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Open Shortest Path First

Open Shortest Path First is a routing protocol for Internet Protocol networks. It uses a link state routing algorithm and falls into the group of interior gateway protocols, operating within a single autonomous system, it is defined as OSPF Version 2 in RFC 2328 for IPv4. The updates for IPv6 are specified as OSPF Version 3 in RFC 5340. OSPF supports the Classless Inter-Domain Routing addressing model. OSPF is a used IGP in large enterprise networks. IS-IS, another LSR-based protocol, is more common in large service provider networks. Open Shortest Path First was designed as an interior gateway protocol, for use in an autonomous system such as a local area network, it implements Dijkstra's algorithm known as the shortest path first algorithm. As a link-state routing protocol it was based on the link-state algorithm developed for the ARPANET in 1980 and the IS-IS routing protocol. OSPF was first standardised in 1989 as RFC 1131, now known as OSPF version 1; the development work for OSPF prior to its codification as open standard was undertaken by the Digital Equipment Corporation, which developed its own proprietary DECnet protocols.

Routing protocols like OSPF calculate the shortest route to a destination through the network based on an algorithm. The first routing protocol, implemented, the Routing Information Protocol, calculated the shortest route based on hops, the number of routers that an IP packet had to traverse to reach the destination host. RIP implemented dynamic routing, where routing tables change if the network topology changes, but RIP did not adapt its routing according to changing network conditions, such as data-transfer rate. Demand grew for a dynamic routing protocol. OSPF was developed so that the shortest path through a network was calculated based on the cost of the route, taking into account bandwidth and load; therefore OSPF undertakes route cost calculation on the basis of link-cost parameters, which can be weighted by the administrator. OSPF was adopted because it became known for reliably calculating routes through large and complex local area networks; as a link state routing protocol, OSPF maintains link state databases, which are network topology maps, on every router on which it is implemented.

The state of a given route in the network is the cost, OSPF algorithm allows every router to calculate the cost of the routes to any given reachable destination. Unless the administrator has made a configuration, the link cost of a path connected to a router is determined by the bit rate of the interface. A router interface with OSPF will advertise its link cost to neighbouring routers through multicast, known as the hello procedure. All routers with OSPF implementation keep sending hello packets, thus changes in the cost of their links become known to neighbouring routers; the information about the cost of a link, the speed of a point to point connection between two routers, is cascaded through the network because OSPF routers advertise the information they receive from one neighbouring router to all other neighbouring routers. This process of flooding link state information through the network is known as synchronisation. Based on this information, all routers with OSPF implementation continuously update their link state databases with information about the network topology and adjust their routing tables.

An OSPF network can be structured, or subdivided, into routing areas to simplify administration and optimize traffic and resource utilization. Areas are identified by 32-bit numbers, expressed either in decimal, or in the same dot-decimal notation used for IPv4 addresses. By convention, area 0, or, represents the backbone area of an OSPF network. While the identifications of other areas may be chosen at will; each additional area must have a connection to the OSPF backbone area. Such connections are maintained by an interconnecting router, known as an area border router. An ABR maintains separate link-state databases for each area it serves and maintains summarized routes for all areas in the network. OSPF detects changes in the topology, such as link failures, converges on a new loop-free routing structure within seconds. OSPF has become a popular dynamic routing protocol. Other used dynamic routing protocols are the RIPv2 and the Border Gateway Protocol. Today routers support at least one interior gateway protocol to advertise their routing tables within a local area network.

Implemented interior gateway protocols besides OSPF are RIPv2, IS-IS, EIGRP.. OSPF supports complex networks with multiple routers, including backup routers, to balance traffic load on multiple links to other subnets. Neighboring routers in the same broadcast domain or at each end of a point-to-point link communicate with each other via the OSPF protocol. Routers form adjacencies; this detection is initiated. Upon acknowledgment, this establishes the most basic relationship; the routers in an Ethernet or Frame Relay network select a Designated Router and a Backup Designated Router which act as a hub to reduce traffic between routers. OSPF uses both unicast and multicast transmission modes to send "Hello" packets and link state updates; as a link state routing protocol, OSPF establishes and maintains neighbor relationships for exchanging routing updates with other routers. The neighb

Dagenham Heathway tube station

Dagenham Heathway is a London Underground station serving the town of Dagenham in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham, east London. It is on the District line between Dagenham East, it is 7.7 kilometres along the line from the eastern terminus at Upminster and 26.5 kilometres to Earl's Court in central London where the line divides into numerous branches. The station was opened in 1932; the station was constructed and operated by the London and Scottish Railway with services provided by the District line from the outset. The station was called Heathway when it first opened, changing to its present name in 1949, it is of similar design to Upney and Elm Park with the platforms arranged on a central island with a long sloping walkway connection to the ticket hall. The 1930s station buildings were extensively refurbished during 2005 and 2006. Typical off-peak service from the station is: 12 tph east to Upminster 6 tph west to Ealing Broadway 6 tph west to Richmond London Buses routes 173, 174 and 175 serve the station

Intensive word form

In grammar, an intensive word form is one which denotes stronger, more forceful, or more concentrated action relative to the root on which the intensive is built. Intensives are lexical formations, but there may be a regular process for forming intensives from a root. Intensive formations, for example, existed in Proto-Indo-European, in many of the Semitic languages. Intensives are used as adverbs. In general, they are placed before the verb that they modify a form of the "be" verb. An example of common usage in American English today is "the heck". "The heck" can be left out of the sentence without changing the meaning. There are many varieties that are equivalent to "the heck" that are considered vulgar or otherwise inappropriate in polite conversation, such as in modern usage with "the hell" or "the fuck". In the mid-19th century, "in tarnation" was in common usage. In Great Britain, "bloody well" is an intensive adverb in common usage, for example, "I will bloody well do it." In American English, the usage of "this/that" has become common in intensive form.

The usage of "this/that" as intensifiers can be compared to the intensifier "so", since they all belong in the booster category of intensifiers, that is, intensifiers used to describe a high claim of intensity. An example sentence of this would be, "I shouldn't be this tired." Which carries similar intensity as the sentence, "I am so tired.". Hebrew uses intensifiers to hiph ` il binyans. Latin had verbal prefixes e- and per- that could be more or less added onto any verb and variously added such meanings as "To put a great deal of effort into doing something". For example, "ructa" compared to "eructa"; when the same prefixes per, were added to adjectives, the resulting meaning was X or X. The use of intensive word form has been studied in regards to how it is used in popular television shows, movies and online. In British English, the word "well" can be used as an adjective intensifier when used to describe a noun, such as in the sentence, "It's well good." The study done by James Stratton showed that intensive word form used in media resembles the usage in conversational British English.

To study this, Stratton analyzed the variety of intensifiers used in the British sitcom The Inbetweeners. The study found. Studies have been conducted to examine the use of intensifiers in internet culture; the 2010 study conducted by Sali A. Tagliamonte focused on how youth participants used language in email, instant messaging, in text messages; the study found that the word "so" is used in online messaging as an intensifier, but at the time had not been integrated as into everyday verbal communication. The study found that, "Different intensifiers are variably associated with nonstandard and colloquial varieties of the language, which makes this an ideal linguistic site for the investigation of variation." Which can explain the differences in intensifier usage based on demographic

Kalispell Air Force Station

Kalispell Air Force Station is a closed United States Air Force General Surveillance Radar station. It is located 13.3 miles south of Montana near the community of Lakeside. It was closed in 1978 by the Air Force, the radar site on Blacktail Mountain was turned over to the Federal Aviation Administration. Today the radar site is part of the Joint Surveillance System, designated by NORAD as Western Air Defense Sector Ground Equipment Facility J-78; the former garrison site at 501 Blacktail Road in Lakeside was acquired by Youth With A Mission in 1985, with the remaining eight houses retained by the Air Force for local military recruiters acquired by YWAM via GSA auction in 1992. Kalispell Air Force Station came into existence as part of Phase III of the Air Defense Command Mobile Radar program. On October 20, 1953 ADC requested; the 716th Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron was assigned to the new station on 1 May 1959. The squadron started operations with an AN/FPS-7B search radar and a pair of AN/FPS-90 height-finder radars in 1961, the station functioned as a Ground-Control Intercept and warning station.

As a GCI station, the squadron's role was to guide interceptor aircraft toward unidentified intruders picked up on the unit's radar scopes. During 1960 Kalispell AFS joined the Semi Automatic Ground Environment system feeding data to DC-20 at Malmstrom AFB, Montana. After joining, the squadron was re-designated as the 716th Radar Squadron on 15 October 1960; the radar squadron provided information 24/7 the SAGE Direction Center where it was analyzed to determine range, direction altitude speed and whether or not aircraft were friendly or hostile. On 31 July 1963, the site was redesignated as NORAD ID Z-179. An AN/FPS-26 FD height-finder radar was to have replaced one of the height-finder radars, but was never installed. One AN/FPS-90 was decommissioned in 1969. In addition to the main facility, Kalispell operated several AN/FPS-14 Gap Filler sites: Yaak AFS, MT 48°51′42″N 115°43′21″W Eureka, MT 48°51′53″N 115°07′32″WOver the years, the equipment at the station was upgraded or modified to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the information gathered by the radars.

The 716th Radar Squadron was inactivated on 1 April 1978 as part of the draw down of Aerospace Defense Command, the station turned over to the FAA, becoming a JSS site. Circa 1977 the AN/FPS-90 was modified to an AN/FPS-116. In the early 1980s the AN/FPS-7B was replaced by an ARSR-3 search radar; the AN/FPS-116 was removed c. 1988. In the late 1990s, an ARSR-4 replaced the ARSR-3; the site remains in use as a JSS site today 716th Aircraft Control and Warning SquadronActivated at Geiger Field, Washington on 1 October 1958 Moved to Kalispell AFS on 1 May 1959 Redesignated as 716th Radar Squadron on 15 October 1960 Redesignated as 716th Radar Squadron on 1 February 1974 Inactivated on 1 April 1978 4700th Air Defense Wing, 1 May 1958 29th Air Division, 15 February 1960 Great Falls Air Defense Sector, 1 July 1960 28th Air Division, 1 April 1966 25th Air Division, 19 November 1969 - 1 April 1978 List of USAF Aerospace Defense Command General Surveillance Radar Stations This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website

Cornett, Lloyd H. and Johnson, Mildred W. A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization 1946 - 1980, Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center, Peterson AFB, CO. Winkler, David F. & Webster, Julie L. Searching the Skies, The Legacy of the United States Cold War Defense Radar Program, US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories, Champaign, IL. Information for Kalispell AFS, MT Youth With A Mission Montana -- About Us Kalispell AFS page on FortWiki

Heidesheim am Rhein

Heidesheim am Rhein is a former Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Mainz-Bingen district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Since July 2019, it is part of the town, it was the administrative seat of the former Verbandsgemeinde of Heidesheim am Rhein, which included the Ortsgemeinde of Wackernheim. Heidesheim was one of the biggest municipalities in Rhenish Hesse. Heidesheim lies in northern Rhenish Hesse, on the so-called Rhine Knee, west of the state capital, Mainz; the municipal area reaches in the north up to the middle of the Rhine's navigational lane, which here reaches one of its greatest breadths, comprising the Königsklinger Aue. At the bank behind the floodwall, at an elevation of some 82 m, it abuts a sandy plain, used for growing asparagus and, covered in fruit trees. Just behind the floodwall is the outlying centre of Heidenfahrt. From here, before the channelling work on the Mariannenaue was broadened towards the east, there was once a ferry link to Erbach.

The community core of Heidesheim itself lies some 2 km from the Rhine's banks, in a location safe from floodwaters at the foot of the Rhenish Hesse hill country. The municipal area stretches on from there up the north slope of these hills, reaching 2 km east of the municipality's centre an elevation of 207 m above sea level. Wherever gaps in the fruit trees allow it, there is a broad view over the Rhine into the Rheingau, all the way to the western part of the Taunus’s main ridge, the Rheingau Range with the Kalte Herberge and the Hallgarter Zange as its highest elevations in the centre. In the east, near Uhlerborn, on the boundary with Budenheim, Heidesheim has a share of one of Rhenish Hesse's few wooded areas; as of late 2006 Heidesheim has a population of 7,195, covers and area of 17.56 km². Heidesheim's Ortsteile are Heidesheim and Uhlerborn. Clockwise from the north, these are Eltville am Rhein, Mainz’s outlying centres of Gonsenheim and Finthen, the Verbandsgemeinde of Nieder-Olm, the Verbandsgemeinde of Gau-Algesheim and the town of Ingelheim Many finds from prehistory and early historical times confirm that Heidesheim am Rhein's municipal area was settled as early as the New Stone Age.

Most have been chance finds. In Roman times, north of today's community core, stood an extensive villa rustica, forsaken after the Germanic invasions in the early 5th century. Within its walls was built Saint George's Chapel, around which, after the mid 7th century, Frankish settlers came to live; the municipality's name is said to go back to an estate owned by a Frankish nobleman called Heisino. The place had its first documentary mention as Heisinisheim or Hasinisheim in donations to the Lorsch Abbey, the earliest of which purports to date from 762, although in actuality it can only be traced back to some time between September in one of the years between 765 and 768; the earliest confirmed date is 5 July 768. All together, the Lorsch codex catalogues ten endowments for the Lorsch Abbey in Heidesheim between 765 or 768 and 794, of which however none crops up in documents; this circumstance leads to the inference that Lorsch had traded or sold its holdings in Heidesheim by the time the Codex was transferred to parchment between 1183 and 1195.

A wider array of documents referring to Heidesheim only comes to light about 1150. The Altmünster Abbey at Mainz had at its disposal extensive landholdings and half the tithes. Whether these stemmed from the Rhine Counts, as one always reads, has yet to be confirmed. Besides this, in 1145, the first holding in Walsheim passed to Eberbach Abbey, laying the groundwork for the Sandhof. In 1158, the Lords of Winternheim were mentioned, who named themselves after the castle, Burg Windeck, as the Lords of Winterau. Besides these three parties, who dominate the historical records, other Mainz monastic foundations and resident families held lands and rights here. While the Lords of Winternheim began work on Burg Windeck in the earlier half of the 12th century, the actual settlement around Saint George's Chapel remained unfortified, or at least not amply so: when Archbishop Conrad of Wittelsbach was getting himself ready in 1200 to build Mainz's city wall up again after it had been razed on Emperor Friedrich I's orders in 1163, he obliged many villages in the outlying countryside to build their own respective sections.

The Heidesheim dwellers had to contribute and maintain five merlons, for which they enjoyed protection, market rights and free buying and selling in the city. Besides landholdings and income, Altmünster had the Heidesheim Vogtei and thereby sovereign rights over the village. Over the course of the centuries, the Vogtei passed through many holders’ hands: That it was held after 1250 by the Lords of Biegen, who gave it back to Altmünster on 13 February 1285 is not so; the relevant document refers not to Heidesheim, but rather to Hattenheim in the Rheingau. Against this is that the Abbey appointed Werner von Winterau and his male heirs village Vögte on 31 January 1326; the lordly house of Winterau died out before 12 April 1372, on which day a Wilhelm von Scharpenstein was avouched as Vogt. From him the Vogtei passed on 14 July 1385 in inheritance along the male line to Dietrich Huth von Sonnenberg. On 17 January 1414, the Archbishop of Mainz John II of Nassau documented that the abbess and convent of Altmünster at Mainz had transferred one third of the court at Heidesheim to the Ar

Russian New University

Russian New University is a Russian non-profit institution of higher education. The Autonomous Nonprofit Organization of Higher Education "Russian New University" was established in 1991. Over its 24 years of existence, Russian New University has issued 45 thousand graduates, teaches 18 thousand students; the university has over 161 accredited educational programs. It conducts educational activities on the basis of its license and state accreditation, valid until March 24, 2022. Since 2012, Russian New University has received education funding from the federal budget. At the beginning of 2015 RosNOU had 320 full-time teachers, including 65 doctors of sciences, 184 candidates of sciences, 5 state prize laureates, 8 foreign teachers. In addition, the university cooperates with teachers at Moscow State University, Moscow State Institute of International Relations, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and other Russian and foreign universities. RosNOU is recognized as an effective institution for the results of monitoring by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, is included in the national ranking of universities according to Interfax, is in the hundred best Russian universities according to the Expert RA rating agency, is in the top 200 ranked universities of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in the QS World University Rankings.

The scientific activities of the Russian New University from 1999 to 2012 were led by Sergey Kapitsa. RosNOU's current scientific adviser is Eugene A. Palkin, the winner of the USSR State Prize in the physical and mathematical sciences. In 2007, Microsoft and the Russian New University signed a "strategic cooperation agreement in the field of development of modern information technologies in the education system", aimed at the development of the Microsoft Education Alliance to expand the use of modern IT at the university; every year the university holds a contest for student research. By 2015, RosNOU received 14 patents and entered the top five Russian universities on the international scientometric index. Eugene A. Palkin- Professor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, USSR State Prize in Science and Technology laureate. Grigory Shabanov- Doctor of pedagogical sciences, Honored Worker of Higher Professional Education. Included in the Russian roster of experts on education quality assessment.

Andrew S. Kryukovsky- Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, professor, USSR State Prize in Science and Technology laureate. Lukin Dmitry- Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Honored Worker of Science, USSR State Prize in Science and Technology laureate. Tatyana Regent- Doctor of Economic Sciences and member of the Academy of Social Sciences who served as head of the Federal Migration Service of Russia from 1992 to 1999. Sergei Nazipovich- Political scientist in the Department of Sociology who served as a senior research fellow at the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation. Oscar Yakovlevich- Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, member of the New York Academy of Sciences, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, member of the Academy of Social Education, corresponding member of the European Academy of Natural Sciences