International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
A manicure is a cosmetic beauty treatment for the fingernails and hands performed at home or in a nail salon. A manicure consists of filing and shaping the free edge and clipping any nonliving tissue, treatments with various liquids, massage of the hand, the application of fingernail polish; when the same is applied to the toenails and feet, the treatment is referred to as a pedicure. Some manicures include painting pictures or designs on the nails, or applying small decals or imitation jewels. Other nail treatments may include the application of artificial gel nails, tips, or acrylics, which may be referred to as French manicures. In many areas, manicurists follow regulations. Since skin is manipulated and is sometimes trimmed, there is a risk of spreading infection when tools are used across many people. Therefore, having proper sanitation can be a serious issue; the English word manicure comes from the French word manucure, meaning "care of the hands", which in turn originates from the Latin words manus, for "hand", cura, for "care".
The English word pedicure comes from the Latin words pes, for "foot", cura, for "care". Jeff Pink, founder of the professional nail brand Orly, is credited with creating the natural nail look called the French manicure in 1976. Nails that have undergone a French manicure are characterized by a lack of artificial base color and white tips at the free edge of the nail. For this reason, they are sometimes referred to as "French tips"; the nail tips are painted white, while the rest of the nails are polished in a pink or a suitable nude shade. French manicures can be achieved with artificial nails. However, it is as common to perform a French manicure on natural nails. Another technique is to whiten the underside of the nail with white pencil and paint a sheer color over the entire nail. A hot oil manicure is a specific type of manicure that cleans the cuticles and softens them with oil. Types of oils that can be used are mineral oil, olive oil, some lotions or commercial preparations in an electric heater.
Dip powder manicures are an alternative to gel polish. Dip powders have become popular due to ease of application, they are similar to traditional silk or fiberglass enhancements, with the fiber being replaced by acrylic powder. Both methods rely on layering cyanoacrylate over the natural nail and encasing either the fiber or acrylic powder. While a single layer of fiber is typical, multiple alternating layers of powder and cyanoacrylate may be used in dip nails. Hands or feet can be covered in melted paraffin wax for moisturizing. Paraffin wax is used because it can be heated to temperatures of over 95 °F without burning or injuring the body; the intense heat allows for deeper absorption of essential oils. The wax is infused with various botanical ingredients such as aloe vera, chamomile, or tea tree oil, fruit waxes such as apple and strawberry, are used in salons. Lotion is rubbed on the hand or foot before being coated in paraffin. Paraffin wax treatments are charged as an addition to the standard manicure or pedicure.
They are not covered in general training and are a rare treatment in most nail salons. Professional services should not include dipping clients' hands or feet into a communal paraffin bath, as the wax can be a vector for disease. Paraffin should be applied in a way that avoids contamination by placing a portion of the wax into a bag or mitt, placed on the client's hand or foot and covered with a warm towel, cotton mitt, or booty to retain warmth; the paraffin is left for a few minutes. Common manicure/pedicure tools include: Bowl of warm water or fingerbath Cuticle nipper Cuticle pusher Foot bath Manicure table Nail art brushes/tools Nail brush Nail buffer Nail clippers Nail file Nail scissors Orangewood stick Pumice stone / foot file Rubber thimble-like object Toe separator Common manicure/pedicure supplies include: Cotton balls/pads Cuticle remover Hand cream Hand towels Massage lotion Mild scrub Nail jewels Nail polish Nail polish remover or nail polish remover wipes Base coat polish & ridge filler polish Color varnish Top coat or sealantFor decoration: Fimo/Nail art cane slices Flocking Powder Glitter Sanitizing spray/towels Small dried flowers In Australia, the United States, other countries, many nail salons offer personal nail tool kits for purchase to avoid some of the sanitation issues in the salon.
The kits are kept in the salon and given to the client to take home, or are thrown away after use. They are only used. Another option is to give the client the files and wooden cuticle sticks after the manicure. Since the 1970s, the overwhelming majority of professional salons use electric nail files that are faster and yield higher quality results with acrylic nail enhancements. There are several nail shapes: the basic shapes are almond, pointed, square, square oval, square with rounded corners, straight with a rounded tip; the square oval shape is sometimes known as a "squoval", a term coined in 1984. The squoval is considered a sturdy shape, useful for those. On May 7, 2015, The New York Times journalist Sarah Maslin Nir broke the two-part story titled "The Price of Nice Nails" and "Perfect Nails, Poisoned Workers" about abuses in New York salons related to ill-treatment of workers and associated health risks; as a result, on May 11, 2015
The ring finger is the finger on which it is the custom in a particular culture for a wedding ring to be placed during a wedding ceremony and on which the wedding ring is subsequently worn to indicate the status of the wearer as a married person. It is the finger between the middle finger and the little finger, is so named because in some cultures it is the finger on which one wears a wedding ring after marriage. In some cultures the wedding ring is worn on the "ring finger" of the left hand and in others it is on the right hand. Traditionally, a wedding ring was worn only by the bride/wife, but in recent times more men wear a wedding ring, it is the custom in some cultures to wear an engagement ring on the ring finger. The origin of the selection of the fourth finger as the ring finger is not definitively known. According to László A. Magyar, the names of the ring finger in many languages reflect an ancient belief that it is a magical finger, it called nameless. In Sanskrit and other languages like Finnish or Russian, the ring finger is called - "Anamika", "nimetön" and "Безымянный".
In Arabic and Hebrew, the ring finger is called - bansur - and kmitsa. In anatomy, the ring finger is called digitus medicinalis, the fourth finger, digitus annularis, digitus quartus, or digitus IV, it may be referred to as the third finger, excluding the thumb. In Latin, the word anulus means "ring", digitus means "finger", quartus means "fourth". Before medical science discovered how the circulatory system functioned, people believed that a vein ran directly from the fourth finger on the left hand to the heart; because of the hand–heart connection, they chose the descriptive name vena amoris, Latin for the vein of love, for this particular vein. Based upon this name, their contemporaries, purported experts in the field of matrimonial etiquette, wrote that it would only be fitting that the wedding ring be worn on this finger. By wearing the ring on the fourth finger of the left hand, a married couple symbolically declares their eternal love for each other. In Britain, only women tended to wear a wedding ring until the 1st and 2nd World Wars, when married male soldiers started to wear rings to remind them of their partner.
In Western cultures, a wedding ring is traditionally worn on the fourth finger called the “ring finger”. This developed from the Roman "anulus pronubis" when a man would give a ring to the woman at their betrothal ceremony. Blessing the wedding ring and putting it on the bride's finger dates from the 11th century. In medieval Europe, during the Christian wedding ceremony the ring was placed in sequence on the thumb, index and ring fingers of the left hand; the ring was left on the ring finger. In a few European countries, the ring is worn on the left hand prior to marriage transferred to the right during the ceremony. For example, a Greek Orthodox bride wears the ring on the left hand prior to the ceremony moves it to the right hand after the wedding. In England, the 1549 Prayer Book declared "the ring shall be placed on the left hand". By the 17th and 18th centuries the ring could be found on any finger after the ceremony — on the thumb; the wedding ring is worn on the ring finger of the left hand in the former British Empire, certain parts of Western Europe, certain parts of Catholic Mexico, Bolivia and Central and Eastern Europe.
These include: Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, the UK, the US. In Catalonia and Valencia; the wedding ring is worn on the ring finger of the right hand in some Orthodox and a small number of Catholic European countries, some Protestant Western European, as well as some Central and South American Catholic countries. In Eastern Europe, these include: Bulgaria, Georgia, Lithuania, Russia and Ukraine. In Central or Western Europe, these include: Austria, Denmark, Hungary, Netherlands and Spain. In Central or South America, these include: Colombia, Peru, Venezuela; the ring is worn on the right hand until the actual wedding day, when it is moved to the left hand in Turkey and Syria as well as in Romania and Brazil. In Sinhalese and Tamil culture, the groom wears the wedding ring on his right hand and bride wears it on her left hand ring finger; this can be seen in countries like Sri Lanka where there is a rich Sinhalese and Tamil cultural influence in the society. A wedding ring is not a traditional part of the religious Muslim wedding and wedding rings are not included in most Islamic countries, However, if a wedding ring is worn in an Islamic country, it may be worn on either the left or the right ring finger.
As opposed to the wedding ring, use of a ring to denote betrothal or engagement is quite prevalent in Muslim countries those in West and South Asia. Muslim engagement rings are worn on the right finger by men, the left finger by women. In a traditional Jewish wedding ceremony, the wedding ring is placed on the bride's righthand index finger, but other traditions place it on the middle finger or the thumb, most in recent times. Today, the ring is moved to the left hand ring finger after the ceremony; some Jewish grooms have adopted wearing a wedding ring. However, in Orthodox Judaism, most men do not wear wedding rings. Rings are not traditional in an Indian wedding. H