Trinity College Dublin
Trinity College the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland. The college was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I as the "mother" of a new university, modelled after the collegiate universities of Oxford and Cambridge, but unlike these other ancient universities, only one college was established; the college is incorporated by "the Provost, Foundation Scholars and other members of the Board" as outlined by its founding charter. It is one of the seven ancient universities of Britain and Ireland, as well as Ireland's oldest surviving university. Trinity College is considered the most prestigious university in Ireland and amongst the most elite in Europe, principally due to its extensive history, reputation for social elitism and unique relationship with both the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. In accordance with the formula of ad eundem gradum, a form of recognition that exists among the three universities, a graduate of Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin can be conferred with the equivalent degree at either of the other two universities without further examination.
Trinity College, Dublin is a sister college to St John's College and Oriel College, Oxford. Trinity was established outside the city walls of Dublin in the buildings of the outlawed Catholic Augustinian Priory of All Hallows. Trinity College was set up in part to consolidate the rule of the Tudor monarchy in Ireland, as a result was the university of the Protestant Ascendancy for much of its history. While Catholics were admitted from 1793 certain restrictions on membership of the college remained as professorships and scholarships were reserved for Protestants; these restrictions were lifted by Act of Parliament in 1873. However, from 1871 to 1970, the Catholic Church in Ireland in turn forbade its adherents from attending Trinity College without permission. Women were first admitted to the college as full members in January 1904. Trinity College is now surrounded by central Dublin and is located on College Green, opposite the historic Irish Houses of Parliament; the college proper occupies 190,000 m2, with many of its buildings ranged around large quadrangles and two playing fields.
Academically, it is divided into three faculties comprising 25 schools, offering degree and diploma courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The Library of Trinity College is a legal deposit library for Ireland and Great Britain, containing over 6.2 million printed volumes and significant quantities of manuscripts, including the Book of Kells. The first University of Dublin was created by the Pope in 1311, had a Chancellor and students over many years, before coming to an end at the Reformation. Following this, some debate about a new university at St. Patrick's Cathedral, in 1592 a small group of Dublin citizens obtained a charter by way of letters patent from Queen Elizabeth incorporating Trinity College at the former site of All Hallows monastery, to the south east of the city walls, provided by the Corporation of Dublin; the first provost of the college was the Archbishop of Dublin, Adam Loftus, he was provided with two initial Fellows, James Hamilton and James Fullerton.
Two years after foundation, a few Fellows and students began to work in the new college, which lay around one small square. During the following fifty years the community increased the endowments, including considerable landed estates, were secured, new fellowships were founded, the books which formed the foundation of the great library were acquired, a curriculum was devised and statutes were framed; the founding Letters Patent were amended by succeeding monarchs on a number of occasions, such as by James I in 1613 and most notably in 1637 by Charles I and supplemented as late as the reign of Queen Victoria. During the eighteenth century Trinity College was seen as the university of the Protestant Ascendancy. Parliament, meeting on the other side of College Green, made generous grants for building; the first building of this period was the Old Library building, begun in 1712, followed by the Printing House and the Dining Hall. During the second half of the century Parliament Square emerged.
The great building drive was completed in the early nineteenth century by Botany Bay, the square which derives its name in part from the herb garden it once contained. Following early steps in Catholic Emancipation, Catholics were first allowed to apply for admission in 1793, prior to the equivalent change at the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford. Certain disabilities remained. In December 1845 Denis Caulfield Heron was the subject of a hearing at Trinity College. Heron had been examined and, on merit, declared a scholar of the college but had not been allowed to take up his place due to his Catholic religion. Heron appealed to the Courts which issued a writ of mandamus requiring the case to be adjudicated by the Archbishop of Dublin and the Primate of Ireland; the decision of Richard Whately and John George de la Poer Beresf
Adare is a small village in County Limerick, located south-west of the city of Limerick. Renowned as one of Ireland's prettiest towns, Adare is designated as a heritage town by the Irish government; the River Maigue is tidal as far as Adare, with the settlement forming around the eastern bank of the Maigue overlooking the fording point from which the village gets its name. An annalistic reference is made in the medieval Annals of Inisfallen at AI982.4 "The Tree of Mag Adar was broken by Leth Cuinn". Owing to the strategic importance of the river crossing the Desmond castle was built overlooking the site near Ardshanbally, was first mentioned in 1226. A market town, in the Middle Ages, Adare boasted three monasteries. Owing to the influence of the Earls of Dunraven, who built the Adare Manor a strict plan was laid out for the town. A castle or fortress is said to have first been built with an ancient ring-fort, by the O'Donovans, rulers of the region into the late 12th century, afterwards to have passed into the possession of the Kildare branch of the FitzGerald dynasty, who may be responsible for the majority of the remains of the present fortress.
Desmond Castle, as it is popularly known, stands on the north bank of the Maigue. An extensive renovation has been in progress on the castle since 1996 and supervised tours are offered in the summer months; this is one of a series of significant Desmond properties, which include the banqueting hall in Newcastle West, another castle in Askeaton and Castle Matrix near Rathkeale, further west in County Limerick. The Augustinian Priory was founded in 1316 by 1st Earl of Kildare; the Priory was suppressed in the reign of Henry VIII. In 1807, the church of the Priory was given to the local Church of Ireland congregation as the parish church. In 1814, the refectory was converted into a schoolhouse. Between 1852 and 1854, a second restoration of the church was undertaken by Caroline, Countess of Dunraven; the Franciscan friary was founded in 1464 by Thomas Fitz-Maurice, 7th Earl of Kildare and his wife Joan, completed two years later. It is a ruin and is located inside the Adare Manor Golf Club; every Easter Sunday a dawn mass is celebrated in the Abbey.
The Trinitarian Order established their only monastery in Ireland in Adare in 1230. It is believed; the Abbey was restored in 1811 by the first Earl of Dunraven as the Catholic Parish church. Adare Manor is a mansion located on lands on the banks of the River Maiguem and the former seat of the Earl of Dunraven and Mount-Earl; the present building was built in the early 19th-century in a Tudor-revival style, while retaining part of an earlier structure. It is now the Adare Manor Hotel & Golf Resort, a luxury resort hotel, reopened after an extensive restoration in October 2017; the main street combines typical Irish architecture with the English styled buildings and infrastructure purpose-built for the Dunraven estate. Examples of the latter architectural forms include the thatched cottages near the entrance to Adare Manor; some of the most common, well-respected and iconic surnames in Adare include the following: Barkman, Bourke, Carmody, Griffin, Kelly, Lavin, McMahon, McNamara, Hogan, Masterson, O' Connor, O'Donnell, O'Regan, Fitzgerald, Walsh.
Adare is a tourist destination and the local heritage centre, which gives insight into the history of the village hosts a number of craft shops. The village is a popular conference venue. Adare has two 18-hole golf courses - the Adare Golf Club, which incorporates a driving range and, the site of the 2007 and 2008 Irish Open, the Adare Manor Golf Club and a pitch and putt course. Adare has an equestrian centre, located in Clonshire; the village has three hotels: The Adare Manor, the Dunraven Arms and, to the east of the village on the road to Croom, the Woodlands House Hotel. Adare has many fine restaurants and bistros such as 1826 Adare, the Arches, the Blue Door, the Good Room, the Wild Geese. In addition to the restaurants the hotels and pubs offer food, a number of cafés, other takeaway restaurants exist in the village. Sean Collins and sons bar offers great food every day. There are four primary schools in Adare: St Joseph's National School, Our Lady's Abbey National School, St Nicholas' National School and Shountrade National School.
The village's secondary school, Adare CBS, closed in 1973. The main Limerick-Tralee road, the N21 passes through the village, causing persistent heavy congestions; the congestion of traffic is sometimes dubbed "The Adare Traffic" by locals. In late 2015 a corridor for the long-delayed bypass was chosen that realigns national route 21 north of the village as part of a new dual carriageway planned to link Foynes port to Limerick. Adare is a stop on Bus Éireann's Limerick-Tralee/Killarney bus service and Dublin Coach's Dublin-Tralee/Killarney service. Both run hourly; the abandoned "Limerick-Foynes" railway line passes half a mile to the north-west of the town. Adare railway station, opened on 12 July 1856 by the Limerick & Foynes Railway company, was closed to passengers on 4 February 1963 and to freight on 2 December 1974; the line to Foynes continued to carry freight traffic until it was mothballed in 2001 and has seen no trains since 7 May 2002 when the annual Irish Rail weedspray train visited the line.
The line, designated an engineers siding, is still official
Rail transport in Ireland
Rail transport in Ireland is provided by Iarnród Éireann in the Republic of Ireland and by Northern Ireland Railways in Northern Ireland. Most routes in the Republic radiate from Dublin. Northern Ireland has suburban routes from Belfast and two main InterCity lines, to Derry and cross-border to Dublin; the accompanying map of the current railway network shows lines that are operational, carrying freight only traffic and with dotted black lines those which have been "mothballed". Some airports are indicated but none are rail-connected, although Kerry Airport and Belfast City Airport are within walking distance of a railway station. Both the City of Derry Airport and Belfast International are near railway lines but not connected. Ports are marked. Larne Harbour, Dún Laoighaire, Rosslare Europort are ports that are still connected. Ireland's only light rail service, the Luas, is in Dublin. No metro lines exist in Ireland, but there is a planned MetroLink line which would serve Dublin; the first railway in Ireland opened in 1834.
At its peak in 1920, Ireland had 5,600 km of railway, now. A large area around the border area has no rail service. Ireland's first Light rail line was opened on Wednesday 30 June 2004. Diesel traction is the sole form of motive power in both the IÉ and NIR networks, apart from the electrified Howth/Malahide-Greystones suburban route in Dublin. Apart from prototypes and a small number of shunting locomotives, the first major dieselisation programme in CIÉ commenced in the early 1950s with orders for 94 locomotives of two sizes from Metropolitan-Vickers which were delivered from 1955, with a further twelve locomotives from Sulzer in the late 1950s. Following poor reliability experience with the first generation diesel locomotives, in the 1960s a second dieselisation programme was undertaken with the introduction of sixty-four locomotives in three classes built by General Motors, of the United States; this programme, together with line closures, enabled CIÉ to re-eliminate steam traction in 1963, having done so on the CIÉ network prior to taking over its share of the Great Northern Railway.
In parallel, NIR acquired three locomotives from Hunslet, of England, for Dublin-Belfast services. The Metropolitan-Vickers locomotives were re-engined by CIÉ in the early 1970s with General Motors engines; the third generation of diesel traction in Ireland was the acquisition of eighteen locomotives from General Motors of 2475 h.p. output, designated the 071 class, in 1976. This marked a significant improvement in the traction power available to CIÉ and enabled the acceleration of express passenger services. NIR subsequently purchased three similar locomotives for Dublin-Belfast services, the first alignment of traction policies by CIÉ and NIR. A fourth generation of diesels took the form of thirty-four locomotives, again from General Motors, which arrived in the early 1990s; this was a joint order by IÉ and NIR, with thirty-two locomotives for the former and two for the latter. They were again supplied by General Motors Electro-Motive Division. IÉ designated their locomotives the GM 201 class.
These locomotives are the most powerful diesels to run in Ireland, are of 3200 horsepower, which enabled further acceleration of express services. The NIR locomotives, although shipped in NIR livery, were repainted in'Enterprise' livery, as were six of the IÉ locomotives; the 071 class are now used on freight services. NIR's three similar locomotives are numbered 111, 112 and 113. There is more than one of these serviceable at a time. NIR and IÉ both run suburban services using diesel multiple units – these are termed railcars in Ireland. Irish Rail Railcars IÉ DMUs operate all InterCity services apart from Dublin to Cork and Dublin to Belfast. Irish Rail 22000 Class InterCity Railcars There are 234 22000 Class carriages in total, being formed into the following sets: Ten 5-car sets – Each set includes a 1st Class Carriage and a Dining Carriage, they are used on key InterCity services between Dublin and Limerick, Waterford and Tralee. Twenty-five 4-car sets – These operate on their own or with a 3-car unit.
They serve lesser-used InterCity services and most Dublin to Rosslare services. Twenty-eight 3-car sets – These operate in pairs, they serve lesser-used InterCity services and many Dublin Commuter services. Features of the InterCity Railcar fleet include: Automatic PA and information display systems Electronic seat reservation displays for web bookings, Fully air-conditioned, Internal CCTV system Sleek carriage design Advanced safety features throughoutIrish Rail Commuter Railcars IÉ introduced 17 new suburban railcars in 1994 as the 2600 Class for the Kildare'Arrow' suburban service. Further additions to the fleet were made in 1997, 2000 and 2003; when the 29000 Class was introduced all Irish railcars were re-branded from'Arrow' to'Commuter'. A further nine 4-car 29000 Class trainsets arrived in 2005. NIR Railcars NIR replaced their ageing DMUs with Class 3000 and Class 4000 regional railcars built by CAF, which arrived in 2005 and 2011, respectively. Iarnród Éireann's flagship InterCity fleet are the Mark 4.
Built by CAF of Spain in 2004–2005 they are formed into 8-car sets, pushed or pulled by a Mar
Roads in Ireland
The island of Ireland, comprising Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, has an extensive network of tens of thousands of kilometres of public roads surfaced. These roads have been developed and modernised over centuries, from trackways suitable only for walkers and horses, to surfaced roads including modern motorways; the major routes were established before Irish independence and take little cognisance of the border other than a change of identification number and street furniture. Northern Ireland has had motorways since 1962, has a well-developed network of primary and local routes; the Republic started work on its motorway network in the early 1980s. However, the Celtic Tiger economic boom and an influx of European Union structural funding, saw national roads and regional roads in the Republic come up to international standard quite quickly. In the mid-1990s, for example, the Republic went from having only a few short sections of motorway to a network of motorways, dual carriageways and other improvements on most major routes as part of a National Development Plan.
Road construction in Northern Ireland now tends to proceed at a slower pace than in the Republic, although a number of important bypasses and upgrades to dual carriageway have been completed or are about to begin. Roads in Northern Ireland are classified as either Highways, motorways, A-roads, B-roads and other roads. There are two types of A-roads: non-primary. Roads in the Republic are classified as either motorways, national roads, regional roads and local roads. There are two types of national roads: national secondary routes. Distance signposts in Northern Ireland show distances in miles, while all signposts placed in the Republic since the 1990s use kilometres; the Republic's road signs are bilingual, using both official languages and English. However, signs in the Gaeltacht use only Irish; the Irish language names are written in the English in capitals. Signs in Northern Ireland are in English only. Warning signs in the Republic have a yellow background and are diamond-shaped, those in Northern Ireland are triangle-shaped and have a white background with a red border.
Speed limits in Northern Ireland are specified in miles per hour. Those in the Republic use kilometres per hour, a change introduced on 20 January 2005; this involved the provision of 58,000 new metric speed limit signs and supplementing 35,000 imperial signs. There have been routes and trackways in Ireland connecting settlements and facilitating trade since ancient times. Ireland was never part of the Roman Empire and, Roman roads were not built in Ireland. However, an Iron Age road with a stone surface has been excavated in Munster and togher roads, a type of causeway built through bogs, were found in many areas of the country. According to an entry in the Annals of the Four Masters for AD 123, there were five principal highways leading to Tara in Early Medieval Ireland. Early medieval law-tracts set out five types of road including the highway, the' main road', the'connecting road', the'side road' which could be tolled, the'cow road'. Bóthar is the most common term for'road' in modern Irish: its diminutive form, bóithrín, is used as a term for narrow, rural roads.
The development of roads in Ireland seemed to have stagnated until the eighteenth- and early nineteenth-centuries. However, in the 18th century, a network of turnpike roads was built: "a turnpike was a primitive form of turnstile – a gate across the road, opened on payment of a toll; the average length of a turnpike road was 30 miles". Routes to and from Dublin were developed and the network spread throughout the country. Turnpikes operated between 1729 and 1858 when the extensive railway network made them unpopular. Specialist routes to facilitate the butter trade, which centred on Cork, were built in Munster; the first butter road was commissioned in 1748 and was built by John Murphy of Castleisland in County Kerry. In other areas, notably in County Wicklow, military roads were built to help secure British military control over remote areas; the Military Road through County Wicklow was begun in 1800 and completed in 1809. The R115 is part of the Military Road for its entire length. Railways became the dominant form of land transport from the mid-19th century.
This situation persisted until the first half of the 20th century when motorised road transport began to take over from railways as the most important form of land transport. Pre-independence legislation laid the foundation for the regulation of the modern system of public roads in Ireland; the Act gave the Minister for Local Government the power to classify roads: Trunk Road Funds were used to enable local councils to improve major roads and road surfacing was undertaken throughout the 1920s, 1930s and beyond. By the 1950s an established system of road classification and numbering with Trunk Roads and Link Roads had long been developed; the present system of road classification and numberi
County Limerick is a county in Ireland. It is located in the province of Munster, is part of the Mid-West Region, it is named after the city of Limerick. Limerick City and County Council is the local council for the county; the county's population at the 2016 census was 194,899 of whom 94,192 lived in Limerick City, the county capital. Limerick borders four other counties: Kerry to the west, Clare to the north, Tipperary to the east and Cork to the south, it is the fifth largest of Munster's six counties in size, the second largest by population. The River Shannon flows through the city of Limerick into the Atlantic Ocean at the north of the county. Below the city, the waterway is known as the Shannon Estuary; because the estuary is shallow, the county's most important port is several kilometres west of the city, at Foynes. Limerick City is the county town and is Ireland's third largest city, it serves as a regional centre for the greater Mid-West Region. Newcastle West, Kilmallock & Abbeyfeale are other important towns in the county.
There are fourteen historic baronies in the county. While baronies continue to be defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes, their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, where official Irish names of baronies are listed under "Administrative units". Clanwilliam - Clann Liam Connello Lower - Conallaigh Íochtaracha Connello Upper - Conallaigh Uachtaracha Coonagh - Uí Chuanach Coshlea - Cois Laoi Coshma - Cois Máighe Glenquin - Gleann an Choim Kenry - Caonraí Kilmallock - Cill Mocheallóg North Liberties - Na Líbeartaí Thuaidh Owneybeg - Uaithne Beag Pubblebrien - Pobal Bhriain Shanid - Seanaid Smallcounty - An Déis Bheag Limerick City is the county capital and is shown in bold. One possible meaning for the county's name in Irish Luimneach is "the flat area". Moreover, the county is ringed by mountains: the Slieve Felims to the northeast, the Galtees to the southeast, the Ballyhoura Mountains to the south, the Mullaghareirk Mountains to the southwest and west.
The highest point in the county is located in its south-east corner at Galtymore, which separates Limerick from County Tipperary. The county is not a a plain, its topography consists of hills and ridges; the eastern part of the county is part of the Golden Vale, well known for dairy produce and consists of rolling low hills. This gives way to flat land around the centre of the county, with the exception being Knockfierna at 288 m high. Towards the west, the Mullaghareirk Mountains push across the county offering extensive views east over the county and west into County Kerry. Volcanic rock is to be found in numerous areas in the county, at Carrigogunnell, at Knockfierna, principally at Pallasgreen/Kilteely in the east, described as the most compact and for its size one of the most varied and complete carboniferous volcanic districts in either Britain and Ireland. Tributaries of the Shannon drainage basin located in the county include the rivers Mulcair, Maigue, Morning Star and the Feale, it is thought that humans had established themselves in the Lough Gur area of the county as early as 3000 BC, while megalithic remains found at Duntryleague date back further to 3500 BC.
The arrival of the Celts around 400 BC brought about the division of the county into petty kingdoms or túatha. From the 4th to the 11th century, the ancient kingdom of the Uí Fidgenti was co-extensive with what is now County Limerick, with some of the easternmost part the domain of the Eóganacht Áine; the establishment of Limerick as a town and base by the Danes in the mid 900's, their alliance with Irish families, including their alliance with Donnubán mac Cathail of the O'Donovans, resulted in significant conflicts with neighbouring clans, principally the O'Briens of Dál gCais, who raided into the Limerick area on a regular basis. The O'Briens retained their political power until late in the 1100s; the establishment of King John's castle in Limerick, the granting of Ui Fidgenti lands to the FitzGeralds, both circa 1200, the resultant competition for Ui Fidgenti lands by other Anglo Norman families, resulted in a transfer of power from the Ui Fidgenti's leading families to the new landholders.
The ancestors of both Michael Collins and the famous O'Connells of Derrynane were among the septs of the Uí Fidgenti. As the Ui Fidgenti were the ruling clan in the Limerick after 400 a.d. the Uí Fidgenti still made a substantial contribution to the population of the central and western regions of County Limerick. Their capital was Dún Eochair, the great earthworks of which still remain and can be found close to the modern town of Bruree, on the River Maigue. Bruree is Fort of the King. Catherine Coll, the mother of Éamon de Valera, was a native of Bruree and this is where he was taken by her brother to be raised. St. Patrick brought Christianity to Limerick area in the 5th Century. Various annals record that St. Patrick quarreled with the chief of the Ui Fidgenti but was embraced by the brother of the chief; the adoption of Christianity resulted in the establishment of important monasteries in Limerick, at Ardpatrick and Kileedy. From this golden age in Ireland of learning and art comes one of Ireland's greatest artifacts, The Ardagh Chalice, a masterpiece of metalwork, found in a west Limerick fort in 1868.
It is believed that the chalice had been
Ardpatrick is a small village in Limerick, Ireland. It lies on the edge of the Golden Vale, it had a population of about 70. It was anciently known as Tulach na Féinne. On the hill above the village is the site of a 5th-century monastery and round tower or cloictheach, now in ruins. Legend tells of a peal of 7 silver bells; the monastery was reputedly founded by St. Patrick himself and is surrounded by earthworks far more ancient. From the hill can be seen Castle Oliver, a 19th-century mansion built by the Oliver Gascoignes, an Anglo-Irish family, its fine stained glass windows, which feature the life of St. Patrick, have been restored, it eas joined with neighboring parish Kilfinane About an hour from both Cork and Shannon airports, the village comprises a small number of houses around the parish church. At the south end of the village is a memorial garden and tourist information; each summer there is a 3-day Festival na Fianna. The Greenwood, just to the south of the village gives access to walking trails across thousands of acres of countryside.
According to Irish Census 1901 & 1911. Murphy, O’Sullivan, McCarthy, O’Connell, Ryan, Fitzgerald, Sullivan, Dunworth, O’Donnell, O’Shea, Lyons, O’Brien, Connell, Tobin, Burke, McGrath, O’Leary. List of towns and villages in Ireland village website
A drumlin, from the Irish word droimnín, first recorded in 1833, in the classical sense is an elongated hill in the shape of an inverted spoon or half-buried egg formed by glacial ice acting on underlying unconsolidated till or ground moraine. Drumlins occur in various shapes and sizes, including symmetrical, parabolic forms, together with transverse asymmetrical forms. Drumlins are 1 to 2 km long, less than 50 m high and between 300 to 600 metres wide. Drumlins have a length:width ratio of between 1:2 and 1:3.5, with the questionable assumption that more elongate forms correspond to faster ice motion. That is, since ice flows in laminar flow, the resistance to flow is frictional and depends on area of contact. Drumlins and drumlin clusters are glacial landforms composed of glacial till, they form near the margin of glacial systems, within zones of fast flow deep within ice sheets, are found with other major glacially-formed features. Drumlins are in drumlin fields of shaped and oriented hills.
Many Pleistocene drumlin fields are observed to occur in a fan-like distribution. The Múlajökull drumlins of Hofsjökull are arrayed in a splayed fan distribution around an arc of 180°. Drumlins may comprise layers constituting clay, sand and boulders in various proportions – indicating that material was added to a core, which may be of rock or glacial till. Alternatively, drumlins may be residual, with the landforms resulting from erosion of material between the landforms; the dilatancy of glacial till was invoked as a major factor in drumlin formation. In other cases, drumlin fields include drumlins made up of hard bedrock; these drumlins cannot be explained by the addition of soft-sediment to a core. Thus and erosion of soft-sediment by processes of subglacial deformation do not present unifying theories for all drumlins—some are composed of residual bedrock. Conventional models of drumlin formation fall into two camps: constructional, in which they form as sediment is manipulated into shape, for example via subglacial deformation.
A hypothesis that catastrophic sub-glacial floods form drumlins by deposition or erosion challenges conventional explanations for drumlins. It includes deposition of glaciofluvial sediment in cavities scoured into a glacier bed by subglacial meltwater and remnant ridges left behind by erosion of soft-sediment or hard-rock by turbulent meltwater; this hypothesis requires huge, subglacial meltwater floods, each of which would raise sea-level by tens of centimetres in a few weeks. Studies of erosional forms in bedrock at French River, Canada provide evidence for such floods; the recent retreat of a marginal outlet glacier of Hofsjökull in Iceland exposed a drumlin field with more than 50 drumlins ranging from 90 to 320 m in length, 30 to 105 m in width, 5 to 10 m in height. These formed through a progression of subglacial depositional and erosional processes, with each horizontal till bed within the drumlin created by an individual surge of the glacier; the above theory for the formation of these Icelandic drumlins gives the best explanations for one type of drumlin.
However, it does not provide a unifying explanation of all drumlins. For example, drumlin fields including drumlins composed of hard bedrock cannot be explained by deposition and erosion of unconsolidated beds; as well, hairpin scours around many drumlins are best explained by the erosive action of horseshoe vortices around obstacles in a turbulent boundary layer. Erosion under a glacier in the immediate vicinity of a drumlin can be on the order of a meter's depth of sediment per year, with the eroded sediment forming a drumlin as it is repositioned and deposited. Formed drumlins incorporate a thin "A" soil horizon and a thin "Bw" horizon; the "C" horizon, which shows little evidence of being affected by soil forming processes, is close to the surface, may be at the surface on an eroded drumlin. Below the C horizon the drumlin consists of multiple beds of till deposited by lodgment and bed deformation. On drumlins with longer exposure soil development is more advanced, for example with the formation of clay-enriched "Bt" horizons.
The retreat of Icelandic glacier Múlajökull, an outlet glacier of Hofsjökull exposed a 50 drumlin cluster, which serves as the basis for improved understanding of drumlin formation. The literature documents extensive drumlin fields in England and Wales, Poland, Latvia, around Lake Constance north of the Alps, County Leitrim, County Monaghan, County Mayo and County Cavan in the Republic of Ireland, County Fermanagh, County Armagh and County Down in Northern Ireland, Hindsholm in Denmark and Greenland; the largest drumlin fields in the world formed beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet and are found in Canada—Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario and northern Quebec. Drumlins are common in central New York (between the south shore of Lake O