This article needs to be updated.January 2019)(
|Part of the military intervention against ISIL|
French Dassault Rafale of Squadron 11F prepares to land on USS Carl Vinson. Carl Vinson is deployed as part of maritime security operations and strike operations in Iraq and Syria.
|France||Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant|
|Commanders and leaders|
François Hollande |
Jean-Yves Le Drian
Pierre de Villiers
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi|
Abu Ala al-Afri †
Abu Ali al-Anbari †
Abu Suleiman al-Naser †
Abu Ali al-Anbari †
Abu Omar al-Shishani †
Abu Waheeb †
French Air Force|
|Military of ISIL|
|Casualties and losses|
1 French paratrooper killed|
2 French soldiers wounded
1,000+ ISIL troops killed (2014–2015)|
1 depot destroyed
Opération Chammal is the French military operation which is currently ongoing in Iraq and Syria in an attempt to contain the expansion of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and to support the Iraqi Army. Its name comes from the Shamal (Chammal in French), a northwesterly wind blowing over Iraq and the Persian Gulf states.
Airstrikes over Iraq started 19 September 2014, airstrikes over Syria started by the end of September 2015; the French operation is limited to airstrikes; French president François Hollande has reiterated that no ground troops would be used in the conflict. Additionally, the French frigate Jean Bart has joined the United States Navy's Commander Task Force 50 (CTF 50) as an escort.
On 14 November 2015, ISIL claimed that the attacks that took place in Paris the previous day were retaliation for Opération Chammal. In response, French forces increased their attacks against ISIL in Syria.
On 10 June 2014, the terrorist group of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and several other Sunni insurgents took control of the second-most populous city of Iraq, Mosul. After fighting the Iraqi Army, ISIL seized cities and committed massacres and other atrocities.
ISIL committed mass murder and other atrocities against the Assyrians, as well as the Yazidis. ISIL also carried out the Camp Speicher massacre in June 2014, killing thousands of people; until August, ISIL had controlled almost one-third of Iraq.
On 7 August 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama authorized airstrikes in Iraq; the next day, the U.S. Air Force launched airstrikes targeting the ISIS fighters, with humanitarian aid support from the United Kingdom and France. On 10 September 2014, Obama outlined plans to expand U.S. operations to Syria.
In September 2014, the French president and his ministers alluded to possible French military action against ISIL:
In Iraq and especially in Syria, the Daech terrorist organisation, which claims to be an Islamic state, succeeds in a degree never witnessed before to master a trans-border territory, to organize itself, to finance, and to equip itself, it has already made the world witness barbaric acts. Daily, it terrorises whole populations, it destabilizes a region which is already very fragile and its ambition is to build a terrorist state in the neighbourhood of Europe. (in French) En Irak et en Syrie en particulier, l'organisation terroriste Daesh, qui se prétend État islamique, atteint des degrés de maîtrise territoriale transfrontalière, d'organisation, de capacité financière et d'équipement encore jamais vus. Elle a déjà pris le monde à témoin d'actes barbares. Au quotidien, elle terrorise des populations entières. Elle déstabilise une région déjà très fragilisée et ambitionne de constituer un État terroriste dans le voisinage de l'Europe.
The determination of the cutthroats from Daech (ISIL) is strong, ours must be even stronger. (in French) La détermination des égorgeurs de Daesh (acronyme de l'État islamique en arabe) est forte, la nôtre doit l'être plus encore.
There is no time to lose against the threat of Daech (ISIL) jihadists who now control large parts of Iraqi and Syrian territories, committing more and more extortions. (in French) Il n'y a pas de temps à perdre face à la menace des djihadistes de Daech qui a pris le contrôle de larges secteurs des territoires irakien et syrien, multipliant les exactions
It is also France's security that is threatened by this… pseudo-Islamic State.— Defence Minister Le Drian, around 15 September
France has taken its responsibilities (…) I've been to Iraq to meet with the Iraqi authorities. They've asked me just one thing: French support for aerial operations. (…) I’ve decided to respond to that Iraqi demand (…) I affirm the need for that aerial support. There will be no other support, no troops on the ground, and we shall intervene nowhere except in Iraq.— President Hollande, on 18 September
The French government considered that international legitimacy was provided by 15 August 2014 resolution 2170 from the United Nations Security Council.
Air strikes on Iraq
On 18 September 2014, the United States Secretary of State, John Kerry, announced in front of the United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs in the United States House of Representatives that President François Hollande had announced that he authorized airstrikes in Iraq, in response to a request by the Iraqi government.
On 19 September, the French Air Force carried out their first airstrike using two Rafale jets armed with GBU-12 Paveway II, beginning the French intervention, it conducted the airstrikes on an ISIS depot in Mosul, dropping 4 GBU-12 bombs. Hollande's office said that the ISIS depot that was targeted was hit and completely destroyed; the airstrikes killed 75 fighters from the Islamic State. A spokesman of the Iraqi military, Qassim al-Moussawi, stated that four French airstrikes had hit the town of Zumar, killing dozens of militants.
On 21 September, two Rafale jets provided air support for the Iraqi Army near Baghdad in a reconnaissance mission. A day after, France conducted another reconnaissance mission over Mosul with two Rafale jets. Another reconnaissance mission conducted on 23 September. On 24 September, two reconnaissance and dynamic targeting missions were conducted in Mosul and Baghdad, supporting the Iraqi forces.
On 25 September, while in a reconnaissance mission, two Rafale jets conducted France's second airstrike after the jets received information about targets near them by the Coordination air operation center, a day after the beheading of the French hostage, Hervé Gourdel, by the Jund al-Khilafah terrorist group in Algeria. Stéphane Le Foll said "This morning [France] carried out airstrikes on the territory of Iraq." The jets destroyed 4 warehouses of ISIL near Fallujah. French/American jets conducted airstrikes at night in Kirkuk, killing 15 ISIL fighters and injuring 30.
Between 18 December 2014 and 7 January 2015, French aircraft performed 45 missions in total. Rafales and Mirages performed 30 of those missions neutralising ten targets.
On 14 January 2015, François Hollande declared that the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle would deploy to the Persian Gulf with its strike group and that it was capable of supporting airstrikes against ISIL; the ship was deployed in November and France launched its first airstrikes from the carrier on November 23.
Air strikes on Syria and Iraq
From the end of September 2015, France began airstrikes on ISIL in Syria as well, on a small scale to avoid inadvertently strengthening the hand of president Bashar Assad by hitting his enemies.
French aircraft hit targets in Syria in early October 2015. French Prime Minister Valls told reporters in Amman, Jordan, "Terrorist attacks have taken place (in France) ... In the name of self-defence it is obligatory to strike Daesh and we will continue," and "Whether there are French (citizens) among them, it's possible, but we have a responsibility to hit Daesh. Terrorists do not have passports."
On 14 November 2015, ISIL claimed that the 13 November 2015 Paris terrorist attacks were retaliation for Opération Chammal. In response, the French forces increased their attacks. On 15 November 2015, the French Air Force launched its largest airstrike of the bombing campaign sending 12 planes, including 10 fighters, that dropped 20 bombs in training camps and ammunition facilities in Raqqa, Syria, the de facto capital of ISIL; the UK offered support with air-to-air refuelling and use of its air base in Cyprus, RAF Akrotiri. Also Germany intervened in reaction to the Paris attacks and assisted France by sending a frigate and Panavia Tornado reconnaissance aircraft to Turkey.
Battle of Mosul (2016)
France is part of the 60-nation strong international coalition supporting Iraqi and Kurdish forces to reclaim the city of Mosul, which fell to ISIL in 2014; the French army deployed four CAESAR howitzers and 150 to 200 soldiers at Qayyarah Airfield West, with 600 more French troops announced at the end of September. An additional 150 French soldiers were in Erbil, east of Mosul, training Peshmerga. At the end of September 2016, the Charles de Gaulle was deployed from Toulon to the Syrian coast to support the operation against ISIL through airstrikes and reconnaissance missions. France has 36 Rafale M jets in the mission, with 24 based on the Charles de Gaulle and 12 operating out of French Air Force bases in Jordan and the United Arab Emirates.
Operations in Libya
- Task Force 50 centered around the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle with 18 Dassault Rafale fighters, 8 Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard strike aircraft and 2 Northrop Grumman E-2C Hawkeye AEW&C aircraft
- Cassard-class frigate Jean Bart
- Between 20 October 2014 and 30 January 2015.
- La Fayette-class frigate Courbet
- 26 November 2015 – present.
- Air Force
- BA104 Al Dhafra, United Arab Emirates
- Azraq Air Base – Jordan
- 1 Boeing E-3F Sentry AEW&C aircraft
- American-led intervention in Iraq
- American-led intervention in Syria
- Battle of Sinjar
- Battle for Mosul Dam
- Persecution of Yazidis by the Islamic State
- 2014 military intervention against ISIS
- Operation Okra – Australian operation against ISIL
- Operation Impact – Canadian operation against ISIL
- Operation Shader – UK operation against ISIL
- Operation Inherent Resolve – US operation against ISIL
- "Carte de l'opération Chammal". French defense. 4 December 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
- "IS conflict: France launches air strikes in Syria". BBC. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- Engel, Pamela (23 April 2015). "Report: A former physics teacher favored by Osama bin Laden is now leading ISIS". Business Insider. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
- CNN, Fred Pleitgen. "On board the French nuclear carrier battling ISIS". CNN. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "L'armée de l'Air a engagé un avion E3F Awacs en Irak". Zone Militaire. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Irak : Les canons français ont déjà fait feu à trois reprises". Zone Militaire Opex360. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "Etat islamique : la France "renforce son dispositif militaire" en Irak". Le Parisien. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- Barbara Starr, U.S. officials say 6,000 ISIS fighters killed in battles, CNN (January 22, 2015).
- CIA says IS numbers underestimated, Al Jazeera (September 12, 2014).
- News, ABC. "Paratrooper becomes 1st French casualty in anti-IS coalition". ABC News. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- "Islamic State drone kills two Kurdish fighters, wounds two French soldiers". 12 October 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2017 – via Reuters.
- "French policies provoke terrorist attacks". The Matador. 14 December 2015.
- "Iraq: The French Operation is called Chammal". Le Figaro (in French). 20 September 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- "France plans further air strikes against IS: President". Mathrubhumi. 19 September 2014. Archived from the original on 23 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Chammal : La Frégate Jean Bart Intègre la Task Force 50". colsbleus.fr (in French). 30 October 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "ISIS expresses fury over French airstrikes in Syria; France says they will continue". CTV News. 14 November 2015.
- Henley, Jon and Ian Traynor (15 November 2015). "Paris attacks: French police launch raids as military strikes Isis in Syria". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Militants seize Iraq's second city of Mosul". BBC. 10 June 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- "4000 unarmed soldiers fell into the hands of ISIS". Buratha News Agency (in Arabic). 9 July 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- "US forces arrive in Baghdad to advise Iraqi troops". BBC. 24 June 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- "The killing fields of Iraq: ISIS massacred up to 190 prisoners in just four days, according to analysis of satellite images and horrific pictures posted by jihadists". Daily Mail. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- "Iraq army 'routs Isis rebels' in offensive on Tikrit". BBC. 28 June 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- "Obama authorizes targeted airstrikes in Iraq against Islamic militants, along with airdrops". The Big Story. 8 July 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- "Obama Says Iraq Airstrikes Effort Could Be Long-Term". The New York Times. 9 August 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- "Obama: 'Relentless' campaign to destroy ISIS". Washington Examiner. 10 September 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- Guisnel, Jean (11 September 2014). "Frappes contre l'État islamique : pourquoi la France peut peu". Le Point.fr (in French). Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- "Déclarations officielles de politique étrangère du 10 septembre 2014" (in French). France diplomatie. 10 September 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- Mimaut, Cécile (15 September 2014). "Daech ou Etat islamique? Questions sur un vocable". franceinfo.fr (in French). Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- 'Isis Action: French Rafale Fighter Jets Fly over Iraq as Anti-Islamic State Paris Summit Begins'. International Business Times, 15 September 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- 'Irak : la France n’enverra pas de troupes au sol, annonce François Hollande' (there will be no French troops on the Iraqi ground, says Hollande). RTL.fr, 18 September 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
- "Washington welcomes the declaration of France of joining the airstrikes campaign in Iraq". Al Wasat (in Arabic). 18 September 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- "Iraq: First French strikes". Ministry of Defense (in French). 19 September 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- "Iraq: First French strikes (Updated)" (in French). Ministry of Defense. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- "First French airstrikes in Iraq hit ISIL depot". USA Today. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- "The French airstrikes resulted in killing 75 ISIS fighter in Mosul". ONA (in Arabic). 20 September 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- "France launches first air strike on IS in Iraq". BBC News. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- "Iraq: Mission Air Support (Updated)". Ministry of Defense (in French). 23 September 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- "Operation Chammal: New reconnaissance mission in Iraq" (in French). Ministry of Defense. 23 September 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- "Operation Chammal: New air support missions in Iraq" (in French). Ministry of Defense. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- "Chammal operation: Second French strikes in Iraq" (in French). Ministry of Defense. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- "French Air Forces Strike Islamic State Targets in Iraq: Paris". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- "American-French airstrikes killed and injured 45 ISIS fighter in South-Western Kirkuk". Al Sumaria (in Arabic). 25 September 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- "Operation Chammal: continued flying missions" (in French). Ministry of Defense. 26 September 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
- "Le dispositif de l'opération Chammal va être renforcé" (in French). Opex360.com. 19 November 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- "Opération Chammal" (in French). Ministère de la Défense (France). 23 January 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- Chacaty, Helen (8 January 2015). "Opération Chammal : Les frappes continuent". Le Journal d'Aviation (in French). Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- Gerschel, Frédéric (7 January 2015). "Le " Charles-de-Gaulle " prêt à combattre Daech". Le Parisien (in French). Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- "Report: France To Deploy Aircraft Carrier To Gulf in IS Fight". Defense News. Agence France-Presse. 6 January 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- "Charles de Gaulle arrives off Syrian coast for strikes | IHS Jane's 360". www.janes.com. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- "France launches air strikes against Islamic State in Syria". Reuters. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- "Middle East – 'Terrorists have no passports,' French PM says of Syria air strikes". France 24. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "French jets strike Islamic State as Britain offers help". Reuters. 23 November 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- Kabinettsvorlage: Bundeswehreinsatz gegen IS soll 134 Millionen Euro kosten, Der Spiegel, in German
- French military to continue fight against Daesh in Levant: Macron
- Chapleau, Philippe (29 September 2016). "Les quatre Caesar de Qayyarah ont déjà donné de la voix". Ouest-France. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- "Bataille de Mossoul : qui participe à la reconquête ?". L'Observer (in French). 17 October 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- Licourt, Julien (30 September 2016). "Premières opérations depuis le Charles-de-Gaulle avant l'offensive sur Mossoul". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 19 October 2016.
- Pleitgen, Fred (17 October 2016). "On board the French nuclear carrier battling ISIS". CNN. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
- "Libya officials: French special forces on ground fighting IS". Yahoo News. 25 February 2016. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- "Secret's out: French special forces, along with U.S., U.K. teams, fighting Islamic State in Libya". The Japan Times. 25 February 2016. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- Rempfer, Kyle (3 May 2018). "US, French troops seen conducting joint patrol in Manbij, Syria". Military Times.
Pictures and video surfaced Monday showing U.S. and French forces conducting a joint patrol in the northern Syria town of Manbij. A video posted by Furat FM, a news radio channel in the region, shows American and French flags on display as vehicles drive through what is reportedly downtown Manbij.Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- "Chammal: The Charles de Gaulle in the Gulf Arab Persian". French MoD. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
- "President Hollande visits French aircraft carrier off Syrian coast". France24. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- "Chammal: new strikes against Iraq Daech". French MoD. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
- "Hollande visits French aircraft carrier off Syria". RFI. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- "French Frigate Jean Bart Departs Operation Chammal". Naval Today. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- AirForces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. November 2015. p. 7.