click links in text for more info


OpenStep is a defunct object-oriented application programming interface specification for a legacy object-oriented operating system, with the basic goal of offering a NeXTSTEP-like environment on non-NeXTSTEP operating systems. OpenStep was principally developed by NeXT with Sun Microsystems, to allow advanced application development on Sun's operating systems Solaris. NeXT produced a version of OpenStep for its own Mach-based Unix, stylized as OPENSTEP, as well as a version for Windows NT; the software libraries that shipped with OPENSTEP are a superset of the original OpenStep specification, including many features from the original NeXTSTEP. Taligent was considered to be a venerable competitor in the operating system and object markets, Microsoft's Cairo was at least a consideration without any product releases from either. Taligent's theoretical newness was compared to NeXT's older but mature and commercially established platform. Sun Microsystems held exploratory meetings with Taligent before deciding upon building out its object application framework OpenStep in partnership with NeXT as a "preemptive move against Taligent and Cairo".

Bud Tribble, a founding designer of the Macintosh and of NeXTStep, was now SunSoft's Vice President of Object Products to lead this decision. This included a $10 million investment from Sun into NeXT; the deal was described as "the first unadulterated piece of good news in the NeXT community in the last four years". The OpenStep API was created as the result of a 1993 collaboration between NeXT and Sun Microsystems, allowing this cut-down version of the NeXTSTEP operating system object layers to be run on Sun's Solaris operating system. Most of the OpenStep effort was to strip away those portions of NeXTSTEP that depended on Mach or NeXT-specific hardware being present; this resulted in a smaller system that consisted of Display PostScript, the Objective-C runtime and compilers, the majority of the NeXTSTEP Objective-C libraries. Not included was the basic operating system, or the lower-level display system. Steve Jobs said "We are ahead today, but the race is far from over.... Cairo will be close behind, Taligent will be far behind."

Sun's CEO Scott McNealy said, "We have no insurance policy. We have made a firm one-company, one-architecture decision, not like Taligent getting a trophy spouse by signing up HP."The first draft of the API was published by NeXT in mid 1994. That year they released an OpenStep compliant version of NeXTSTEP as OPENSTEP, supported on several of their platforms as well as Sun SPARC systems. NeXT submitted the OpenStep specification to the industry's object standards bodies; the official OpenStep API, published in September 1994, was the first to split the API between Foundation and Application Kit and the first to use the "NS" prefix. Early versions of NeXTSTEP use an "NX" prefix and contain only the Application Kit, relying on standard Unix libc types for low-level data structures. OPENSTEP remained NeXT's primary operating system product until they were purchased by Apple Computer in 1997. OPENSTEP was combined with technologies from the existing classic Mac OS to produce Mac OS X. iPhone and iPad's iOS is a descendant of OPENSTEP, but targeted at touch devices.

Sun adopted the OpenStep environment with the intent of complementing Sun's CORBA-compliant object system, Solaris NEO, by providing an object-oriented user interface toolkit to complement the object-oriented CORBA plumbing. The port involved integrating the OpenStep AppKit with the Display PostScript layer of the Sun X11 server, making the AppKit tolerant of multi-threaded code, implementing a Solaris daemon to simulate the behavior of Mach ports, extending the SunPro C++ compiler to support Objective-C using NeXT's ObjC runtime, writing an X11 window manager to implement the NeXTSTEP look and feel as much as possible, integrating the NeXT development tools, such as Project Builder and Interface Builder, with the SunPro compiler. In order to provide a complete end-user environment, Sun ported the NeXTSTEP-3.3 versions of several end-user applications, including,,, Workspace Manager, the Dock. The OpenStep and CORBA parts of the products were split, NEO was released in late 1995 without the OpenStep environment.

In March 1996, Sun announced a product to integrate NEO with Java. Sun shipped a beta release of the OpenStep environment for Solaris on July 22, 1996, made it available for download in August 1996 for non-commercial use, for sale in September 1996. OpenStep/Solaris was shipped only for the SPARC architecture. OpenStep differs from NeXTSTEP in various ways: NeXTSTEP is an operating system, whereas OpenStep is an API. Unlike NeXTSTEP, OpenStep does not require the Mach kernel; each version of NeXTSTEP has a specific endianness: big endian for Motorola 68K processors, little endian for x86 processors, for example. OpenStep is "endian-free". OpenStep introduces memory management capabilities; the OpenStep API specification defines three major components: Foundation Kit, the software framework. The standardization on OpenStep allowed for the creation of several new library packages that were delivered on the OPENSTEP platform. Unlike the operating system as a whole, these packages were designed to run stand-alone on any operating system.

The idea was to use OpenStep code as a basis for network-wide applications running across different platforms, as opposed to using CO

Charles H. Ilgenfritz

Charles Henry Ilgenfritz was a Union Army soldier in the American Civil War who received the U. S. military's highest decoration, the Medal of Honor. Ilgenfritz was born in York County, Pennsylvania on March 4, 1837, he was awarded the Medal of Honor, for extraordinary heroism on April 2, 1865, while serving as a Sergeant with Company E, 207th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment, at Fort Sedgwick, Virginia. His Medal of Honor was issued on March 20, 1917, he died at the age of 83, on March 31, 1920, was buried at the Prospect Hill Cemetery in York County, Pennsylvania. The President of the United States of America, in the name of Congress, takes pleasure in presenting the Medal of Honor to Sergeant Charles Henry Ilgenfritz, United States Army, for extraordinary heroism on 2 April 1865, while serving with Company E, 207th Pennsylvania Infantry, in action at Fort Sedgwick, Virginia; the Color Bearer falling, pierced by seven balls, Sergeant Ilgenfritz sprang forward and grasped the colors, planting them upon the enemy's forts amid a murderous fire of grape and musketry from the enemy.

"Charles H. Ilgenfritz". Claim to Fame: Medal of Honor recipients. Find a Grave. Retrieved August 10, 2014; this article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History

Mandate for Mesopotamia

The Mandate for Mesopotamia was a proposed League of Nations mandate to cover Ottoman Iraq. It would have been entrusted to the United Kingdom, but was superseded by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty, an agreement between Britain and Iraq with some similarities to the proposed mandate; the proposed mandate was awarded on 25 April 1920, at the San Remo conference in Italy in accordance with the 1916 Sykes–Picot Agreement, but was not yet documented or defined. It was to be a class A mandate under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. A draft mandate document was prepared by the British Colonial Office in June 1920, submitted in draft form to the League of Nations in December 1920. After the end of World War I, Sir Arnold Wilson, the future High Commissioner to Iraq, recommended the annexation of Mesopotamia to India "as a colony of India and the Indians, such as the government of India administer it and cultivate its vast plains, settle the warrior Punjab races in it." In a memorandum written on 22 April 1918, Cox listed the social groups that the British should support: the Jewish community in Baghdad, the notables in Baghdad and Basar, the rich landowning Arabs and Jews, the Shaikhs of sedentary tribes.

Mosul was added to the region of British influence following the 1918 Clemenceau–Lloyd George Agreement. The proposed mandate faced certain difficulties to be established, as a nationwide Iraqi revolt broke out in 1920, after which it was decided the territory would become the Kingdom of Iraq, via the Anglo-Iraq Treaty of October 1922; the Kingdom of Iraq became independent in 1931–1932, in accordance with the League of Nations stance, which stated such states would be facilitated into "progressive development" as independent states. The civil government of British-administered Iraq was headed by the High Commissioner, Sir Percy Cox, his deputy, Colonel Arnold Wilson. British reprisals after the murder of a British officer in Najaf failed to restore order. British administration had yet to be established in the mountains of north Iraq; the most striking problem facing the British was the growing anger of the nationalists, who felt betrayed at being accorded mandate status. Dodge, Toby "Inventing Iraq" Fieldhouse, David K.

Western Imperialism in the Middle East, 1914–1958 Fisk, Robert. The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East, Geoff. Iraq: From Sumer to Saddam Sluglett, Peter. Britain in Iraq: Contriving King and Country, 1914–1932 This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website

The Line (animation studio)

The Line LLP. is a UK-based animation studio founded in 2013 by Sam Taylor, Bjorn-Erik Aschim, Wesley Louis, James Duveen, Max Taylor, Timothy McCourt. The Line’s first film together, Everything I Can See From Here was nominated for the British Short Animation BAFTA in 2014. In 2013 they produced the official music video for the single "Easy" by Porter Robinson and Mat Zo, they have produced a number of other short films and games since, including the browser game, Redcarpet Rampage a satirical take on the 2016 Oscars. The company is based in London. LAMVF Best Animated Video BAFTA British Short Animation 2014 The Line's website The Line's Vimeo page

Knutby murder

The Knutby murder refers to a murder and attempted murder in the village of Knutby east of Uppsala in Sweden, on January 10, 2004. Around 04:40 in the morning, the 30-year-old IT entrepreneur Daniel Linde was shot in the head and chest and wounded. Two hours it was discovered that his employee and neighbor Alexandra Fossmo had been shot, she was found dead in her bed. The murdered woman was married to a pastor in a local Pentecostal church, her husband had left with Daniel Linde in the ambulance to the hospital. The next day 26-year-old Sara Svensson confessed to both shootings, she had worked as a nanny in the pastor's family. Two weeks the pastor was arrested, together with Daniel Linde's wife. Wiretapping had revealed to the police that the pastor were lovers, they were both suspected of instigating the murder and murder attempt, but Linde's wife was released after two weeks and never charged. The pastor's first wife Heléne Fossmo had been found dead in her bath tub in 1999. Although she had a hole in her skull and although there was a toxic concentration of dextropropoxyphene in her blood, this death had been ruled an accident.

This death was investigated again, the pastor was charged with murder. At the trial, Sara Svensson gave a detailed confession, she told the court that she had been influenced by anonymous text messages that were forwarded to her by Helge Fossmo. Her credibility was strengthened by the text of erased messages that could be recovered from her mobile phone. On July 30, 2004, Fossmo was sentenced to life in prison for instigated murder and instigated murder attempt. Sara Svensson was sentenced to institutional psychiatric care. In 2006 Fossmo confessed in an interview; the murders and the following police investigation caused a lot of media attention both in Sweden and abroad. Details such as the victims' and perpetrators' involvement in the same sect-like church community, as well as the pastor's sexual relationship with both the nanny and the wounded man's wife, were extensively covered in the tabloid newspapers. Waldau was called "Kristi brud" in the media, following news that she had performed an engagement ritual with Jesus.

She was called "Queen Tirsa" by some members of the church and signed her SMS messages "T". An aspect of the case which aroused widespread media interest was the punishment of the persons involved in the crimes. Helge Fossmo was sentenced to life imprisonment while the person who murdered Alexandra Fossmo, Sara Svensson, was released into the custody of the psychiatric ward of Linköping court system. In August 2006, she was allowed to walk around the grounds of the psychiatric hospital unsupervised. Twice per month, she was given unsupervised leaves provided she went with a relative to the town of Vadstena or nearby Motala. Starting in March, 2007 Svensson was allowed to stay overnight at her father's house. In June, 2007 the places she was allowed to visit were expanded to include the city of Linköping. In 2007, Fossmo married inside the Kumla Prison. In 2008 Fossmo was relocated from Kumla Prison to Tidaholm after receiving death threats from other prisoners. In early 2013 Fossmo had his first day out on parole from the Tidaholm prison.

In October 2014, after serving 10 years of his life sentence, Fossmo's applied to the court and had his sentenced time determined, which means that he will be released on parole in 2020. In January 2015, the Göta Court of Appeal repealed the decision, on the penalty requirement of at least 24 years of imprisonment for the severity of the crime, so that the application for parole was premature. In January 2010, Aftonbladet reported that Sara began college at the folkhögskola or folk high school in Vadstena. In early 2010, she received permission to live on her own during a six-month transition period, she returned to society in late 2010, but Swedish law prevents the disclosure of any details pertained to her release. The Knutby case became so notorious in Sweden that it has been used in fiction as an example of a sensational crime with no need for explanation; the name Knutby has entered the Swedish language as a metaphor in contexts that had nothing to do with crime. For instance, a sports journalist, dismayed that the players on the national football team were putting up a united front against the media and refusing to discuss possible personal conflicts wrote a piece headlined "The National team is like Knutby"

SiĆ³fok KC

Siófok Kézilabda Club is a Hungarian women's team handball team from Siófok, that play in the Nemzeti Bajnokság I. They have competed in lower divisions until 2006, when they have won the third-tier championship and gained promotion to the Nemzeti Bajnokság I/B; that time a businessman, János Fodor took over the club, with the support of the local government, he guaranteed the financial background to fulfil the club's long-term plans. In May 2009, SKC received a surprise request from the Hungarian Handball Federation to replace the financially struggling Tajtavill-Nyíradony and join the top level championship. Siófok met all demands and unexpectedly started the 2009–10 season in the NB I. Despite being newcomers, the team finished in the respectable seventh position. –2008: Siófoki VSE 2008–2010: Siófok KC 2010–2015: Siófok KC-Galérius Fürdő 2015–2016: Siófok KTC KFT 2016–present: Siófok KC The following table shows in detail Siófok KC kit manufacturers and shirt sponsors by year: Squad for the 2019–20 season Transfers for the 2020–21 season József Varga János Hajdu Vilmos Imre Szilárd Kiss Vladimir Golovin Christian Dalmose Roland Horváth Lars Rasmussen Tor Odvar Moen Bent Dahl Nemzeti Bajnokság I Bronze: 2011–12, 2018–19Magyar Kupa Bronze: 2013–14 EHF Cup Gold: 2018–19 As of 3 November 2019Seasons in Nemzeti Bajnokság I: 10 Seasons in Nemzeti Bajnokság I/B: 2 Seasons in Nemzeti Bajnokság II: Siófok score listed first.

As of 9 February 2020 Participations in EHF Cup: 4× Participations in Cup Winners' Cup: 1×Statistics: matches played: 34 – wins: 25 – draws: 3 – losses: 6 – goals scored: 1,028 – goals conceded: 844 Official website