Withlacoochee River (Suwannee River tributary)
The Withlacoochee River originates in Georgia, northwest of Nashville, Georgia. It flows south through Berrien County where it joins the New River and forms part of the boundary between Berrien and Cook counties, it flows south into Lowndes County, Georgia. At Troupville, Georgia the Little River joins the Withlacoochee River flows continues to flow south and forms part of the boundary between Lowndes and Brooks counties in Georgia; the river flows into Florida for 1.34 miles Florida before returning into Georgia for an additional 2.44 miles. It returns to Florida, forming the northeast boundary of Madison County and the western boundary of Hamilton County and merges with the Suwannee at Suwannee River State Park west of Live Oak; the river is 115 miles long. It is believed to be the source for the name of the central Florida river of the same name; the Withlacoochee River received its name from the Muskogean peoples. It comes from the compound Creek word ue-rakkuce, from ue "water", rakko "big", -uce "small", with the rough translation "little river."
English speakers changed the Muskogee voiceless lateral spelled r to "thl". Withlacoochee River Canoe Trail at Florida Department of Environmental Protection Rivers that flow north at EcoFlorida Withlacoochee River: Georgia State Line to Suwannee River State Park at Trails.com
The Suwannee River is a major river that runs through South Georgia southward into Florida in the southern United States. It is a wild blackwater river, about 246 miles long; the Suwannee River is the site of the prehistoric Suwanee Straits which separated peninsular Florida from the panhandle. The headwaters of the Suwanee River are in the Okefenokee Swamp in the town of Georgia; the river runs southwestward into the Florida Panhandle drops in elevation through limestone layers into a rare Florida whitewater rapid. Past the rapid, the Suwanee turns west near the town of White Springs, Florida connects to the confluences of the Alapaha River and Withlacoochee River. Starting at the confluences of those three rivers, that confluence forms the southern borderline of Hamilton County, Florida; the Suwanee bends southward near the town of Ellaville, followed by Luraville, Florida joins together with the Santa Fe River from the east, south of the town of Branford, Florida. The river drains into the Gulf of Mexico on the outskirts of Suwannee, Florida.
The Spanish recorded the native Timucua name of Guacara for the river that would become known as the Suwannee. Different etymologies have been suggested for the modern name. San Juan: D. G. Brinton first suggested in his 1889 Notes on the Floridian Peninsula that Suwannee was a corruption of the Spanish San Juan; this theory is supported by Jerald Milanich, who states that "Suwannee" developed through "San Juan-ee" from the 17th-century Spanish mission of San Juan de Guacara, located on the Suwannee River. Shawnee: The migrations of the Shawnee throughout the South have been connected to the name Suwannee; as early as 1820, the Indian agent John Johnson said "the'Suwaney' river was doubtless named after the Shawanoese, Suwaney being a corruption of Shawanoese." However, the primary southern Shawnee settlements were along the Savannah River, with only the village of Ephippeck on the Apalachicola River being securely identified in Florida, casting doubt on this etymology. "Echo": In 1884, Albert S. Gatschet claimed that Suwannee derives from the Creek word sawani, meaning "echo", rejecting the earlier Shawnee theory.
Stephen Boyd's 1885 Indian Local Names with Their Interpretation and Henry Gannett's 1905 work The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States repeat this interpretation, calling sawani an "Indian word" for "echo river". Gatschet's etymology survives in more recent publications mistaking the language of translation. For example, a University of South Florida website states that the "Timucuan Indian word Suwani means Echo River... River of Reeds, Deep Water, or Crooked Black Water". In 2004, William Bright repeats it again, now attributing the name "Suwanee" to a Cherokee village of Sawani, unlikely as the Cherokee never lived in Florida or South Georgia; this etymology is now considered doubtful: 2004's A Dictionary of Creek Muscogee does not include the river as a place-name derived from Muscogee, lacks entries for "echo" and for words such as svwane, sawane, or svwvne, which would correspond to the anglicization "Suwannee". The Suwannee River area has been inhabited by humans for thousands of years.
During the first millennium CE, it was inhabited by the people of the Weedon Island archaeological culture, around 900 CE, a derivative local culture, known as the Suwanee River Valley culture, developed. By the 16th century, the river was inhabited by two related Timucua language-speaking peoples: the Yustaga, who lived on the west side of the river. By 1633, the Spanish had established the missions of San Juan de Guacara, San Francisco de Chuaquin, San Augustin de Urihica along the Suwannee to convert these western Timucua peoples. In the 18th century, Seminoles lived by the river; the steamboat Madison operated on the river before the Civil War, the sulphur springs at White Springs became popular as a health resort, with 14 hotels in operation in the late 19th century. This river is the subject of the Stephen Foster song "Old Folks at Home", in which he calls it the Swanee Ribber. Foster had named the Pedee River of South Carolina in his first lyrics, it has been called Swanee River because Foster had used an alternative contemporary spelling of the name.
Foster never saw the river he made world-famous. George Gershwin's song, with lyrics by Irving Caesar, made popular by Al Jolson, is spelled "Swanee" and boasts that "the folks up North will see me no more when I get to that Swanee shore". Both of these songs feature banjo-strumming and reminiscences of a plantation life more typical of 19th-century South Carolina than of among the swamps and small farms in the coastal plain of south Georgia and north Florida. Don Ameche starred as Foster in the fictional biographical film Swanee River; when approaching the Suwannee River via several major highways, motorists are greeted with a sign which announces they are crossing the Historic Suwannee River, complete with the first line of sheet music from "Old Folks at Home". This is Florida's state song, designated as such in 1935. In 2008, its original lyrics were replaced with a politically correct version. There is a Foster museum and carillon tower at Stephen Foster Folk Culture Center State Park in White Springs.
The spring itself is called White Sulphur Springs because of its high sulphur content. Since there was a belief in the healing qualities of its waters, the Springs were long popular as a health resort; the idiom "up the Swannee" or "down the swanny" means something is going badly wrong, analogous to "up the creek without a paddle". A unique aspect of the Suwannee River is the Suwannee River Wilder
The Ogeechee River is a 294-mile-long blackwater river in the U. S. state of Georgia. It heads at the confluence of its North and South Forks, about 2.5 miles south-southwest of Crawfordville and flowing southeast to Ossabaw Sound about 16 miles south of Savannah. Its largest tributary is the Canoochee River, which drains 1,400 square miles and is the only other major river in the basin; the Ogeechee has a watershed of 5,540 square miles. It is one of the state's few free-flowing streams; the Ogeechee runs from the Piedmont across the Fall Sandhills regions. There it flows across the coastal plain of Georgia to the Atlantic Ocean. From a shallow clear running stream with several shoals, a small falls at Shoals, below Louisville the river becomes a lazy meandering channel through cypress swamps and miles of undeveloped forests; the Ogeechee River basin contains parts of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces, which extend throughout the southeastern United States. This boundary follows the contact between older crystalline metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont Province and the younger unconsolidated Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments of the Coastal Plain Province.
Other rock types found in the basin include metasedimentary rock and phyllites, felsic and mafic metavolcanic rocks, amphibolite. Coastal Plain sediments overlap the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the southern edge of the Piedmont Province at the Fall Line; the Ogeechee River watershed in Georgia crosses four major land resource areas. About 6 percent of the area lies within the Southern Piedmont MLRA, about 4 percent in the Carolina and Georgia Sand Hills MLRA, 48 percent in the Southern Coastal Plain MLRA, 42 percent in the Atlantic Coast Flatwoods MLRA; the dominant soils in this part of the watershed have 40 to 60 inches of sandy materials overlying a loamy subsoil. Soils in the Southern Coastal Plain part of the watershed are more variable than in other parts concerning their textures and water table depths. Paleo-Indian societies arrived in the area of the Ogeechee River around 11,500 years ago, the river was settled for several centuries by the Mississippians and Yuchi until the arrival of Europeans.
In fact, though the origin of the name "Ogeechee" is uncertain, it may be derived from a Muskogee term meaning "river of the Uchees", referring to the Yuchi people, who inhabited areas near it. Some scholars have drawn a connection between the river's name and the name Gullah Geechee for the Gullah people who inhabit coastal Georgia. South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region
The Coosawattee River is a 49.3-mile-long river located in the northwest part of the U. S. state of Georgia. The river begins at the confluence of the Ellijay River and Cartecay River in the city of Ellijay in Gilmer County; the river flows west through the foothills of the north Georgia mountains. In Murray County, the river is impounded by Carters Dam. Completed in 1977, Carters Dam is the tallest earthen dam east of the Mississippi River; the Coosawattee river leaves the dam flowing west serving as the Murray-Gordon County line before entering Gordon County. Near New Echota, the Coosawattee meets the Conasauga River to form the Oostanaula River; this is a tributary of the Coosa River. This area was the center of Cherokee territory in southern Tennessee. In the early 1820s, they made New Echota their capital. James Dickey used the Coosawattee River as the basis for his fictional "Cahulawassee River" in the novel, Deliverance
Gordon County, Georgia
Gordon County is a county located in the northwestern part of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 55,186; the county seat is Calhoun. Gordon County comprises the Calhoun, GA Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Atlanta-Athens-Clarke County-Sandy Springs, GA Combined Statistical Area. Gordon County was created on February 1850 by an act of the Georgia General Assembly; the new county was formed from portions of Floyd counties. All lands that would become Gordon County were occupied by the Cherokee Indians—and, in fact, the area was home of New Echota, the last seat of the Cherokee Nation. While Cherokees remained on their homeland, the General Assembly enacted legislation in December 1830 that provided for surveying the Cherokee Nation in Georgia and dividing it into sections and land lots. Subsequently, the legislature identified this entire area as "Cherokee County". An act of December 3, 1832 divided the Cherokee lands into ten new counties—Cass, Cobb, Forsyth, Lumpkin, Murray and Union.
Cherokee lands were distributed to whites in a land lottery, but the legislature temporarily prohibited whites from taking possession of lots on which Cherokees still lived. It was not until December 29, 1835 that Georgia had an official basis for claiming the unceded Cherokee lands that included the future location of Gordon County. In the Treaty of New Echota, a faction of the Cherokees agreed to give up all Cherokee claims to land in Georgia, Alabama and North Carolina and move west in return for $5 million. Though a majority of Cherokees opposed the treaty and refused to leave, the U. S. and Georgia considered it binding. In 1838, U. S. Army troops rounded up the last of 15,000 Cherokees in Georgia and forced them to march west in what came to be known as the "Trail of Tears", making this area the starting point of the removal. Gordon County's original 1850 boundaries were changed numerous times between 1852 and 1877, during which time the legislature transferred portions of Cass, Murray and Walker counties to Gordon County, while transferring land from Gordon to Floyd and Murray counties.
Georgia's 94th county was named for William Washington Gordon, the first Georgian to graduate from West Point and first president of the Central of Georgia Railroad. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 358 square miles, of which 356 square miles is land and 2.2 square miles is water. Mountains in Gordon County include Horn Mountain; the eastern half of Gordon County is located in the Coosawattee River sub-basin of the ACT River Basin. Most of the western half of the county is located in the Oostanaula River sub-basin of the same larger ACT River Basin, while a small northerly portion of the county, between Resaca and Industrial City, is in the Conasauga River sub-basin of the ACT River Basin. Chattahoochee National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 44,104 people, 16,173 households, 12,259 families residing in the county; the population density was 124 people per square mile. There were 17,145 housing units at an average density of 48 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 89.69% White, 3.46% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.53% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 4.98% from other races, 1.01% from two or more races.
7.41% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 16,173 households out of which 35.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.40% were married couples living together, 11.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.20% were non-families. 20.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.08. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 9.50% from 18 to 24, 31.40% from 25 to 44, 22.50% from 45 to 64, 10.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 99.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,831, the median income for a family was $43,184. Males had a median income of $29,761 versus $22,256 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,586.
About 7.50% of families and 9.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.10% of those under age 18 and 14.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 55,186 people, 19,715 households, 14,653 families residing in the county; the population density was 155.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 22,278 housing units at an average density of 62.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 85.2% white, 3.6% black or African American, 1.0% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 7.7% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 14.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 14.6% were American, 9.8% were Irish, 6.9% were English, 6.7% were German. Of the 19,715 households, 39.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.8% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.7% were non-families, 21.6% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.20. The median age was 36.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $40,916 and t
The Hiwassee River has its headwaters on the north slope of Rocky Mountain in Towns County in the northern State of Georgia and flows northward into North Carolina before turning westward into Tennessee, flowing into the Tennessee River a few miles west of State Route 58 in Meigs County, Tennessee. The river is about 147 miles long; the river is dammed by the Tennessee Valley Authority in four locations, all in western North Carolina. Chatuge Dam, Mission Dam, Hiwassee Dam, Apalachia Dam. Water is diverted from the stream bed at Apalachia Dam and sent through a pipeline, tunneled through the mountains for eight miles flows through the Apalachia Powerhouse to generate electricity; the stretch of the river that flows between Apalachia Dam and Apalachia Powerhouse features reduced flow and is followed by the John Muir Trail in Tennessee's Cherokee National Forest. The 23-mile stretch of river that flows from the North Carolina/Tennessee state line to U. S. Highway 411 near Delano is designated a State Scenic River and for recreational purposes is managed by the state Resource Management Division, in cooperation with TVA.
The river features Class I depending on water levels. After exiting the mountains through a gorge, the Hiwassee flows under US-411 and broadens, meandering through rural Polk and Bradley counties; the river crosses under U. S. Route 11 at Calhoun and Charleston, where local industries such as Bowater Newsprint Mill and Arch/Olin Chemical use river water in their operations. At this point the river interfaces with the impoundment of Chickamauga Dam, many marshes and wetlands surround the main channel, providing areas for hunting and fishing; the Hiwassee passes under Interstate 75 on the border of Bradley counties. The Hiwassee continues westward to pass under TN-58's historic, narrow, bridge on its way to the confluence with the Tennessee River; this area of the river is enjoyed by boaters and water skiers. Major tributaries include Valley River, Nottely River, Coker Creek, Big Lost Creek, Spring Creek, Conasauga Creek, Toccoa/Ocoee River; the Hiwassee River has been known by many variant spellings.
The best-known of these is Hiawassee, the name of the Georgia town through which the river flows. Other alternate spellings include Heia Wassea and Highwassee, some less obvious related names include Eufasee, Eufassee and Quannessee; some Cherokee say the name came from the Cherokee word Ayuhwasi, which means a savanna. The Muskogee say the river's name is the Koasati and Hitchiti, Creek language words for the copperhead snake; the river is known for its many copperheads today. Various Muskogean-speaking ethnic groups occupied the region for many centuries before the arrival of the Cherokee. Tribes related to them include the Creek, Choctaw and Seminole; some historians thought that because the Europeans had encountered the Cherokee in the Hiwassee Valley in the 18th century, the latter people had occupied the territory for a much longer period, but this is not the case. Their language is Iroquoian and they are believed to have migrated at an earlier time from south of the Great Lakes region, where several other Iroquoian tribes have been based, including the Five Nations of the Haudenosaunee.
Spanish explorers visited the region in the 16th century. Hernando de Soto crossed the Hiwassee River near its confluence with the Tennessee River at Hiwassee Island, in the spring of 1541 AD. Juan Pardo followed a trail that paralleled the river in 1567 AD. All town names and indigenous words that were recorded by de Soto's chroniclers in present-day Georgia, North Carolina and Tennessee, can be translated by contemporary Muskogean dictionaries. Most of the words are of the Koasati and Hitchiti languages, but a few are Muskogean and Alabama words. None of the words are Cherokee; the earliest European maps from the 17th century vaguely show the Hiwassee River Basin occupied by a mountain branch of the Apalachee and the Kusa. The Kusa were one of the ancestral branches of the "Upper Creek"; the Tama-tli of the Altamaha River Basin in southeastern Georgia are known to have had a colony in the valley between Andrews, North Carolina and the Hiwassee River at Murphy, North Carolina. The initial contacts by English explorers and traders in the 1690s found most of the river valley occupied by Muskogean and Yuchi towns.
Cherokee villages were north of the river at this time. In 1714, two traders in South Carolina supplied the Cherokee with firearms and directed them to attack the Yuchi villages on the Hiwassee River. Most of the men in one Yuchi town were gone. Not having firearms, the remaining Yuchi were massacred. In 1715, the Cherokee invited the leaders of the many Muskogean provinces that would comprise the Creek Confederacy to a diplomatic conference at Tugaloo at the headwaters of the Savannah River, they murdered the Muskogean leaders in their sleep. This precipitated a 40-year-long war between the Cherokee. Due to disunity among the Creek, the Cherokee were able to occupy the northeastern tip of what is now Georgia, but was part of South Carolina, they drove the Yuchi from most of North Carolina west and south of the Hiwassee. Most of the branches of the Creek lost interest in this war after a few years; the Hiwassee River and its tributaries were part of Cherokee territory in the early 18th century. A town known as "Hiwassee" was located near the mou