A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. Most banks are set at a right angle to each other, some at a narrower angle, with 45°, 60°, 72° most common. In its simplest form, the V8 is two parallel inline-four engines sharing a common crankshaft. However, this simple configuration, with a flat- or single-plane crankshaft, has the same secondary dynamic imbalance problems as two straight-4s, resulting in vibrations in large engine displacements. Since the 1920s, most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations; this results in an engine, smoother than a V6, while being less expensive than a V12. Many racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs. In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light but quite powerful gasoline injected V8 engine.
He called it the'Antoinette' after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of early aircraft; the aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte d'Azur and decided to try it on his pusher configuration, canard-design 14-bis aircraft. Its early 24 hp at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg of weight was interesting, but proved to be underpowered. Santos-Dumont ordered a more powerful version from Levavasseur, he changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp with 86 kg of weight, including cooling water. Its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur produced its own line of V8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII. Hubert Latham piloted the V8 powered Antoinette IV and Antoinette VII in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel. However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the same engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet.
Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines notably the one first flown by Henry Farman in 1908. The V8 engine configuration was used in France by 1904, in race car and aircraft engines introduced by Renault, Buchet among others; some of these engines found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a special car to beat the world speed record, they came up with two racing car engines built on camshaft. The result was an engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in, 200 bhp. Victor Hemery achieved the record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph. This car still exists. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc V8 car from 1905 to 1906, but only three copies were made and Rolls-Royce reverted to a I6 design. In 1907, the Hewitt Motor Company built a large five-passenger Touring Car, it was equipped with a V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 in and a stroke of 4.5 in. The Hewitt was the first American automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine.
De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc automobile V8 in 1910 and displayed it in New York in 1912. It inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit; the limiting factor in mass production and sales of V8s was the difficulty in starting large engines using a hand crank. Not only does increasing the size of the engine make this harder, the number of pistons is a factor, because with a 4 cylinder engine, a piston comes into compression every half turn of the crank, overcoming this with the crank is not difficult. With eight cylinders, there is only 1/4 of a turn of the crank before another cylinder comes into compression. To overcome this problem, electric starters were developed; the first marque to equip its cars with electric starter motors was Cadillac, in 1912, Cadillac was the first production automobile with V8s, introduced 2 years later. It sold 13,000 of the 5.4 L L-head engines in its first year of production, 1914. Cadillac has been a V8 company since. Oldsmobile, another division of General Motors, introduced its own 4 L V8 engine in 1916.
Chevrolet introduced a 4.7 L V8 engine in 1917 and installed in the Chevrolet Series D. In February 1915, Swiss automotive engineer Marc Birkigt designed the first example of the famous Hispano-Suiza V8 single overhead cam aviation engines, in differing displacements, using dual ignition systems and in power levels from 150 horsepower to around 300 horsepower, in both direct-drive and geared output shaft versions. 50,000 of these engines were built in Spain, the United Kingdom, Italy. Wright Aeronautical built them in the United States during World War I, with the French-produced versions getting almost-exclusive use to power the SPAD S. VII and SPAD S. XIII fighter aircraft. E.5 fighters and Sopwith Dolphin fighters. The H. S. 8-series overhead cam valvetrain V8 aviation engines are said to have powered half of all Allied aircraft of the WW I era. By 1932, Henry Ford introduced one of his last great personal engineering triumphs: his "en block", or one piece, V8 engine, its simple design made possible the greatest production V8 to the masses.
Offered as an option to an improved 4-cylinder Mo
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarter in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903; the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in Jiangling Motors, it has joint-ventures in China, Thailand and Russia. The company is controlled by the Ford family. Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
Ford is the second-largest U. S.-based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe; the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, but it has since returned to profitability. Ford was the eleventh-ranked overall American-based company in the 2018 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2017 of $156.7 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide. Henry Ford's first attempt at a car company under his own name was the Henry Ford Company on November 3, 1901, which became the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22, 1902, after Ford left with the rights to his name; the Ford Motor Company was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John and Horace Dodge.
The first president was not Ford, but local banker John S. Gray, chosen to assuage investors' fears that Ford would leave the new company the way he had left its predecessor. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on each car, assembling it from parts made by supplier companies contracting for Ford. Within a decade, the company would lead the world in the expansion and refinement of the assembly line concept, Ford soon brought much of the part production in-house in a vertical integration that seemed a better path for the era. Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the world's largest and most profitable companies, it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz.
More efficient production methods were needed to make automobiles affordable for the middle class, to which Ford contributed by, for instance, introducing the first moving assembly line in 1913 at the Ford factory in Highland Park. Between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year. In 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the first car with safety glass in the windshield. Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors' mid-priced Pontiac and Buick, Ford created the Mercury in 1939 as a higher-priced companion car to Ford. Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. In 1929, Ford was contracted by the government of the Soviet Union to set up the Gorky Automobile Plant in Russia producing Ford Model A and AAs thereby playing an important role in the industrialisation of that country.
The creation of a scientific laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research, led to Ford's unlikely involvement in superconductivity research. In 1964, Ford Research Labs made a key breakthrough with the invention of a superconducting quantum interference device or SQUID. Ford offered the Lifeguard safety package from 1956, which included such innovations as a standard deep-dish steering wheel, optional front, for the first time in a car, rear seatbelts, an optional padded dash. Ford introduced child-proof door locks into its products in 1957, and, in the same year, offered the first retractable hardtop on a mass-produced six-seater car. In late 1955, Ford established the Continental division as a separate luxury car division; this division was responsible for the manufacture and sale of the famous Continental Mark II. At the same time, the Edsel division was created to design and market that car starting with the 1958 model year. Due to limited sales of the Continental and the Edsel disaster, Ford merged Lincoln and Edsel into "M
Volkswagen. It is the flagship marque of the Volkswagen Group, the largest automaker by worldwide sales in 2016 and 2017; the group's main market is in China, which delivers 40 % of its profits. Volkswagen translates to "people's car" in German; the company's current international advertising slogan is just "Volkswagen", referencing the name's meaning. Volkswagen was established in 1937 by the German Labour Front in Berlin. In the early 1930s cars were a luxury: most Germans could afford nothing more elaborate than a motorcycle. Only one German out of 50 owned a car. Seeking a potential new market, some car makers began independent "people's car" projects – the Mercedes 170H, Adler AutoBahn, Steyr 55, Hanomag 1.3L, among others. The trend was not new, as Béla Barényi is credited with having conceived the basic design in the mid-1920s. Josef Ganz developed the Standard Superior. In Germany, the company Hanomag mass-produced the 2/10 PS "Kommissbrot", a small, cheap rear-engined car, from 1925 to 1928.
In Czechoslovakia, the Hans Ledwinka's penned Tatra T77, a popular car amongst the German elite, was becoming smaller and more affordable at each revision. Ferdinand Porsche, a well-known designer for high-end vehicles and race cars, had been trying for years to get a manufacturer interested in a small car suitable for a family, he built a car named the "Volksauto" from the ground up in 1933, using many popular ideas and several of his own, putting together a car with an air-cooled rear engine, torsion bar suspension, a "beetle" shape, the front hood rounded for better aerodynamics. In 1934, with many of the above projects still in development or early stages of production, Adolf Hitler became involved, ordering the production of a basic vehicle capable of transporting two adults and three children at 100 km/h, he wanted all German citizens to have access to cars. The "People's Car" would be available to citizens of the Third Reich through a savings plan at 990 Reichsmarks —about the price of a small motorcycle.
Despite heavy lobbying in favour of one of the existing projects, it soon became apparent that private industry could not turn out a car for only 990 RM. Thus, Hitler chose to sponsor an state-owned factory using Ferdinand Porsche's design; the intention was that ordinary Germans would buy the car by means of a savings scheme, which around 336,000 people paid into. However, the entire project was financially unsound, only the Nazi party made it possible to provide funding. Prototypes of the car called the "KdF-Wagen", appeared from 1938 onwards; the car had its distinctive round shape and air-cooled, flat-four, rear-mounted engine. The VW car was just one of many KdF programs, which included things such as outings; the prefix Volks— was not just applied to cars, but to other products in Germany. On 28 May 1937, Gesellschaft zur Vorbereitung des Deutschen Volkswagens mbH, or Gezuvor for short, was established by the Deutsche Arbeitsfront in Berlin. More than a year on 16 September 1938, it was renamed to Volkswagenwerk GmbH.
Erwin Komenda, the longstanding Auto Union chief designer, part of Ferdinand Porsche's hand-picked team, developed the car body of the prototype, recognizably the Beetle known today. It was one of the first cars designed with the aid of a wind tunnel—a method used for German aircraft design since the early 1920s; the car designs were put through rigorous tests, achieved a record-breaking million miles of testing before being deemed finished. The construction of the new factory started in May 1938 in the new town of "Stadt des KdF-Wagens", purpose-built for the factory workers; this factory had only produced a handful of cars by the time war started in 1939. None were delivered to any holder of the completed saving stamp books, though one Type 1 Cabriolet was presented to Hitler on 20 April 1944. War changed production to military vehicles—the Type 82 Kübelwagen utility vehicle, the amphibious Schwimmwagen—manufactured for German forces; as was common with much of the production in Nazi Germany during the war, slave labor was utilized in the Volkswagen plant, e.g. from Arbeitsdorf concentration camp.
The company would admit in 1998. German historians estimated. Many of the slaves were reported to have been supplied from the concentration camps upon request from plant managers. A lawsuit was filed in 1998 by survivors for restitution for the forced labor. Volkswagen would set up a voluntary restitution fund; the company owes its post-war existence to one man, wartime British Army officer Major Ivan Hirst, REME. In April 1945, KdF-Stadt and its bombed factory were captured by the Americans, subsequently handed over to the British, within whose occupation zone the town and fa
Groupe PSA is a French multinational manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles sold under the Peugeot, Citroën, DS, Opel and Vauxhall brands. Peugeot is the largest PSA brand in the world. PSA is listed on the Euronext Paris stock exchange and is again a constituent of the CAC 40 index after having been removed in 2012. Beginning in 2016, PSA began to outline a strategy which entailed the rapid expansion of the company, through both geographic expansion and acquisitions of other car companies. PSA has announced plans to enter the Indian, Canadian, ASEAN, other markets in the coming years. Headquartered in Rueil-Malmaison, PSA, with sales of 3.78 million units, was in 2018 the second-largest Europe-based automaker. In December 1974 Peugeot S. A. acquired a 38.2% share of Citroën. On 9 April 1976 they increased their stake of the bankrupt company to 89.95%, thus creating the PSA Group, becoming PSA Peugeot Citroën. Since Citroën had two successful new designs in the market at this time and Peugeot was prudent in its own finances, the PSA venture was a financial success from 1976 to 1979.
In late 1978, PSA purchased the failing Chrysler Europe from the troubled US parent firm for a nominal US$1.00, plus assumption of outstanding debt, leading to losses for the consortium from 1980 to 1985. Further investment was required because PSA decided to create a new brand for the entity for the disparate French and British models, based on the Talbot sports car last seen in the 1950s. From on, the whole Chrysler/Simca range was sold under the Talbot badge until production of Talbot-branded passenger cars was shelved in 1987 and on commercial vehicles in 1992. All of this investment caused serious financial problems for the entire PSA group. In 1987, the company dropped the Talbot brand for passenger cars when it ceased production of the Simca-developed Horizon. What was to have been the Talbot Arizona became the Peugeot 309, with the former Rootes plant in Ryton and Simca plant in Poissy being turned over for Peugeot assembly from October 1985. Producing Peugeots in Ryton was significant, as it signaled the first time that PSA would build cars in the UK.
The Talbot name survived for a little longer on commercial vehicles until 1992 before being shelved completely. From 1987 to 1995, the Ryton plant produced the Peugeot 405 saloon. On 29 February 2012, PSA announced the creation of a major alliance with General Motors, as part of which GM became PSA's second-largest shareholder, after the Peugeot family, with a holding of 7%; the alliance was intended to enable $2 billion per year of cost savings through platform sharing, common purchasing and other economies of scale. In July 2012, a union official said that PSA Peugeot Citroën would cut as much as 10 percent of its French workforce of 100,356 employees on permanent and temporary contract; the jobs cut was more than announced. On 24 October, PSA said it was close to an agreement with creditor banks on €11.5 billion of refinancing and had won state guarantees on €7 billion in further borrowing by its Banque PSA Finance. CEO Philippe Varin says that "Citroën and Peugeot are too close", so he plans on positioning Citroën C-line models lower than Peugeot with DS models above Peugeot.
On 12 December 2013, General Motors announced it was selling its 7% stake in PSA Peugeot Citroën to the multibillion-dollar Padmapriya Automobile Investment Group. In 2014, Dongfeng Motor Group, the Chinese partner that builds PSA cars in China, the French government each took a 13% stake in PSA, in a financial rescue operation, reducing the Peugeot family share from 25% to 14%. Following Dongfeng and the French government each acquiring stakes in Groupe PSA, various cost-cutting measures at the company turned its fortune around and reduced PSA's debt, until the company began to turn a profit beginning in 2015. A new CEO, Carlos Tavares, was engaged and began to implement various cost-cutting measures and expanded the model range of all three core brands, alongside the creation of a new brand, DS Automobiles. In early 2016, PSA unveiled a roadmap detailing its plan to re-enter the North American car market for the first time since 1991. Although many only expected the DS to enter the North American market, PSA announced that all of its brands would be sold across the continent.
The plan to re-enter the market has three-stages, be a partner in a transportation network company begin renting and sharing PSA's own vehicles to the public several years after, followed by a full launch, establishing a dealer network in 2020. On 10 February 2017, PSA announced a 50:50 joint venture with the C. K. Birla Group the owner of the Hindustan Motors to sell Peugeot, Citröen, DS vehicles in India and purchase of the Ambassador brand from Hindustan Motors at the cost of INR 80 Crore; this marks the first time in over twenty years. On 14 February 2017 PSA announced that it was in talks to acquire Opel and Vauxhall Motors from General Motors; the talks were in an advanced stage, but were a surprise to the press and to much of Opel's leadership as they had plans to transform the company into an electric-car-only brand using the platform of the Opel Ampera-e for a wide range of models. GM agreed to continue to supply PSA with other electric vehicle technology. GM reported a loss of US$257 million from its European operations on 2016, sixt
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic, or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic, is an strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers. The alternative spelling'fibre' is common in British Commonwealth countries. CFRPs can be expensive to produce but are used wherever high strength-to-weight ratio and stiffness are required, such as aerospace, superstructure of ships, civil engineering, sports equipment, an increasing number of consumer and technical applications; the binding polymer is a thermoset resin such as epoxy, but other thermoset or thermoplastic polymers, such as polyester, vinyl ester, or nylon, are sometimes used. The composite material may contain aramid, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene, aluminium, or glass fibers in addition to carbon fibers; the properties of the final CFRP product can be affected by the type of additives introduced to the binding matrix. The most common additive is silica, but other additives such as rubber and carbon nanotubes can be used.
The material is referred to as graphite-reinforced polymer or graphite fiber-reinforced polymer. CFRPs are composite materials. In this case the composite consists of two parts: a reinforcement. In CFRP the reinforcement is carbon fiber; the matrix is a polymer resin, such as epoxy, to bind the reinforcements together. Because CFRP consists of two distinct elements, the material properties depend on these two elements. Reinforcement gives CFRP its rigidity. Unlike isotropic materials like steel and aluminum, CFRP has directional strength properties; the properties of CFRP depend on the layouts of the carbon fiber and the proportion of the carbon fibers relative to the polymer. The two different equations governing the net elastic modulus of composite materials using the properties of the carbon fibers and the polymer matrix can be applied to carbon fiber reinforced plastics; the following equation, E c = V m E m + V f E f is valid for composite materials with the fibers oriented in the direction of the applied load.
E c is the total composite modulus, V m and V f are the volume fractions of the matrix and fiber in the composite, E m and E f are the elastic moduli of the matrix and fibers respectively. The other extreme case of the elastic modulus of the composite with the fibers oriented transverse to the applied load can be found using the following equation: E c = − 1 The fracture toughness of carbon fiber reinforced plastics is governed by the following mechanisms: 1) debonding between the carbon fiber and polymer matrix, 2) fiber pull-out, 3) delamination between the CFRP sheets. Typical epoxy-based CFRPs exhibit no plasticity, with less than 0.5% strain to failure. Although CFRPs with epoxy have high strength and elastic modulus, the brittle fracture mechanics present unique challenges to engineers in failure detection since failure occurs catastrophically; as such, recent efforts to toughen CFRPs include modifying the existing epoxy material and finding alternative polymer matrix. One such material with high promise is PEEK, which exhibits an order of magnitude greater toughness with similar elastic modulus and tensile strength.
However, PEEK is more expensive. Despite its high initial strength-to-weight ratio, a design limitation of CFRP is its lack of a definable fatigue limit; this means, that stress cycle failure cannot be ruled out. While steel and many other structural metals and alloys do have estimable fatigue or endurance limits, the complex failure modes of composites mean that the fatigue failure properties of CFRP are difficult to predict and design for; as a result, when using CFRP for critical cyclic-loading applications, engineers may need to design in considerable strength safety margins to provide suitable component reliability over its service life. Environmental effects such as temperature and humidity can have profound effects on the polymer-based composites, including most CFRPs. While CFRPs demonstrate excellent corrosion resistance, the effect of moisture at wide ranges of temperatures can lead to degradation of the mechanical properties of CFRPs at the matrix-fiber interface. While the carbon fibers themselves are not affected by the moisture diffusing into the material, the moisture plasticizes the polymer matrix.
The epoxy matrix used for engine fan blades is designed to be impervious against jet fuel and rain water, external paint on the composites parts is applied to minimize damage from ultraviolet light. The carbon fibers can cause galvanic corrosion; the primary element of CFRP is a carbon filament.
The Opel Kadett is a small family car produced by the German automobile manufacturer Opel from 1962 until 1991, when it was succeeded by the Opel Astra. The first Opel car to carry the Kadett name was presented to the public in December 1936 by Opel's Commercial-Technical director, Heinrich Nordhoff, who would in decades become known for his leadership role in building up the Volkswagen company; the new Kadett followed the innovative Opel Olympia in adopting a chassis-less unibody construction, suggesting that like the Vauxhall 10 introduced in 1937 by Opel's English sister-company, the Opel Kadett was designed for high volume low cost production. For 1937 the Kadett was offered as a small and unpretentious two door "Limousine" or, at the same list price of 2,100 Marks, as a soft top "Cabrio-Limousine"; the body resembled that of the existing larger Opel Olympia and its silhouette reflected the "streamlining" tendencies of the time. The 1,074cc side-valve engine came from the 1935 Opel P4 and came with the same listed maximum power output of 23 PS at 3,400 rpm.
The brakes were now controlled using a hydraulic mechanism. The suspension featured synchromous springing, a suspension configuration seen on the manufacturer's larger models and based on the Dubonnet system for which General Motors in France had purchased the license; the General Motors version, further developed by Opel’s North American parent, was intended to provide a soft ride, but there was some criticism that handling and road-holding were compromised when the system was applied to small light-weight cars such as the Kadett. By the end of 1937 33,402 of these first generation Kadetts had been produced. From December 1937 a modified front grill signalled an upgrade. However, the 1,074cc Opel 23 PS engine and the 2,337 mm wheelbase were unchanged, it would have taken a keen eyed observer to spot the difference between the cars for 1937 and those for 1938; the manufacturer now offered two versions of the Kadett, designated the "Kadett KJ38 and the "Kadett K38" the latter being sold as the "Kadett Spezial".
Mechanically and in terms of published performance there was little to differentiate the two, but the "Spezial" had a chrome stripe below the window line, extra external body trim in other areas such as on the front grill. The interior of the "Spezial" was better equipped. To the extent that the 300 Mark saving for buyers of the car reflected reduced production costs, the major difference was that the more basic "KJ38" lost the synchromous springing with which the car had been launched, which continued to be fitted on the "Spezial"; the base car instead reverted to traditional rigid axle based suspension similar to that fitted on the old Opel P4. The base car was available only as a two-door "Limousine". Customers looking for a soft-top "Cabrio-limousine" would need to specify a "Kadett Spezial". For the first time Kadett buyers, provided they were prepared to choose a "Kadett Spezial" could specify a four-door "Limousine" bodied car, priced at 2,350 Marks as against 2,150 Marks for a "Spezial Cabrio-Limousine" and 2,100 Marks for a two-door "Spezial Limousine".
In marketing terms the "Kadett KJ38" was intended to fill the niche that Opel had vacated with the departure of the Opel P4, but the KJ38, priced at 1,800 Marks, was more expensive than the P4 and its reduced specification left it with the image of a car for poor people at a time when economic growth in Germany was fostering a less minimalist approach to car buying. The "Kadett K38 Spezial" fared better in the market place: in 1938 and again in 1939 it was Germany's top selling small car. By May 1941 the company had produced 56,335 "Kadett K38 Spezial "s. Competitive pricing led to commercial success, Kadetts continued to be produced during the early months of the war: by the time production ended in May 1940, following intensification of World War II, 106,608 of these Opel Kadetts had come off the assembly line at Opel's Rüsselsheim plant, the first major car plant in Germany to apply the assembly-line production techniques pioneered by Henry Ford. After the Second World War the Soviet Union requested the tooling from the Opel Rüsselsheim car plant in the American occupation zone as part of the war reparations agreed by the victorious powers, to compensate for the loss of the production lines for the domestic KIM-10-52 in the siege of Moscow.
Faced with a wide range of German "small litrage" models to choose from, Soviet planners wanted a car which followed the general type of the KIM – a 4-door sedan with all-metal body and 4-stroke engine. They therefore rejected both the rear-engined, two-door KdF-Wagen and the two-stroke powered, front-wheel-drive, wooden-bodied DKW F8, built by the Auto Union Chemnitz plant in the Soviet occupation zone; the closest analog of the KIM to be found was the 4-door Kadett K38. On August 26, 1945, the State Defense Committee published Order № 9905, which prescribed the start of production of the 4-door Kadett on the Moscow small car plant "without any changes to the design", but implementation of the plan was far from smooth. The Rüsselsheim plant had been involved in the Nazi war effort, producing aircraft engines for the Luftwaffe, has been damaged by the Allied air raids. Little was left to be salvaged – incoherent drawings and plans, with several stamping dies for the 2-door version of the Kadett to add.
Still, a number of Kadetts has been captured as trophies by the Red Army and available for study and reverse-engineering. This project was conducted by design bureaus formed as Soviet-Ger
The Opel Astra is a compact car/small family car engineered and manufactured by the German automaker Opel since 1991. It is branded as the Buick Excelle XT in China; the Holden Astra was discontinued in Australia and New Zealand in 2009, because exchange rates made the car uncompetitive, was replaced by the Holden Cruze. It returned to the Australian market in 2012, for the first time badged as an Opel, but was discontinued after Opel withdrew from the country a year later. On 1 May 2014, Opel announced that the Astra GTC and Astra VXR would return to Australia and New Zealand in 2015, again bearing the Holden badge; the Astra nameplate originates from Vauxhall, which had manufactured and marketed earlier generations of the Opel Kadett as the Vauxhall Astra. Subsequent GM Europe policy standardised model nomenclature in the early 1990s, whereby model names were the same in all markets regardless of the marque they were sold under; as of 2019, there have been five generations of the Astra. In a fashion typical for Opel they are designated with subsequent letters of the Latin alphabet.
Opel's official convention is that the Astra is a logical continuation of the Kadett lineage, the first generation of Opel Astra as the Astra F. The usual convention would have started with Astra A, if the Astra had been considered a separate model. Models sold as Vauxhall, Holden, or Chevrolet have different generation designations reflecting the history of those nameplates in their home markets and their naming conventions; the Opel Astra F debuted in September 1991. With the Kadett E's successor, Opel adopted the Astra nameplate, used by Vauxhall for the Kadett D and E, it was offered as a three- or five-door hatchback, a saloon, an estate known as the Caravan and available with five doors only, bringing Opel's run of three-door wagons to an end at long last. A cabriolet was offered and built by Bertone in Italy. While the Astra F finished production in Germany in 1998, Polish-built Astras remained on offer in Central and Eastern Europe, as well as Turkey, with the name Astra Classic from 1998 to 2002.
The Opel Astra F consisted of two main revisions and was revised in 1995, with the launch of Opel's new Ecotec engine. Aside from the South Africa-only 200t S, the lead model was the GSi – a 2.0 L I4 16V petrol injected model with 151 hp, available as a three-door only. It featured sports bodykit and widened front seats in the interior. However, this was substituted in 1995 and was renamed as SPORT, although only a limited number were produced and the bodykit was removed and it could be selected with the lower-powered, but more modern'Ecotec' version, the X20XEV parallel with the C20XE. In Europe from 1994 all Astra models were offered with the 2.0 L 16V Ecotec X20XEV parallel with the 2.0 L 8V engine, but the three-door and station wagon models could be selected with the 151 hp C20XE engine. Some Astra models had a 1.6 L engine with 83 hp. After the Astra F was replaced by the new generation Astra G in 1998, the so-called "REDTOP" C20XE engine was taken out of production; the model was launched in South Africa in 1991, where it was produced under licence by Delta.
The "Kadett" name was retained for the hatchback Astras until 1999. The sedan and station wagon models were offered under the Astra name; the Kadett and Astra in South Africa won the title of'Car of the Year' in two consecutive years though they were versions of the same car. South African nomenclature was denoted in centilitres, so the Astra and Kadett ranges featured 140, 160i, 180i and 200i models; the South African Astra turbo included a variant with the same turbocharged engine called the Opel Kadett 200t S. The 200t S was a specific name where Delta Motor Corporation wanted to show the specialty of the type, which could beat the BMW M3 in a quarter mile in that time; the "t" stands for the turbocharger. The engine in the Opel Astra and Kadett 200t S was sourced from the Opel Calibra and Opel Vectra A 4x4 2.0 16V turbo, four-wheel drive found in European markets, but local engineers converted the six-speed, four-wheel drive transmission to front-wheel drive only and as such it was unique to South Africa.
The Opel Astra became available in Australasia badged as a Holden, first in New Zealand in 1995, Australia in 1996. The first models were imported from the UK, but models were imported from Belgium; the Holden Astra name had been used on rebadged Nissan Pulsar models from 1984 to 1989. Opel Astra's first generation was exported to Brazil from December 1994 as the Chevrolet Astra, possible because of a lowering of import tariffs. General Motors do Brasil sent the 2.0-liter, 115 bhp engines to Belgium, whence the completed cars took their way to Brazil. In February 1996 the Brazilian government again changed the import tariff, from 20 to 70% - making the car prohibitively expensive and leading to its cancellation after just over a year on the market. Instead, the locally built Kadett was updated; the second generation Astra was manufactured in Brazil. Beginning in March 1995, the Astra sedan was assembled in Indonesia where it was marketed as the "Opel Optima"; the name had to be changed. In India the Opel Astra was assembled for the local market in a joint venture with the Birla Companies, beginning in 1996.
Indian production ended in 2002. The first generation Chrevolet Astra in Brazil had a Vauxhall-style front grille featuring a "V", containing the Chevrolet badg