Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km south from Paris, 320 km north from Marseille and 56 km northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais. Lyon had a population of 513,275 in 2015, it is the capital of the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,265,375 in 2014, the second-largest urban area in France; the city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, historical and architectural landmarks. Lyon was an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Lyon played a significant role in the history of cinema: it is where Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph, it is known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical and biotech industries.
The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Euronews, it was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014. It ranked second in 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings. According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered the creation of a settlement for Roman refugees of war with the Allobroges; these refugees had been expelled from Vienne and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. The foundation was built on Fourvière hill and called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods; the city became referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, dúnon.
The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers made it a natural communications hub. The city became the starting point of the principal Roman roads in the area, it became the capital of the province, Gallia Lugdunensis. Two Emperors were born in this city: Claudius, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic Senators, Caracalla. Early Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, among others. In the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was Irenaeus. To this day, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "Primat des Gaules". Burgundians fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled at Lugdunum. In 443 the Romans established the Kingdom of the Burgundians, Lugdunum became its capital in 461.
In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon went to the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I. It was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century. Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic counting house of France; the Bourse, built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. When international banking moved to Genoa Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France. During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. In the 1400s and 1500s Lyon was a key centre of literary activity and book publishing, both of French writers and of Italians in exile.
In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Two centuries Lyon was again convulsed by violence when, during the French Revolution, the citizenry rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins; the city was besieged by Revolutionary armies for over two months before surrendering in October 1793. Many buildings were destroyed around the Place Bellecour, while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people; the Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City" and a plaque was erected that proclaimed "Lyons made war on Liberty. A decade Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period; the Convention was not the only target within Lyon during the 1789-1799 French Revolution. After the National Convention faded into history, the French Directory appeared and days after the September 4, 1797, Coup of 18 Fructidor, a Directory's commissioner was assassinated in Ly
Hôtel de Ville, Lyon
The Hôtel de Ville de Lyon is the city hall of the City of Lyon and one of the largest historic buildings in the city, located between the Place des Terreaux and the Place de la Comédie, in front of the Opera Nouvel. Since 12 July 1886, the building has been classified as a Monument historique. In the 17th century, Lyon was developed and the Presqu'île became the city center with the place of Terreaux, the Lyon City Hall was built between 1645 and 1651 by Simon Maupin. Following a fire in 1674, the building was restored and modified, including its facade, designed by Jules Hardouin-Mansart and his pupil Robert de Cotte. In 1792 during the French Revolution, the half-relief of Louis XIV on horseback, in the middle of the facade was removed and replaced only during the Restoration by Henry IV of France, in the same posture. Views of the Lyon City Hall Official site History of the Lyon City Hall
A fly system, or theatrical rigging system, is a system of rope lines, blocks and related devices within a theater that enables a stage crew to fly quietly and safely components such as curtains, scenery, stage effects and, people. Systems are designed to fly components between clear view of the audience and out of view, into the large opening, known as the fly loft, above the stage. Fly systems are used in conjunction with other theatre systems, such as scenery wagons, stage lifts and stage turntables, to physically manipulate the mise en scène. Theatrical rigging is most prevalent in proscenium theatres with stage houses designed to handle the significant dead and live loads associated with fly systems. Building, occupational safety, fire codes limit the types and quantity of rigging permitted in a theatre based on stage configuration. Theatrical rigging standards are developed and maintained by organizations such as USITT and ESTA; the line set is the fundamental machine of a typical fly system.
The function of a typical line set is to fly a slender beam known as a batten by hoisting it with lift lines. By hanging scenery, lighting, or other equipment on a batten, they in turn may be flown. A batten is said to be "flying in" when it is being lowered toward the stage, "flying out" when it is being raised into the fly space. Battens may extend from one wing of the stage to the other. A batten is suspended from above by at least two lift lines, but long battens may require six or more lift lines. In manual rigging, a line set’s lift lines support weights opposite their connections to the batten in order to balance the weight of the batten and whatever it carries; the lift lines are reeved through a series of pulleys, known as blocks, that are mounted above the stage to fly loft structure. An operating line allows riggers on the fly crew to lower the batten. Automated rigging sometimes uses weights to help balance line set loads in a manner similar to manual counterweight rigging. Otherwise it relies on the motor power of an electric hoist to fly a line set.
Together, a series of parallel line sets spaced up and down stage at 6 in, 8 in, or 9 in centers, comprise the bulk of most fly systems. Theatrical rigging systems are made up of hemp, counterweight and/or automated line sets able to serve various functions. Line sets are general purpose in function, meaning they can perform any number of functions which vary depending upon the requirements of a particular theatre production. For example, a general purpose line set can be transformed into a drapery or scenery line set, but converting a general purpose line set into an electrical line set is more involved; when a line set has a predetermined permanent, function it is known as a dedicated line set. Line set functions include: Drapery and track line setLine sets suspend theater drapes and stage curtains such as travelers, legs, cycs and tabs, as well as associated tracks, in order to mask and frame the stage and provide backdrops. Line sets are sometimes dedicated to particular draperies, such as the main curtain and main border that mask the proscenium opening, but drapery locations can vary.
Scenery line setIn many stage productions, theatrical scenery is mounted to line sets in order to be flown in and out so as to change set pieces during the course of a performance. For example, painted soft and hard flats and are used to depict settings. Three-dimensional sets may be flown. Electrical line setElectrical line sets called electrics, are used to suspend and control lighting instruments and, in many cases and special effects equipment as well. Electrics may be temporarily "wired" with drop boxes or multicable fanouts dropped from the grid or draped from a fly gallery, or permanently wired with connector strips. There are at least three electrical line sets provided above the stage, with one just upstage of the proscenium wall, one mid-stage, one just downstage of the cyclorama. Additional electrics are desirable. Permanently wired electrical line sets are known as dedicated electrics, fixed electrics or house electrics. In addition to providing dimmed and switched outlets for lighting fixtures, connector strips may provide low-voltage controls, for moving lights and effects, as well as microphone jacks.
Power is fed to fixed electrics from terminal boxes at the grid deck via multicable. Single and double-purchase cable cradles mounted to lift lines can be used to drape the multicable, prolonging its lifespan and reducing the likelihood of conflict with adjacent line sets or lighting instruments. Pantographs are used to drape the multicable feeding dedicated electric line sets. Dedicated electrics employ truss battens to facilitate cable snaking and to maximize lighting positions. In large professional theatres, such as the Philadelphia Academy of Music, an electric may take the form of a flying bridge that provides a walkable platform for electrician access to fixtures and effects. Flying bridges may be used for followspot positions. Orchestra enclosure line setIt is not uncommon for the ceiling panels, clouds, of an orchestra shell to be flown. Larger, multi-use theaters that must convert the stage from a drama the
Cour des Voraces
The Cour des Voraces called Maison de la République, is a building court in the Pentes quarter, in the 1st arrondissement of Lyon, famous for its enormous six-floor stairway of facade. It is a big traboule that link the number 9 of the Place Colbert and the number 14 bis of the montée de Saint-Sébastien or the number 29 of the rue Imbert-Colomès. Situated on the slopes of the Croix-Rousse, the court is a major symbol of Lyon: built in 1840, it is a fine example of folk architecture of canuts, related to the silk industry, which marked the neighborhood, it is a place that symbolizes some great moments in the history of Lyon. A plaque says: "In the Cour des Voraces, hive of silk work, canuts struggled for their lives and their dignity." The court is Voraces its name from a group of workers called the Voraces weavers, who distinguished themselves by their republican insurrections of 1848 and 1849. According to sources, the Court of Voraces would have served as a refuge for canuts workers during their revolts.
Given the date of construction, they may be fights during the second uprising of Voraces in 1849. But there is another hypothesis: the building would have housed the lodge of a mutual organization of canuts: Le Devoir mutuel; the deformed word Dévoirant, namely Le Devoir mutual members, would have given the word "Voraces". During the Second World War, traboules of Lyon and secret places, little known to foreigners, whose configuration favored covert activities enabled networks of resistance to escape from the surveillance of the German occupiers. Therefore, the Cour des Voraces remains mentioned as a symbol of resistance. In 1995, the Habitat et Humanisme Association led by Father Bernard Devers bought the place and launch the rehabilitation of the court that became a symbol of social housing; the court is classified as monument historique. Traboule
Rue du Sergent Blandan
The Rue du Sergent Blandan is one of the oldest streets of Lyon. It connects Saint Vincent and the slopes of the Croix-Rousse quarters, in the 1st arrondissement of Lyon; the street starts rue Pareille, runs along the Place Sathonay, crosses the rue Hippolyte Flandrin, the rue Louis Vitet and the rue du Terme, becomes the rue des Capucins just after the square of the same name. The street belongs to the zone classified World Heritage Site by UNESCO, it is named in honour of Sergent Blandan. The street ends with a short climb and a paved ground. To the north, the odd numbers side begins with a 1912 school there are three to five-floor old 17th-century buildings decorated with beautiful doorsteps with stone arches. For example, the doorstep at No. 8 shows a fight between a bull. The No. 12 and 22 have ancient inscriptions that say "en toy te fie" and "non domo dominus, sed domino domus", a quote from chapter 39 of Cicero's De officiis. There was a Roman bridge, a street name sign indicates that it is the ancient route of the Rhine.
The current form of the street dates back at least to the end of the seventeenth century. Until 1887, it was called rue Saint-Marcel, while the part near the Saône was called rue Musique des Anges; the name "Saint-Marcel" was chosen after a former gate of the city. At the time, the street provided access to two major climbs to leave Lyon to the north, the montée de la Grande Côte and the montée des Carmélites. There were two monasteries located in the street: the Benedictines of the Desert since 1296, the Grands Augustins between 1319 and 1509, but these monasteries have moved; the Confraternity of Penitents of the Holy Crucifix was installed in the street in 1633, during the Ancien Régime, was the owner of the chapel rebuilt in 1643, demolished during the Reign of Terror and replaced by a house that overlooks the montée de la Grande Côte. The street was named with its current name after the deliberation of the municipal council on 26 April 1887. In 1804, the first Jacquard loom was installed in the street.
Circa 1981, Radio Canut was housed at No. 24. On 8 February 2005, the city of Lyon installed a plaque as tribute to Jewish children of the school who were deported and killed during the Second World War. Among the famous inhabitants of the street, there are the painters Jacques Collet and Jean Montet, the designer Martin François; the father of artist Paul Chenavard was dyer in the rue Saint-Marcel
Church of Saint-Bruno des Chartreux
The Church of Saint-Bruno des Chartreux is a Roman Catholic church located in Lyon, France. Until the French Revolution, it was the church of Lyon Charterhouse; the cathedral is dedicated to Saint Bruno of Cologne known as Saint Bruno of the Carthusians, is the city's only Baroque church. At the end of the 16th century, the royalty and clergy of France, inspired by the Counter-Reformation, set out on the revival of Roman Catholicism by creating new monasteries and enlarging existing ones. In consequence, the hill of La Croix-Rousse regained the religious use it had in antiquity: from 1584 and over the following century, thirteen religious communities were established on it, giving it the nickname of the "hill that prays", transferred to the other major hill in Lyon, la Fourvière; the first monastic communities here were established by Carthusian monks from Grenoble, thanks to their good relations with the church in Lyon. They came to help the clergy of Lyon when the city was pillaged by Forez Guy in the 12th century and obtained privileges such as an exemption from tolls on their journeys to Lyon.
On a visit by King Henri III in August 1584, two Carthusian monks were presented to request him to grant his consent to the foundation of a Carthusian monastery in Lyon. They were successful, the king pledged 30,000 livres for its construction and chose its name: Chartreuse du Lys St Esprit. In 1589, Henri III died and was succeeded by Henri IV, who declared himself the founder of the Carthusian monastery and confirmed its exemptions and privileges, which were reconfirmed by Louis XIII and Louis XIV; the Carthusians began by acquiring the Giroflée estate on the banks of the Saône extended their lands by purchasing those of their neighbours little by little, until they had a total property of 24 hectares. Contrary to what might be supposed, their extension of their property bore no relation to an expansion in their numbers. Instead they related the expansion of their estate to their monastic rule: they were eliminating all their neighbours so as better to live their life of solitary contemplation.
It took six years after the king's gift for the first stone of the church to be laid. Its construction was carried out in two phases: the first included the choir, the small cloister, the sacristy and a few of the monks' cells. Renovations and extensions occurred during the 19th century affecting the chapels and façade; the choir now has only 5 windows, after several were blocked up during the second phase of works by the architect Ferdinand-Sigismond Delamonce in 1733-37. The Rococo stalls found here show reversed volutes and garlands of foliage as well as asymmetrical shells and garlands of flowers. Typical of the 17th century Baroque style, the 1628 statues now located on the pilasters of the Munet arch were in the choir, they represent Saint Bruno of Cologne and Saint John the Baptist. The drapery of these figures is dynamically carved, their thin faces and tense eyes add to their pathetic expressions. Today the church organ is located in the choir, but the church has only had one since 1890, when it became a parish church.
It is now known as the best of the double keyboards in Lyon. Before 1890 the austerity of the Carthusian Rule made for an austere liturgy unadorned by organ music; the offices were celebrated in the choir until 1737, when it was separated from the rest of the church for building works by a partition. In the initial plan by the architect Delamonce for his second phase of works, the choir remained separated from the rest of the church but the abbot refused to authorise this plan, so a second was drawn up and accepted that kept the choir as part of the church. Built to hold the book of liturgical chants, the pulpit is in the shape of a spread-eagle supported by a column carved with the Eucharistic symbols of grapes and vines, rooted in a base with the figure of a dove, it thus unites the three persons of the Holy Trinity. The transition between the choir and the crossing is formed by the Munet arch, built by the architect Melchior Munet in the 18th century, it is supported by powerful deflecting pillars in the Baroque style.
Here there are two nested pilasters of the Doric Order, whose niches are now occupied by the Sarazin statues. Designed in the 18th century by Servandoni modified soon afterwards by Soufflot, the altar is notable for being two-sided, meaning that the office could well be celebrated from the monks' side or from the peoples' side; the tabernacle was decorated with semi-precious stones, but these disappeared during the Revolution. The 18th century baldachino is by Servandoni. One of the most beautiful examples in France, it aims to magnify the presence of Christ in the Eucharist and in effect to form a hyper-tabernacle around the Host, its columns are of marble, whilst the capitals are wooden but stuccoed with powdered marble and powdered chalk to imitate marble. On top of the baldachino are a globe and a cross, both in copper gilded with gold leaf, drapery made of cloth dipped in liquid plaster and painted gold before drying; the original decoration is unclear: it was long thought that it had been covered in fleurs de lys, which were turned into trefoils, or clover leaves, during the 19th-centu
The Église Saint-Polycarpe is a Roman Catholic church located in the 1st arrondissement of Lyon, on the slopes of La Croix-Rousse, between rue René Leynaud, rue Burdeau and passages Mermet and Thiaffait. It is the oldest church of the Oratory of Saint Philip Neri; the church, built by the Oratorians installed on the slopes, was completed in 1670, with the exception of the façade, built in 1756 by architect Toussaint Loyer who lengthened the nave. On 19 June 1791, the Oratory Church became a parish church and took the name of St. Polycarp, as a tribute to Polycarp of Smyrna, master of Saint Pothinus and Irenaeus, who were the first two bishops of Lyon; the heart of Pauline-Marie Jaricot, founder of the Society for the Propagation of the Faith remains in a chapel of the church. The church has a famous organ, built by Augustine Zeiger in 1841. Adrien Rougier was the titular organist of the church from 1932 to 1945. In 1982, the church was classified as monument historique; the church has a facade decorated with four Corinthian pilasters topped by a triangular pediment.
Louis Janmot made the painting depicting the Last Supper, placed in the apse