Scarborough’s reputation of being greener than any other part of Toronto. The area was named after Scarborough in England, United Kingdom by Elizabeth Simcoe, the wife of John Graves Simcoe, the first lieutenant governor of Upper Canada; the bluffs along Scarborough's Lake Ontario shores reminded her of the limestone cliffs in Scarborough, England. On August 4, 1793, she wrote in her diary, "The shore is bold, has the appearance of chalk cliffs, but I believe they are only white sand, they appeared so well that we talked of building a summer residence there and calling it Scarborough."
Before that, the area was named Glasgow, after the Scottish city. Scarborough has acquired several nicknames; the most popular is Scarberia, a portmanteau of Scarborough and Siberia, a reference to its distant eastern location from downtown Toronto and apparent lack of notable attractions. The word originated sometime in the 1960s and has remained a source of contention since. In May 1988, Joyce Trimmer, campaigning to be mayor of the city of Scarborough, said, "The city of Scarborough needs strong leadership if it is to shed its'Scarberia' image". Scarborough has acquired nicknames related to its diversity; such nicknames use the prefix "Scar" and a suffix derived from the name of a region, nation, or ethnicity. The first known evidence of people in Scarborough comes from an archaeological site in Fenwood Heights, dated to 8000 BCE; the site contains the remains of a camp of nomadic hunters and foragers, there is no evidence of permanent settlers. In the 17th century, the area was inhabited by the Seneca at the village of Ganatsekwyagon, who were displaced by the Mississaugas, who were themselves displaced by the settlers who began to arrive in the late 18th century.
After the land was surveyed in 1793, it was opened to settlement by British subjects with the first issue of land patents in 1796, although squatters had been present for a few years. The first settlers were Andrew Thomson, they were stonemasons. They each built mills; this activity led to the creation of a small village known as the Thomson Settlement. The first post office opened in Scarborough Village. During the early part of life in Upper Canada, local administration and justice was administered by the colonial government. From 1792 to 1841, magistrates were appointed by District Councils. There were four districts in the colony. Due to a political reorganization, a result of the Durham Report, Scarborough gained elected representation on the Home District Council. Scarborough elected two councillors. In 1850, Scarborough was incorporated as a township. After incorporation, Scarborough government was led by a reeve, a deputy-reeve and three councillors, each elected annually; the council met in the village of Woburn but it was relocated to Birchcliff in 1922, where most of the population was located.
During the Great Depression the local government was on the verge of bankruptcy. The Ontario Municipal Board stepped in and appointed an oversight committee which prevented the collapse of local government; the expansion of Toronto in the east, in the 19th century, led to the development of housing stock along the Kingston Road and Danforth Road corridors in Scarborough. This led to the creation of a transit line. In 1893, the Toronto and Scarboro' Electric Railway and Power Company built a single-track radial line along Kingston Road to Blantyre. Over the next 13 years this was extended to West Hill. In 1904, the line became the Scarboro Division of the York Radial Railway. Service continued along this line until 1936. On April 15, 1953, Scarborough was included within Metropolitan Toronto, a new upper level of municipal government with jurisdiction over regional services such as arterial roads and transit and ambulance services. Scarborough retained it
Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario
The Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario shortened to Ontario PC Party, PC, or Conservatives, is a centre-right political party in Ontario, Canada. The party has been led by Premier Doug Ford since March 10, 2018, it has governed the province for 80 of the 151 years since Confederation, including an uninterrupted run from 1943 to 1985. It holds a majority government in the 42nd Parliament of Ontario; the first Conservative Party in Upper Canada was made up of United Empire Loyalists and supporters of the wealthy Family Compact that ruled the colony. Once responsible government was granted in response to the 1837 Rebellions, the Tories emerged as moderate reformers who opposed the radical policies of the Reformers and the Clear Grits; the modern Conservative Party originated in the Liberal-Conservative coalition founded by Sir John A. Macdonald and George-Étienne Cartier in 1854, it is a variant of this coalition that formed the first government in Ontario with John Sandfield Macdonald as Premier.
Until becoming the Progressive Conservatives in 1942, the party was known as the Liberal-Conservative Association of Ontario, reflecting its Liberal-Conservative origins, but became known as the Conservative Party. John Sandfield Macdonald was a Liberal and sat concurrently as a Liberal Party of Canada MP in the House of Commons of Canada but he was an ally of John A. Macdonald, his government was a true coalition of Liberals and Conservatives under his leadership but soon the more radical Reformers bolted to the opposition and Sandfield Macdonald was left leading what was a Conservative coalition that included some Liberals under the Liberal-Conservative banner. After losing power in 1871, this Conservative coalition began to dissolve. What was a party that included Catholics and Protestants became an exclusively English and Protestant party and more dependent on the Protestant Orange Order for support, for its leadership; the party became opposed to funding for separate schools, opposed to language rights for French-Canadians, distrustful of immigrants.
Paradoxically, an element of the party gained a reputation for being pro-labour as a result of links between the Orange Order and the labour movement. After 33 years in Opposition, the Tories returned to power under James P. Whitney, who led a progressive administration in its development of the province; the Whitney government initiated massive public works projects such as the creation of Ontario Hydro. It enacted reactionary legislation against the French-Canadian population in Ontario; the Tories were in power for all but five years from 1905 to 1934. After the death of Whitney in 1914, they lacked vision and became complacent; the Tories lost power to the United Farmers of Ontario in the 1919 election but were able to regain office in 1923 election due to the UFO's disintegration and divisions in the Ontario Liberal Party. They were defeated by Mitch Hepburn's Liberals in 1934 due to their inability to cope with the Great Depression. Late in the 1930s and early in the 1940s, the Conservatives developed new policies.
Rather than continue to oppose government spending and intervention, a policy which hurt the party politically in the time of the Great Depression, the Conservatives changed their policies to support government action where it would lead to economic growth. The party changed its name to the "Progressive Conservative" party after its federal counterpart changed its name to the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 1942 on the insistence of its new leader, John Bracken, whose roots were in the populist Progressive Party; the Conservatives took advantage of Liberal infighting to win a minority government in the 1943 provincial election, reducing the Liberals to third-party status. Drew called another election in 1945, only two years into his mandate; the Tories played up Cold War tensions to win a landslide majority, though it emerged several years that the Tory government had set up a secret department of the Ontario Provincial Police to spy on the opposition and the media. The party would dominate Ontario politics for the next four decades.
Under Drew and his successor, Leslie Frost, the Party was a strong champion of rural issues but invested in the development of civil works throughout the province, including the construction of the 400 series of highways, beginning with the 401 across Toronto. In 1961, John Robarts became the 17th premier of Ontario, he was one of the most popular premiers in years. Under Robarts' lead, the party epitomized power, he was an advocate of individual freedoms and promoted the rights of the provinces against what he saw as the centralizing initiatives of the federal government, while promoting national unity against Quebec separatism. He hosted the 1967 "Confederation of Tomorrow" conference in Toronto in an unsuccessful attempt to achieve an agreement for a new Constitution of Canada. Robarts opposed Canadian medicare when it was proposed, but endorsed it and the party implemented the public health care system that continues to this day, he led the party towards a civil libertarian movement. As a strong believer in the promotion of both official languages, he opened the door to French education in Ontario schools.
In 1971, Bill Davis became the 18th premier. Anti-Catholicism became an issue again in the 1971 election, when the Tories campaigned strenuously against a Liberal proposal to extend funding for Catholic separate schools until Grade 13. Davis reversed himself in 1985, enacted the funding extension as one of his last acts before l
Green Party of Canada
The Green Party of Canada is a federal political party in Canada, founded in 1983. It has been led by Elizabeth May since 26 August 2006; the party broke 1% of the popular vote in the 2004 federal election, when it received 4.3% and qualified for federal funding. Its support has ranged between 3.1% and 14% in public opinion polls since the 2006 federal election. In the 2008 federal election, the Green Party of Canada was invited to the debates for the first time and achieved a high mark of 6.8% of the popular vote. With just under a million votes, it was the only federally funded party to receive more votes than in 2006, but it still failed to win any seats. In the 2011 federal election the Green Party of Canada decided to focus on increasing seats over increasing votes, succeeded in sending its first MP to Ottawa, while its share of the popular vote dropped to below 4% for the first time in eleven years. On 30 August 2008, independent MP Blair Wilson joined the Green Party during Parliament's summer recess, technically becoming its first Member of Parliament.
He was defeated in the 2008 federal election, called before he had a chance to sit in the House of Commons as a Green MP. In the 2011 federal election, May was the first Green Party candidate to win a seat in the House of Commons. On 13 December 2013, Ontario MP Bruce Hyer announced that he would join the Green Party of Canada, doubling the number of members the party has in the House of Commons. On 19 October 2015, May was re-elected, in the riding of Saanich—Gulf Islands in British Columbia as the single Green Party member to win a seat. Bruce Hyer lost his seat in the riding of Thunder Bay-Superior North. About one month before the 1980 federal election, eleven candidates from ridings in the Atlantic provinces, issued a joint press release declaring that they were running on a common platform, it called for a transition to a conserver society. Although they ran as independents, they unofficially used the name "Small Party" as part of their declaration of unity - a reference to the "small is beautiful" philosophy of E. F. Schumacher.
This was the most substantial early attempt to answer the call for an ecologically oriented Canadian political party. A key organizer was Elizabeth May, now leader of the Greens; the Green Party of Canada was founded at a conference held at Carleton University in Ottawa in 1983. Under its first leader, Trevor Hancock, the party ran 60 candidates in the 1984 Canadian federal election; the Green Party of Canada is independent of other green parties around the world. However, all Green parties share the same philosophy, its provincial counterparts in British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island support green economics, progressive social planning, responsible and accountable governance. The Quebec wing hosted the 1990 Canadian Greens conference in Montreal, but soon after that, Canada's constitutional problems interfered, many Quebec candidates abandoned the Greens in favour of a Quebec sovereigntist party, the Bloc Québécois. There were only six Green candidates from Quebec in the 1993 election.
In the spring of 1996, although the hopes of electing a representative to the BC legislature proved premature, Andy Shadrack in the interior of the province received over 11% of the vote. Overall, the party's proportion of the popular vote surged to a new high. Shadrack was the most popular Green candidate in the 1997 federal election, scoring over 6% of the popular vote in West Kootenay-Okanagan. British Columbia's Joan Russow became leader of the Green Party of Canada on 13 April 1997. Russow won 52% of the ballots cast in the 1997 leadership race, surpassing Ontario's Jim Harris and Rachelle Small. Upon attaining the leadership, Russow was plunged into a federal general election. Russow's campaign in 1997 set a number of important precedents. 1997 federal election was the first campaign in which the Greens conducted a national leader's tour, presented a national platform and a bilingual campaign. Previous campaigns, due in part to the party's few resources and, in part, to the party's constitutional straitjacket, had been characterized by policy and spokespeople operating, at best, province-by-province and, at worst, riding-by-riding.
In her own riding of Victoria, Russow received just shy of 6 % of the popular vote. Since its inception, the party has been developing as an organization, expanding its membership and improving its showing at the polls. In the 2000 federal election, the party fielded 111 candidates, up from 78 in 1997. Candidates were not run in Newfoundland and Labrador, as a result of ongoing divisions over Joan Russow's refusal to endorse the Green candidate in an earlier St. John's West by-election; this caused much uncertainty and friction between Newfoundland's Terra Nova Green Party Association and the Green Party leader as the party adapted to the realities of functioning as a true national party rather than a disorganized federation of local activists. The conflicts left Russow alienated from most members of the party. Volunteer efforts were absorbed in provincial campaigns between 2001 and 2003, the federal party became dormant between elections, as was typical in the past. Chris Bradshaw served the party as interim leader from 2001 to February 2003.
During his term, the party ended its sharing of office and staff with the Ontario party, establishing its own office in the national capital of Ottawa. Russow left the party in 2001 and has now criticized the Green party for not following their policies. In February 200