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Open Graphics Library is a cross-language, cross-platform application programming interface for rendering 2D and 3D vector graphics. The API is used to interact with a graphics processing unit, to achieve hardware-accelerated rendering. Silicon Graphics Inc. began developing OpenGL in 1991 and released it on June 30, 1992. Since 2006, OpenGL has been managed by the non-profit technology consortium Khronos Group; the OpenGL specification describes an abstract API for drawing 3D graphics. Although it is possible for the API to be implemented in software, it is designed to be implemented or in hardware; the API is defined as a set of functions which may be called by the client program, alongside a set of named integer constants. Although the function definitions are superficially similar to those of the programming language C, they are language-independent; as such, OpenGL has many language bindings, some of the most noteworthy being the JavaScript binding WebGL. In addition to being language-independent, OpenGL is cross-platform.

The specification says nothing on the subject of obtaining, managing an OpenGL context, leaving this as a detail of the underlying windowing system. For the same reason, OpenGL is purely concerned with rendering, providing no APIs related to input, audio, or windowing. OpenGL is an evolving API. New versions of the OpenGL specifications are released by the Khronos Group, each of which extends the API to support various new features; the details of each version are decided by consensus between the Group's members, including graphics card manufacturers, operating system designers, general technology companies such as Mozilla and Google. In addition to the features required by the core API, graphics processing unit vendors may provide additional functionality in the form of extensions. Extensions may introduce new functions and new constants, may relax or remove restrictions on existing OpenGL functions. Vendors can use extensions to expose custom APIs without needing support from other vendors or the Khronos Group as a whole, which increases the flexibility of OpenGL.

All extensions are collected in, defined by, the OpenGL Registry. Each extension is associated with a short identifier, based on the name of the company which developed it. For example, Nvidia's identifier is NV, part of the extension name GL_NV_half_float, the constant GL_HALF_FLOAT_NV, the function glVertex2hNV. If multiple vendors agree to implement the same functionality using the same API, a shared extension may be released, using the identifier EXT. In such cases, it could happen that the Khronos Group's Architecture Review Board gives the extension their explicit approval, in which case the identifier ARB is used; the features introduced by each new version of OpenGL are formed from the combined features of several implemented extensions extensions of type ARB or EXT. OpenGL's popularity is due to the quality of its official documentation; the OpenGL Architecture Review Board released a series of manuals along with the specification which have been updated to track changes in the API. These are referred to by the colors of their covers: The Red Book OpenGL Programming Guide, 9th Edition.

ISBN 978-0-134-49549-1 The Official Guide to Learning OpenGL, Version 4.5 with SPIR-V The Orange Book OpenGL Shading Language, 3rd edition. ISBN 0-321-63763-1 A tutorial and reference book for GLSL. Historic books: The Green Book OpenGL Programming for the X Window System. ISBN 978-0-201-48359-8 A book about X11 interfacing and OpenGL Utility Toolkit; the Blue Book OpenGL Reference manual, 4th edition. ISBN 0-321-17383-X Essentially a hard-copy printout of the Unix manual pages for OpenGL. Includes a poster-sized fold-out diagram showing the structure of an idealised OpenGL implementation; the Alpha Book OpenGL Programming for Windows 95 and Windows NT. ISBN 0-201-40709-4 A book about interfacing OpenGL with Microsoft Windows; the earliest versions of OpenGL were released with a companion library called the OpenGL Utility Library. It provided simple, useful features which were unlikely to be supported in contemporary hardware, such as tessellating, generating mipmaps and primitive shapes; the GLU specification was last updated in 1998 and depends on OpenGL features which are now deprecated.

Given that creating an OpenGL context is quite a complex process, given that it varies between operating systems, automatic OpenGL context creation has become a common feature of several game-development and user-interface libraries, including SDL, Allegro, SFML, FLTK, Qt. A few libraries have been designed to produce an OpenGL-capable window; the first such library was OpenGL Utility Toolkit superseded by freeglut. GLFW is a newer alternative; these toolkits are designed to create and manage OpenGL windows, manage input, but little beyond that. GLFW – A cross-platform windowing and keyboard-mouse-joystick handler. Several "multimedia libraries" can create OpenGL wind


Lanlivery is a village and civil parish in Cornwall, United Kingdom. The village is five miles south of Bodmin; the Saints' Way runs past Lanlivery. Helman Tor, Red Moor and Breney Common nature reserves lie within the parish. Churchtown, a holiday centre for adults and children with physical and learning disabilities, is located in Lanlivery and is run by the national charity Vitalise. Other settlements in the parish of Lanlivery include Redmoor, Sweetshouse and Tangier; the manor of Penkneth or Penknight was one of the original 17 Antiqua maneria of the Duchy of Cornwall. At Pelyn is a 17th-century house, the seat of the family of Kendall, it was E-shaped but only one side survives and the centre was redone in the early Victorian period. The parish church is dedicated to a saint of whom nothing is known. Evidence for this dedication is found in the will of a vicar of Lanlivery dated 1539; the building was cruciform but was enlarged in the 15th century by the addition of a magnificent tower and the south aisle.

The churches of Lostwithiel and Luxulyan were chapelries dependent on Lanlivery. "One of the great churches of Cornwall" according to John Betjeman. There is a holy well dedicated to St Bryvyth in woodland just outside the village. There are four stone crosses in the parish: Trethew Cross consists of a crosshead, found in 1900 and a separate base. Two stone crosses from Lanlivery were removed in the 1840s and turned into monuments: one was taken to Boconnoc and one to St Winnow. "Online Catalogue for Lanlivery". Cornwall Record Office

World War II Behind Closed Doors: Stalin, the Nazis and the West

World War II Behind Closed Doors: Stalin, the Nazis and the West is a 2008 six-episode BBC/PBS documentary series on the role of Joseph Stalin and German-Soviet relations before and after World War II, created by Laurence Rees and Andrew Williams. It carries new controversial material which only became available to the public after the fall of communism from the Soviet archives, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union; each episode lasts one hour and features reenactments of the situations subject. The 2008 film combines narrative-led documentary segments, interwoven by dramatic re-enactments, with actors representing main political figures of the period; the original narrative voice-over was performed by Samuel West, while Keith David, veteran of Ken Burns' PBS series, narrates the American version. Joseph Stalin is portrayed by Alexei Petrenko; the series delves into such matters as the British and Soviet cover-up of the Katyn Forest Massacre. British historian Laurence Rees did the research compilation and lead writing for the series, the drama was directed by Andrew Williams.

Aleksei Petrenko as Joseph Stalin Bob Gunton as Franklin D. Roosevelt Paul Humpoletz as Winston Churchill Ziyad Abou Chair as Adolf Hitler Michael J. Reynolds as George C. Marshall Simon Thorp as Anthony Eden Valery Zhakov as Vyacheslav Molotov Krzysztof Dracz as Lavrentiy Beria Richard Alleman as Harry S. Truman Rees, Laurence. World War II Behind Closed Doors: Stalin, the Nazis and the West. Barnes & Nobles Publishing. ISBN 978-0-307-37730-2. How Hitler Lost the War Hitler's Warriors Soviet Storm: World War II in the East World War II In HD Colour World War II Behind Closed Doors: Stalin, the Nazis and the West on IMDb

Debbie Googe

Deborah Ann "Debbie" Googe is an English musician, the bassist for the bands My Bloody Valentine and Primal Scream. Prior to joining My Bloody Valentine, she played for a band called Bikini Mutants in her hometown of Yeovil, who gigged with The Mob. Googe had moved from Yeovil to London, in early 1985, an ex-girlfriend of hers recommended her as a bass player to Kevin Shields and Colm Ó Cíosóig of My Bloody Valentine, she joined the band after an audition in April 1985. She left the group in 1996, noting she "hadn't been happy for a long time". Googe is known for her raucous style of bass playing in MBV's live performances. Googe joined My Bloody Valentine's 2007 reunion, their subsequent tours. After leaving MBV in 1995, Googe became a taxi driver, she formed Snowpony in 1996 with her then-girlfriend, Katharine Gifford of Stereolab. They released 3 albums and 4 EPs between 1997 and 2003, she plays keyboards with the massed fuzz organ experimentalists band Pimmel and plays drums and sings backing vocals for Rockhard.

In 2012 it was announced that Googe would be the new bassist for Primal Scream, replacing Mani after his departure to rejoin The Stone Roses. She was subsequently succeeded by Simone Butler. On 4 August 2014 Googe joined Thurston Moore for his solo project The Best Day, continued this collaboration with his subsequent album Rock n Roll Consciousness in 2017, alongside Steve Shelley, the UK musician James Sedwards

Marie Taglioni

Marie Taglioni, Comtesse de Voisins was a Swedish ballet dancer of the Romantic ballet era, a central figure in the history of European dance. She was one of the most celebrated ballerinas of the romantic ballet, cultivated at Her Majesty's Theatre in London, at the Théâtre de l'Académie Royale de Musique of the Paris Opera Ballet, she is credited with being the first ballerina to dance en pointe. Taglioni was born in Stockholm, Sweden, to Italian choreographer Filippo Taglioni and Swedish ballet dancer Sophie Karsten, maternal granddaughter of the Swedish opera singer Christoffer Christian Karsten and of the Polish opera singer and actress Sophie Stebnowska, her brother, was a dancer and an influential choreographer. Taglioni was married to Comte Auguste Gilbert de Voisins in 1835, but separated in 1836, she fell in love with Eugene Desmares, a loyal fan, who had defended her honour in a duel. Desmares and Taglioni gave birth to a child in 1836. Three years Desmares died in a hunting accident.

In 1842 she gave birth to her second child. It is unknown who the father is though the birth certificate states the father as Gilbert de Voisins. Taglioni's children's names were Georges Philippe Marie Gilbert de Voisins and Eugenie-Marie-Edwige Gilbert de Voisins. Taglioni moved to Vienna with her family at a young age where she began her ballet training under the direction of Jean-Francois Coulon and her father. After Filippo was appointed the ballet master at the court opera in Vienna there was a decision that Marie would debut in the Habsburg capital. Though Marie had trained with Coulon, her technique was not up to the standards that would impress the Viennese audiences, her father created a rigorous six-month training regimen for his daughter where she would hold positions for 100 counts. The training was conducted daily and consisted of two hours in the morning with difficult exercises focusing on her legs and two hours in the afternoon focusing on adagio movements that would help her refine poses in ballet.

Taglioni had a rounded back that caused her to lean forward and had distorted proportions. She worked hard to disguise her physical limitations by increasing range of motion and developing her strength. Taglioni focused her energy on her shape and form to the audience and less on bravura tricks and pirouettes. In Vienna, Marie danced her first ballet choreographed by her father titled "La Reception d'une Jeune Nymphe à la Cour de Terpsichore". Before joining the Paris Opéra, Taglioni danced in both Munich and Stuttgart, at age 23 debuted in another ballet choreographed by her father called "La Sicilien" that jump-started her ballet career. Taglioni rose to fame as a danseuse at the Paris Opéra when her father created the ballet La Sylphide for her. Designed as a showcase for Taglioni's talent, it was the first ballet where dancing en pointe had an aesthetic rationale and was not an acrobatic stunt involving ungraceful arm movements and exertions, as had been the approach of dancers in the late 1820s.

In 1837 Taglioni left the Ballet of Her Majesty's Theatre to take up a three-year contract in Saint Petersburg with the Imperial Ballet. It was in Russia after her last performance in the country and at the height of the "cult of the ballerina", that a pair of her pointe shoes were sold for two hundred rubles to be cooked, served with a sauce and eaten by a group of balletomanes. In July 1845, she danced with Lucile Grahn, Carlotta Grisi, Fanny Cerrito in Jules Perrot's Pas de Quatre, a ballet representing Taglioni's ethereal qualities, based on Alfred Edward Chalon’s lithographic prints. Pas de Quatre was choreographed to be presented to Queen Victoria, who attended the third performance. Taglioni retired from performing in 1847; when the ballet of the Paris Opéra was reorganized on stricter, more professional lines, she was its guiding spirit. With the director of the new Conservatoire de danse, Lucien Petipa, Petipa's former pupil, the choreographer Louis Mérante, she figured on the six-member select jury of the first annual competition for the corps de ballet, held 13 April 1860.

Her only choreographic work was Le papillon for her student Emma Livry, remembered for dying in 1863 when her costume was set alight by a gas lamp used for stage lighting. Johann Strauss II composed the "Marie Taglioni Polka" in honour of Marie Taglioni's niece, Marie "Paul" Taglioni known as "Marie the Younger"; the two women, having the same name, have been conflated, or confused with each other. In England, she taught social dance and ballroom to children and society ladies in London, she resided at #14 Connaught Square, London from 1875 to 1876. Taglioni died in Marseille on 22 April 1884, the day before her 80th birthday, her body was moved to Paris. There is some debate over whether she is buried in Montmartre or in Père Lachaise, or if the grave Montmartre site belongs to her mother; the local dancers began leaving their worn pointe shoes on the Montmartre grave as a tribute and thanks to the first pointe dancer. Women in dance This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..

"Taglioni, Maria". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. Cambridge University Press. Wurzbach, von, ed.. "Taglioni, Marie". Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich. 43. Pp. 17–23 – via Wikisource


Amaral is a Portuguese-language surname of toponymic origin common in Portugal and Brazil, amongst other countries. Its meaning comes from a plantation of a variety of grapes known as amara, used to produce wine, the suffix -al denotes plantation. Amaral means a plantation of amaras; this family name is considered to be of high lineage because it descends from the King Ramiro II of León. The current people with this surname are of pre-Roman Lusitanian, Christian Visigothic and Sephardic Jewish descent, it may refer to: Afrânio Pompílio Gastos do Amaral, Brazilian herpetologist. Aguida Amaral, East Timorese runner. Anthony Amaral, American West Historian and horse trainer Carlos do Amaral Freire, Brazilian scholar and translator. Dante Amaral, Brazilian volleyball player more known as Dante. David Amaral, American professor of psychiatry. Francisco Keil do Portuguese architect. Karoline Amaral, Brazilian supermodel. Maria Adelaide Amaral, Portuguese-born Brazilian playwright and novelist. Miguel Amaral, Portuguese race car driver.

José Rui Mota do Mozambican Ambassador. Amaral, a music group from Zaragoza, Spain. Eva Amaral, Spanish singer-songwriter. José Carlos Amaral Vieira, Brazilian composer and musicologist. Marina Amaral, Brazilian colorist. Olga de Amaral, Colombian textile artist. Roberto Amaral, flamenco dancer and singer for the rock band Carmen. Tarsila do Brazilian painter. João Maria Ferreira do Portuguese colonial governor of Macau. Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do Portuguese president of the ministers council. Diogo Freitas do Portuguese politician. Francisco Xavier do East Timorese politician. Moisés da Costa Amaral, East Timorese politician. Amaral, Brazilian footballer, João Justino Amaral dos Santos Amaral, Brazilian footballer, Alexandre da Silva Mariano Amaral, Brazilian footballer, Anderson Conrado Amaral, Brazilian footballer, Carlos Rafael do Amaral Amaral, Brazilian footballer, William José de Souza Amaral, Brazilian footballer, Antônio Cleilson da Silva Feitosa Amaral, Brazilian footballer, Mauricio Azevedo Alves Amarildo Souza do Amaral, Brazilian footballer Casemiro do Amaral, Brazilian footballer David Amaral, Spanish footballer and coach Edinho, Brazilian footballer, Edon Amaral Neto João Henrique de Andrade Amaral, Brazilian footballer Jorge Amaral Rodrigues, Portuguese footballer Wagner Pereira Cardozo, Brazilian footballer Buddy Amaral, the main character in the 2000 movie Bounce Amaral, an impact crater on the planet Mercury