LiveJournal, stylised as LiVEJOURNAL, is a Russian social networking service where users can keep a blog, journal or diary. American programmer Brad Fitzpatrick started LiveJournal on April 15, 1999, as a way of keeping his high school friends updated on his activities. In January 2005, American blogging software company Six Apart purchased Danga Interactive, the company that operated LiveJournal, from Fitzpatrick. Six Apart sold LiveJournal to Russian media company SUP Media in 2007. S. via a California-based subsidiary, LiveJournal, Inc. but began moving some operations to Russian offices in 2009. In December 2016, the service relocated its servers to Russia, in April 2017, LiveJournal changed its terms of service to conform to Russian law; as with other social networks, a wide variety of public figures use the service, as do political pundits, who use it for political commentary in Russia, where it partners with the online newspaper Gazeta.ru. The unit of social networking on LiveJournal is quaternary.
Two users can have no relationship, they can list each other as friends mutually, or either can "friend" the other without reciprocation. On LiveJournal, "friend" is used as a verb to describe listing someone as a friend; the term "friend" on LiveJournal is a technical term, but because it is loaded for many people, there have been discussions in such LiveJournal communities as lj_dev and lj_biz as well as suggestions about whether the term should be used this way. A user's list of friends will include several communities and RSS feeds in addition to individual users. "friending" allows a user's friends to read protected entries and causes the friends' entries to appear on the user's "friends page." Friends can be grouped together in "friends groups," allowing for more complex behavior. Features common to all accountsEach journal entry has its own web page, which includes the comments left by other users. In addition, each user has a journal page, which shows all of their most recent journal entries, along with links to the comment pages.
The most distinctive feature of LiveJournal is the "friends list," which gives the site a strong social aspect in addition to the blog services. The friends list provides various privacy services, described below; each user has a friends page, which collects the most recent journal entries of the people on their friends list. LiveJournal allows users to customize their accounts; the S2 programming language allows journal templates to be modified by members. Users may upload graphical avatars, or "userpics," which appear next to the username in prominent areas as on an Internet forum. Paid account holders are given full access to S2 management and more userpics, as well as other features; each user has a "User Info" page, which contains a variety of data including contact information, a biography and lists of friends, interests and schools the user has attended in the past or is attending. LiveJournal has five account levels: basic. Permanent accounts are not available to the average user. Before March 12, 2008, basic accounts were ad-free.
Basic users see advertising, but not on other basic journals. As well as allowing embedded videos from other sites, LiveJournal can host videos and allows users who have enabled the updated site design to post links to the hosted videos. Paid account featuresSending Text Messages – users can receive text messages sent via LiveJournal without sharing their phone number. If the text messaging feature is set up, anyone can use LiveJournal to send text messages to their cellphone by following a link on the User Info page. "To-do list" feature – LiveJournal offers “to-do lists” for managing users goals and aims. Users can have 150 to-do list items; each to-do list item must have a subject, priority and descriptions, percent done, due date and categories field. "Express Lane" -- users with paid accounts have access to express lanes. When logged into their Paid or Permanent Account during times of heavy site load, their requests for pages are sent to the web servers before other users' requests. "Voice Post" – members with paid accounts can call from any phone to a specific number, record the audio and upload it directly to their journal.
"Extra storage space" -- lets users store voice posts. Photos and voice posts that have been uploaded there are easy to include in the log entry; as of 2014, LiveJournal in the United States had 10 million monthly uniques, 30 million monthly visitors, 170 million pageviews. As with most weblogs, people can comment on each other's journal entries and create a message board-style thread of comments – each comment can be replied to individually, starting a new thread. All users, including non-paying users, can set various options for comments: they can instruct the software to only accept comments from those on their friends list or block anonymous comments, they can screen various types of comments before they are displayed, or disable commenting entirely. Users can have replies s
In marketing, a coupon is a ticket or document that can be redeemed for a financial discount or rebate when purchasing a product. Customarily, coupons are issued by manufacturers of consumer packaged goods or by retailers, to be used in retail stores as a part of sales promotions, they are widely distributed through mail, coupon envelopes, newspapers, the Internet, directly from the retailer, mobile devices such as cell phones. Since only price conscious consumers are to spend the time to claim the savings, coupons function as a form of price discrimination, enabling retailers to offer a lower price only to those consumers who would otherwise go elsewhere. In addition, coupons can be targeted selectively to regional markets in which price competition is great. In government, a coupon is a paper certificate used to administer a permission; the word is of French origin, pronounced. In Britain, the United States, Canada it is pronounced KOO-pon. A common alternate American pronunciation is KEW-pon.
In 1886, The Coca-Cola Company was incorporated in Atlanta, with Asa Candler as one of the partners. He transformed Coca-Cola from an insignificant tonic into a profitable business by using advertising techniques. Candler's marketing included having the company's employees and sales representatives distribute complimentary coupons for Coca-Cola. Coupons were placed in magazines; the company gave soda fountains free syrup to cover the costs of the free drinks. It is estimated that between 1894 and 1913 one in nine Americans had received a free Coca-Cola, for a total of 8,500,000 free drinks. By 1895 Candler announced to shareholders that Coca-Cola was served in every state in the United States. In Australia consumers first came in contact with couponing when a company called Shop A Docket promoted offers and discounts on the back of shopping receipts in 1986. There are different types of values applied to coupons such as discounts, free shipping, buy-one get-one, trade-in for redemption, first-time customer coupons, free trial offer, launch offers, festival offers, free giveaways.
There are different uses of coupons which include: to incentive a purchase, to reduce the price of a particular item or items, provide a free sample, or to help allow marketers better-understand the demographics of their customer. Coupons can be used to research the price sensitivity of different groups of buyers. In addition, it is assumed that buyers who take the effort to collect and use coupons are more price sensitive than those who do not. Therefore, the posted price paid by price-insensitive buyers can be increased, while using coupon discounts to maintain the price for price-sensitive buyers. Grocery coupons come in two major types: store coupons and manufacturer's coupons. Store coupons are coupon-based discounts offered for a particular group of items; the issuing store will accept its own "store coupons", but some stores will accept store coupons that are issued by competitors. Coupons issued by the manufacturer of a product may be used at any coupon-accepting store that carries that product.
Manufacturer's coupons have the advantage of being currency at a variety of retailers, not just at one store. Grocery coupons are incentives for people who want to save money, but manufacturer coupons are intended to advertise products and lure new customers with financial incentives, they may be used to increase the sales of newspapers or other publications. For example, people may purchase multiple copies of a newspaper or magazine in order to use the coupons contained within; some grocery stores double the value of a grocery coupon as an incentive to bring customers into their stores. Additionally, stores might hold special events where they will double or triple coupon values on certain days or weeks. Whether or not a specific grocery chain will double or triple coupons depends on the original coupon value. Most coupons have an expiration date. For example, Christmas coupons are valid only throughout the Christmas week. American military commissaries overseas honor manufacturers coupons for up to six months past the expiration date.
Customers may get these coupons from various sources, including national newspapers and the Internet, with web sites offering free printable grocery coupons can be printed at home and use them at retail store. Some major grocery chains produce digital coupons that may be loaded onto the retailer's loyalty card at home, or at a coupon dispensing machine located in store. In 2011, the top five vehicles for distributing consumer packaged goods coupons in the U. S. were: the Free Standing Insert, a coupon booklet distributed through newspapers and other sources. Other distribution methods together accounted for less than 2% of all coupons distributed. There are coupon-providing websites; these sites accumulate coupons from various sources. Clipping coupons from newspapers has been the most popular way to obtain coupons, though Internet and Mobile Phone coupons are gaining wide popularity; some retailers and companies use verification methods such as unique barcodes, coupon ID numbers, holographic seals, watermarked paper as protection from unauthorized copying or use.
Other than newspaper, there are coupon book publishers and retailers who compile vouchers and coupons into books, either for sale or free. Online retailers refer to coupons as
Social networking service
A social networking service is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal or career interests, backgrounds or real-life connections. The social network is distributed across various computer networks; the social networks are inherently computer networks, linking people and knowledge. Social networking services vary in the number of features, they can incorporate a range of new information and communication tools, operating on desktops and on laptops, on mobile devices such as tablet computers and smartphones. They may feature "web logging" diary entries online. Online community services are sometimes considered social-network services by programmers and users, though in a broader sense, a social-network service provides an individual-centered service whereas online community services are group-centered. Defined as "websites that facilitate the building of a network of contacts in order to exchange various types of content online," social networking sites provide a space for interaction to continue beyond in person interactions.
These computer mediated interactions link members of various networks and may help to both maintain and develop new social ties. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, digital photos and videos, to inform others about online or real-world activities and events with people in their network. While in-person social networking – such as gathering in a village market to talk about events – has existed since the earliest development of towns, the Web enables people to connect with others who live in different locations, ranging from across a city to across the world. Depending on the social media platform, members may be able to contact any other member. In other cases, members can contact anyone they have a connection to, subsequently anyone that contact has a connection to, so on; the success of social networking services can be seen in their dominance in society today, with Facebook having a massive 2.13 billion active monthly users and an average of 1.4 billion daily active users in 2017.
LinkedIn, a career-oriented social-networking service requires that a member know another member in real life before they contact them online. Some services require members to have a preexisting connection to contact other members; the main types of social networking services contain category places, means to connect with friends, a recommendation system linked to trust. One can categorize social-network services into three types: socializing social network services used for socializing with existing friends online social networks are decentralized and distributed computer networks where users communicate with each other through internet services. Networking social network services used for non-social interpersonal communication social navigation social network services used for helping users to find specific information or resources There have been attempts to standardize these services to avoid the need to duplicate entries of friends and interests. A study reveals that India recorded world's largest growth in terms of social media users in 2013.
A 2013 survey found that 73% of U. S. adults use social-networking sites. There is a variety of social networking services available online. However, most incorporate common features: social networking services are Web 2.0, Internet-based applications user-generated content is the lifeblood of social networking services. Users create service-specific profiles for the site or app that are designed and maintained by the SNS organization social networking services facilitate the development of online social networks by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups; the variety and evolving range of stand-alone and built-in social networking services in the online space introduces a challenge of definition. Furthermore, the idea that these services are defined by their ability to bring people together and provides too broad a definition; such a broad definition would suggest that the telegraph and telephone were social networking services – not the Internet technologies scholars are intending to describe.
The terminology is unclear, with some referring to social networking services as social media. A recent attempt at providing a clear definition reviewed the prominent literature in the area and identified four commonalities unique to current social networking services: social networking services are interactive Web 2.0 Internet-based applications, user-generated content, such as user-submitted digital photos, text posts, "tagging", online comments, diary-style "web logs", is the lifeblood of the SNS organism, users create service-specific profiles for the site or app that are designed and maintained by the SNS organization, social networking services facilitate the development of social networks online by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups. The potential for computer networking to facilitate newly improved forms of computer-mediated social interaction was suggested early on. Efforts to support social networks via computer-mediated communication were made in many early online services, including Usenet, ARPANET, LISTSERV, bulletin board services.
Many prototypical features of social networking sites were present in online services such as America Online, CompuServe, ChatNet, The WELL. Early social netw
Diaspora (social network)
Diaspora is a nonprofit, user-owned, distributed social network, based upon the free Diaspora software. Diaspora consists of a group of independently owned nodes; as of March 2014, there are more than 1 million Diaspora accounts. The social network is not owned by any one person or entity, keeping it from being subject to corporate take-overs or advertising. In September 2011 the developers stated, "...our distributed design means no big corporation will control Diaspora. Diaspora* will never sell your social life to advertisers, you won’t have to conform to someone’s arbitrary rules or look over your shoulder before you speak."Diaspora software is licensed with GNU-AGPL-3.0. Diaspora software development is managed by the Diaspora Foundation, part of the Free Software Support Network; the FSSN is in turn run by the Software Freedom Law Center. The FSSN acts as an umbrella organization to Diaspora development and manages Diaspora's branding and legal assets; the Diaspora social network is constructed of a network of nodes, or pods, hosted by many different individuals and institutions.
Each node operates a copy of the Diaspora software acting as a personal web server. Users of the network can host a pod on their own server or create an account on any existing pod of their choice, from that pod can interact with other users on all other pods. Friendica instances are a part of the Diaspora social network since Friendica natively supports the Diaspora protocol. Diaspora users do not assign ownership rights; the software is designed to allow users to download all their images and text that have been uploaded at any time. The Diaspora software allows user posts to be designated as either "public" or "limited". In the latter case, posts may only be read by people assigned to one of the groups, termed aspects, which the user has approved to view the post; each new account is assigned several default aspects – friends, family and acquaintances – and the user can add as many custom aspects as they like. It is possible to follow another user's public posts without the mutual friending required by other social networks.
Users can send private messages, called conversations. A user can filter their news stream by aspect; the developers consider the distributed nature of the network crucial to its design and success: Diaspora’s distributed design is a huge part of it. Like the Internet itself, Diaspora* isn’t housed in any one place, it’s not controlled by any one entity. We’ve created software that lets you set up and run your own social network on your own “pod” and connect your network to the larger Diaspora* ecosystem. You can have a pod all to yourself, or one for just you and your friends, or your family, giving you complete ownership and control over your personal social information and how it’s all stored and shared. Or you can simply... sign up at one of open pods. Diaspora has been noted by U. S. National Public Radio for its policy that allows the use of pseudonyms, in contrast to competitor Facebook, which does not. Posts in Diaspora can include hashtags and'mentions'. Users can upload photos to posts, can format text and links using Markdown.
Posts can be propagated to connected accounts on Wordpress and Tumblr. Diaspora supports embedding of media from YouTube, Vimeo and a number of other sites, supports OpenGraph previews; the Diaspora project was founded in 2010 by four students at New York University’s Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Ilya Zhitomirskiy, Dan Grippi, Max Salzberg, Raphael Sofaer. The word diaspora refers to a scattered or dispersed population. Grippi, Salzberg and Zhitomirskiy started the Diaspora project after being motivated by a February 5, 2010 speech by Columbia University law professor Eben Moglen. In his speech, delivered to the Internet Society's New York Chapter, "Freedom in the Cloud", Moglen described centralized social networks as "spying for free." In a New York Times interview, Salzberg said "When you give up that data, you’re giving it up forever... The value they give us is negligible in the scale of what they are doing, what we are giving up is all of our privacy." Sofaer said, "We don't need to hand our messages to a hub.
What Facebook gives you as a user isn't all that hard to do. All the little games, the little walls, the little chat, aren't rare things; the technology exists". However, Salzberg has said that "Facebook is not what we are going after"; the group decided to address this problem by creating a distributed social network. To obtain the necessary funds the project was launched on April 24, 2010 on Kickstarter, a crowd funding website; the first 39 days were assigned to raise the US$10,000 that they estimated would be needed to get started. However, the initial funding goal was met in just 12 days and the project raised more than US$200,000 from more than 6000 backers. Grippi said, "We were shocked. For some strange reason, everyone just agreed with this whole privacy thing." Among the donors was Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg who contributed an undisclosed amount, saying "I donated. I think it is a cool idea.""Diaspora is trying to destroy the idea that one network can be dominant," stated Sofaer in laying down the aim of Diaspora.
Work on the Diaspora software began in May 2010. Finn Brunton, a teacher and digital media researcher at New York University, described their method as "a return of the classic geek means of production: pizza and ramen and guy
The Literary Digest
The Literary Digest was an influential American general interest weekly magazine published by Funk & Wagnalls. Founded by Isaac Kaufmann Funk in 1890, it merged with two similar weekly magazines, Public Opinion and Current Opinion. Beginning with early issues, the emphasis was on an analysis of news events. Established as a weekly newsmagazine, it offered condensations of articles from American and European publications. Type-only covers gave way to illustrated covers during the early 1900s. After Isaac Funk's death in 1912, Robert Joseph Cuddihy became the editor. In the 1920s, the covers carried full-color reproductions of famous paintings. By 1927, The Literary Digest climbed to a circulation of over one million. Covers of the final issues displayed various photo-montage techniques. In 1938, it merged with the Review of Reviews, only to fail soon after, its subscriber list was bought by Time. A column in The Digest, known as "The Lexicographer's Easy Chair", was produced by Frank Horace Vizetelly.
Ewing Galloway as assistant editor at the publication. The Literary Digest is best-remembered today for the circumstances surrounding its demise; as it had done in 1916, 1920, 1924, 1928 and 1932, it conducted a straw poll regarding the outcome of the 1936 presidential election. Before 1936, it had always predicted the winner; the 1936 poll showed that the Republican candidate, Governor Alfred Landon of Kansas, was to be the overwhelming winner. This seemed possible to some, as the Republicans had fared well in Maine, where the congressional and gubernatorial elections were held in September, as opposed to the rest of the nation, where these elections were held in November along with the presidential election, as they are today; this outcome seemed likely in light of the conventional wisdom, "As Maine goes, so goes the nation", a saying coined because Maine was regarded as a "bellwether" state which supported the winning candidate's party. In November, Landon carried only Maine. Landon's electoral vote total of eight is a tie for the record low for a major-party nominee since the American political paradigm of the Democratic and Republican parties began in the 1850s.
The Democrats joked, "As goes Maine, so goes Vermont." The magazine was so discredited by this discrepancy. In retrospect, the polling techniques employed by the magazine were to blame. Although it had polled ten million individuals, it had surveyed its own readers first, a group with disposable incomes well above the national average of the time, shown in part by their ability still to afford a magazine subscription during the depths of the Great Depression, two other available lists: that of registered automobile owners and that of telephone users, both of which were wealthier than the average American at the time. Research published in 1972 and 1988 concluded that non-response bias was the primary source of this error, although their sampling frame was quite different from the vast majority of voters. George Gallup's American Institute of Public Opinion achieved national recognition by predicting the result of the 1936 election and by correctly predicting the quite different results of the Literary Digest poll to within about 1%, using a smaller sample size of 50,000.
Gallup's last poll before the election predicted. The official tally gave Roosevelt 61%; this debacle led to a considerable refinement of public opinion polling techniques and came to be regarded as ushering in the era of modern scientific public opinion research. History of opinion polls Freedman, David. Statistics. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-92972-8. Digitized archives: 2,037 Issues, 73,776 Articles, 115,219pp January 2, 1897 to January 22, 1938.
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business and art, include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, birth notices, editorial cartoons, comic strips, advice columns. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves metonymically called newspapers. Newspapers have traditionally been published in print. However, today most newspapers are published on websites as online newspapers, some have abandoned their print versions entirely. Newspapers developed as information sheets for businessmen. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspapers; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record.
Newspapers are published daily or weekly. News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news; the news includes political events and personalities and finance, crime and natural disasters. The paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Most traditional papers feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor and expressing an opinion on a public issue, opinion articles called "op-eds" written by guest writers, columns that express the personal opinions of columnists offering analysis and synthesis that attempts to translate the raw data of the news into information telling the reader "what it all means" and persuading them to concur. Papers include articles which have no byline. A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. Besides the aforementioned news and opinions, they include weather forecasts; as of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies and TV shows available on streaming video services like Netflix.
Newspapers have classified ad sections where people and businesses can buy small advertisements to sell goods or services. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; some newspapers are at least government-funded. The editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record. Many newspapers, besides employing journalists on their own payrolls subscribe to news agencies, which employ journalists to find and report the news sell the content to the various newspapers; this is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world. Circa 2005, there were 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day; the late 2000s–early 2010s global recession, combined with the rapid growth of free web-based alternatives, has helped cause a decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers had to retrench operations to stanch the losses.
Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7 plunged during the worldwide financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal; the decline in advertising revenues affected both the print and online media as well as all other mediums. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the print-only era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles fro
Electronic voting is voting that uses electronic means to either aid or take care of casting and counting votes. Depending on the particular implementation, e-voting may use standalone electronic voting machines or computers connected to the Internet, it may encompass a range of Internet services, from basic transmission of tabulated results to full-function online voting through common connectable household devices. The degree of automation may be limited to marking a paper ballot, or may be a comprehensive system of vote input, vote recording, data encryption and transmission to servers, consolidation and tabulation of election results. A worthy e-voting system must perform most of these tasks while complying with a set of standards established by regulatory bodies, must be capable to deal with strong requirements associated with security, integrity, privacy, accessibility, cost-effectiveness and ecological sustainability. Electronic voting technology can include punched cards, optical scan voting systems and specialized voting kiosks.
It can involve transmission of ballots and votes via telephones, private computer networks, or the Internet. In general, two main types of e-voting can be identified: e-voting, physically supervised by representatives of governmental or independent electoral authorities. Electronic voting technology intends to speed the counting of ballots, reduce the cost of paying staff to count votes manually and can provide improved accessibility for disabled voters, it has been demonstrated that as voting systems become more complex and include software, different methods of election fraud become possible. Others challenge the use of electronic voting from a theoretical point of view, arguing that humans are not equipped for verifying operations occurring within an electronic machine and that because people cannot verify these operations, the operations cannot be trusted. Furthermore, some computing experts have argued for the broader notion that people cannot trust any programming they did not author.
Critics of electronic voting, including security analyst Bruce Schneier, note that "computer security experts are unanimous on what to do... DRE machines must have a voter-verifiable paper audit trails... Software used on DRE machines must be open to public scrutiny" to ensure the accuracy of the voting system. Verifiable ballots are necessary because computers can and do malfunction, because voting machines can be compromised. Many insecurities have been found in commercial voting machines, such as using a default administration password. Cases have been reported of machines making unpredictable, inconsistent errors. Key issues with electronic voting are therefore the openness of a system to public examination from outside experts, the creation of an authenticatable paper record of votes cast and a chain of custody for records. There has been contention in the United States, that electronic voting DRE voting, could facilitate electoral fraud and may not be auditable. In addition, electronic voting has been criticised as expensive to introduce.
While countries like India continue to use electronic voting, several countries have cancelled e-voting systems or decided against a large-scale rollout, notably the Netherlands, Ireland and the United Kingdom due to issues in reliability of EVMs. Electronic voting systems for electorates have been in use since the 1960s when punched card systems debuted, their first widespread use was in the USA where 7 counties switched to this method for the 1964 presidential election. The newer optical scan voting systems allow a computer to count a voter's mark on a ballot. DRE voting machines which collect and tabulate votes in a single machine, are used by all voters in all elections in Brazil and India, on a large scale in Venezuela and the United States, they have been used on a large scale in the Netherlands but have been decommissioned after public concerns. Internet voting systems have gained popularity and have been used for government elections and referendums in Estonia, Switzerland as well as municipal elections in Canada and party primary elections in the United States and France.
There are hybrid systems that include an electronic ballot marking device or other assistive technology to print a voter verified paper audit trail use a separate machine for electronic tabulation. Sometimes called a "document ballot voting system", paper-based voting systems originated as a system where votes are cast and counted by hand, using paper ballots. With the advent of electronic tabulation came systems where paper cards or sheets could be marked by hand, but counted electronically; these systems included punched card voting and digital pen voting systems. These systems can include a ballot marking device or electronic ballot marker that allows voters to make their selections using an electronic input device a touch screen system similar to a DRE. Systems including a ballot marking device can incorporate different forms of assistive technology. In 2004, Open Voting Consortium demonstrated the'Dechert Design', a General Public License open source paper