Pagination known as paging, is the process of dividing a document into discrete pages, either electronic pages or printed pages. In reference to books produced without a computer, pagination can mean the consecutive page numbering to indicate the proper order of the pages, found in documents pre-dating 1500, only became common practice c. 1550, when it replaced foliation, which numbered only the front sides of folios. Word processing, desktop publishing, digital typesetting are technologies built on the idea of print as the intended final output medium, although nowadays it is understood that plenty of the content produced through these pathways will be viewed onscreen as electronic pages by most users rather than being printed on paper. All of these software tools are capable of flowing the content through algorithms to decide the pagination. For example, they all include automated word wrapping, machine-readable paragraphing, automated pagination. All of those automated capabilities can be manually overridden by the human user, via soft hyphens, manual line breaks, hard returns, manual page breaks.
Today printed pages are produced by outputting an electronic file to a printing device, such as a desktop printer or a modern printing press. These electronic files may for example be Microsoft PDF or QXD files, they will already incorporate the instructions for pagination, among other formatting instructions. Pagination encompasses rules and algorithms for deciding where page breaks will fall, which depend on cultural considerations about which content belongs on the same page: for example one may try to avoid widows and orphans; some systems are more sophisticated than others in this respect. Before the rise of information technology, pagination was a manual process: all pagination was decided by a human. Today, most pagination is performed by machines, although humans override particular decisions. "Electronic page" is a term to encompass paginated content in presentations or documents that originate or remain as visual electronic documents. This is a software file and recording format term in contrast to electronic paper, a hardware display technology.
Electronic pages may be a standard sized based on the document settings of a word processor file, desktop publishing application file, or presentation software file. Electronic pages may be dynamic in size or content such as in the case of HTML pages; when end-user interactivity is part of the user experience design of an electronic page, it is better known as a graphical user interface. The number and size of electronic pages in a document are limited by the amount of computer data storage, not by the display devices or amount of paper. Most electronic pages are for either display on a computer monitor or handheld device, or output to a printing device. PDF and some e-book file format pages are designed to do both. Most applications will print electronic pages without the need for a screen capture. However, not all software supports WYSIWYG printing of pages. Pages for screen output are more known as screens, interfaces, scenes, or cards. In the case of presentation software, electronic pages are known as slides.
A webform, web form or HTML form on a web page allows a user to enter data, sent to a server for processing. Forms can resemble paper or database forms because web users fill out the forms using checkboxes, radio buttons, or text fields. For example, forms can be used to enter shipping or credit card data to order a product, or can be used to retrieve search results from a search engine. Forms are enclosed in the HTML form tag; this tag specifies the communication endpoint the data entered into the form should be submitted to, the method of submitting the data, GET or POST. Forms can be made up of standard graphical user interface elements: text — a simple text box that allows input of a single line of text. Email - a type of text that requires a validated email address number - a type of text that requires a number password — similar to text, it is used for security purposes, in which the characters typed in are invisible or replaced by symbols such as *) radio — a radio button file — a file select control for uploading a file reset — a reset button that, when activated, tells the browser to restore the values to their initial values.
The date input type displays a calendar from which the user can select a date range. And the color input type can be represented as an input text checking the value entered is a correct hexadecimal representation of a color, according to the specification, or a color picker widget; when data, entered into HTML forms is submitted, the names and values in the form elements are encoded and sent to the server in an HTTP request message using GET or POST. An email transport was used; the default mime type, Internet media type application/x-www-form-urlencoded, is based on a early version of the general URI percent-encoding rules, with a number of modifications such as newline normalization and replacing spaces with "+" instead of "%20". Another possible encoding, Internet media type multipart/form-data, is available and is common for POST-based file submissions. Forms are combined with programs written in various programming language to allow developers to create dynamic web sites; the most popular languages include both client-side and/or server-side languages.
A significant advantage to server-side o
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor is a general-purpose programming language designed for web development. It was created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994. PHP stood for Personal Home Page, but it now stands for the recursive initialism PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor. PHP code may be executed with a command line interface, embedded into HTML code, or it can be used in combination with various web template systems, web content management systems, web frameworks. PHP code is processed by a PHP interpreter implemented as a module in a web server or as a Common Gateway Interface executable; the web server combines the results of the interpreted and executed PHP code, which may be any type of data, including images, with the generated web page. PHP can be used for many programming tasks outside of the web context, such as standalone graphical applications and robotic drone control; the standard PHP interpreter, powered by the Zend Engine, is free software released under the PHP License. PHP has been ported and can be deployed on most web servers on every operating system and platform, free of charge.
The PHP language evolved without a written formal specification or standard until 2014, with the original implementation acting as the de facto standard which other implementations aimed to follow. Since 2014, work has gone on to create a formal PHP specification. PHP development began in 1994 when Rasmus Lerdorf wrote several Common Gateway Interface programs in C, which he used to maintain his personal homepage, he extended them to work with web forms and to communicate with databases, called this implementation "Personal Home Page/Forms Interpreter" or PHP/FI. PHP/FI could be used to build dynamic web applications. To accelerate bug reporting and improve the code, Lerdorf announced the release of PHP/FI as "Personal Home Page Tools version 1.0" on the Usenet discussion group comp.infosystems.www.authoring.cgi on June 8, 1995. This release had the basic functionality that PHP has today; this included Perl-like variables, form handling, the ability to embed HTML. The syntax was simpler, more limited and less consistent.
Early PHP was not intended to be a new programming language, grew organically, with Lerdorf noting in retrospect: "I don't know how to stop it, there was never any intent to write a programming language I have no idea how to write a programming language, I just kept adding the next logical step on the way." A development team began to form and, after months of work and beta testing released PHP/FI 2 in November 1997. The fact that PHP was not designed, but instead was developed organically has led to inconsistent naming of functions and inconsistent ordering of their parameters. In some cases, the function names were chosen to match the lower-level libraries which PHP was "wrapping", while in some early versions of PHP the length of the function names was used internally as a hash function, so names were chosen to improve the distribution of hash values. Zeev Suraski and Andi Gutmans rewrote the parser in 1997 and formed the base of PHP 3, changing the language's name to the recursive acronym PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.
Afterwards, public testing of PHP 3 began, the official launch came in June 1998. Suraski and Gutmans started a new rewrite of PHP's core, producing the Zend Engine in 1999, they founded Zend Technologies in Ramat Gan, Israel. On May 22, 2000, PHP 4, powered by the Zend Engine 1.0, was released. As of August 2008 this branch reached version 4.4.9. PHP 4 will any security updates be released. On July 14, 2004, PHP 5 was released, powered by the new Zend Engine II. PHP 5 included new features such as improved support for object-oriented programming, the PHP Data Objects extension, numerous performance enhancements. In 2008, PHP 5 became the only stable version under development. Late static binding had been missing from PHP and was added in version 5.3. Many high-profile open-source projects ceased to support PHP 4 in new code as of February 5, 2008, because of the GoPHP5 initiative, provided by a consortium of PHP developers promoting the transition from PHP 4 to PHP 5. Over time, PHP interpreters became available on most existing 32-bit and 64-bit operating systems, either by building them from the PHP source code, or by using pre-built binaries.
For PHP versions 5.3 and 5.4, the only available Microsoft Windows binary distributions were 32-bit x86 builds, requiring Windows 32-bit compatibility mode while using Internet Information Services on a 64-bit Windows platform. PHP version 5.5 made. Official security support for PHP 5.6 ended on 31 December 2018, but Debian 8.0 Jessie will extend support until June 2020. PHP received mixed reviews due to lacking native Unicode support at the core language level. In 2005, a project headed by Andrei Zmievski was initiated to bring native Unicode support throughout PHP, by embedding the International Components for Unicode library, representing text strings as UTF-16 internally. Since this would cause major changes both to the internals of the language and to user code, it was planned to release this as version 6.0 of the language, along with other major features in development. However, a shortage of developers who understood the necessary changes, performance problems arising from conversion to and from UTF-16, used in a web context, led to delays in the project.
As a result, a PHP 5.3 release was created in 2009, with many non-Unicode f
In computing, a web application or web app is a client–server computer program which the client runs in a web browser. Common web applications include webmail, online retail sales, online auction; the general distinction between a dynamic web page of any kind and a "web application" is unclear. Web sites most to be referred to as "web applications" are those which have similar functionality to a desktop software application, or to a mobile app. HTML5 introduced explicit language support for making applications that are loaded as web pages, but can store data locally and continue to function while offline. Single-page applications are more application-like because they reject the more typical web paradigm of moving between distinct pages with different URLs. Single-page frameworks like Sencha Touch and AngularJS might be used to speed development of such a web app for a mobile platform. There are several ways of targeting mobile devices when making a web application: Responsive web design can be used to make a web application - whether a conventional website or a single-page application viewable on small screens and work well with touchscreens.
Progressive Web Apps are web applications that load like regular web pages or websites but can offer the user functionality such as working offline, push notifications, device hardware access traditionally available only to native mobile applications. Native apps or "mobile apps" run directly on a mobile device, just as a conventional software application runs directly on a desktop computer, without a web browser. Frameworks like React Native, Flutter and FuseTools allow the development of native apps for all platforms using languages other than each standard native language. Hybrid apps embed a mobile web site inside a native app using a hybrid framework like Apache Cordova and Ionic or Appcelerator Titanium; this allows development using web technologies while retaining certain advantages of native apps. In earlier computing models like client–server, the processing load for the application was shared between code on the server and code installed on each client locally. In other words, an application had its own pre-compiled client program which served as its user interface and had to be separately installed on each user's personal computer.