An open-wheel car is a car with the wheels outside the car's main body, having only one seat. Open-wheel cars contrast with street cars, sports cars, stock cars, touring cars, which have their wheels below the body or inside fenders. Open-wheel cars are built for road racing with a higher degree of technological sophistication than in other forms of motor sport. Open-wheel street cars, such as the Ariel Atom, are scarce as they are impractical for everyday use. American racecar driver and constructor Ray Harroun was an early pioneer of the concept of a lightweight single-seater, open-wheel "monoposto" racecar. After working as a mechanic in the automotive industry, Harroun began competitive professional racing in 1906, winning the AAA National Championship in 1910, he was hired by the Marmon Motor Car Company as chief engineer, charged with building a racecar intended to race at the first Indianapolis 500, which he went on to win. He developed a revolutionary concept which would become the originator and forefather of the single-seater racecar design.
Harroun has been credited by some as pioneering the rear-view mirror which appeared on his 1911 Indianapolis 500 winning car, though he himself claimed he got the idea from seeing a mirror used for a similar purpose on a horse-drawn vehicle in 1904. A typical open-wheeler has a minimal cockpit sufficient only to enclose the driver's body, with the head exposed to the air. In the Whelen Modified Tour and other short track modified series, the driver's head is contained in the car. In modern cars the engine is located directly behind the driver, drives the rear wheels. Depending on the rules of the class, many types of open-wheelers have wings at the front and rear of the vehicle, as well as a low and flat undertray that helps achieve additional aerodynamic downforce pushing the car onto the road; some major races, such as the Singapore Grand Prix, Monaco Grand Prix and the Long Beach Grand Prix, are held on temporary street circuits. However, most open-wheel races are on dedicated road courses, such as Watkins Glen International in the US, Nürburgring in Germany, Spa-Francorchamps in Belgium and Silverstone in Great Britain.
In the United States some top-level open-wheel events are held on ovals, of both short track and superspeedway variety, with an emphasis being placed more on speed and endurance than the maneuverability inherently required by road and street course events. The Whelen Modified Tour is the only opened wheeled race car series endorsed by NASCAR; this series races on most of NASCAR's most famous tracks in the United States. Other asphalt modified series race on short tracks in the United States and Canada, such as Wyoming County International Speedway in New York; the most well-attended oval race in the world is the annual Indianapolis 500 in Speedway, sanctioned by IndyCar. Open-wheeled racing is among the fastest in the world. Formula 1 cars can reach speeds in excess of 360 kilometres per hour. At Autodromo Nazionale Monza, Antônio Pizzonia of BMW Williams F1 team recorded a top speed of 369.9 kilometres per hour in the 2004 Italian Grand Prix. Since the end of the V10 era in 2006 speeds like this have not been reached, with contemporary machinery reaching around 360 kilometres per hour.
It is difficult to give precise figures for the absolute top speeds of Formula 1 cars, as the cars do not have speedometers as such and the data are not released by teams. The'speed traps' on fast circuits such as Monza give a good indication, but are not located at the point on the track where the car is travelling at its fastest. BAR Honda team recorded an average top speed of 400 kilometres per hour in 2006 at Bonneville Salt Flats with unofficial top speed reaching 413 kilometres per hour using modified BAR 007 Formula 1 car. Speeds on ovals can range in constant excess of 210–220 miles per hour, at Indianapolis in excess of 230 miles per hour; some sources claim that in 1996, Paul Tracy recorded a trap speed of 256.948 miles per hour at Michigan International Speedway. In 2000, Gil de Ferran set the one-lap qualifying record of 241.428 miles per hour at California Speedway. On tight non-oval street circuits such as the Grand Prix of Toronto, open-wheel Indy Cars attain speeds of 190 miles per hour.
Driving an open-wheel car is different from driving a car with fenders. All Formula One and Indycar drivers spent some time in various open-wheel categories before joining either top series. Open-wheel vehicles, due to their light weight, aerodynamic capabilities, powerful engines, are considered the fastest racing vehicles available and among the most challenging to master. Wheel-to-wheel contact is dangerous when the forward edge of one tire contacts the rear of another tire: since the treads are moving in opposite directions at the point of contact, both wheels decelerate, torquing the chassis of both cars and causing one or both vehicles to be and powerfully flung upwards An example of this is the 2005 Chicagoland crash of Ryan Briscoe with Alex Barron; the lower w
Open Sky is a progressive rock album by Iona, released in 2000. Recordings were made at various locations during 1999 and 2000, all engineered by Nigel Palmer: Chapel Studios, Lincolnshire Visions on Albion, Yorkshire The Snooker Roon, Northern Ireland Disc 1 – total time 73:30 "Woven Cord" – 9:28 "Wave After Wave" – 6:15 "Open Sky" – 5:40 "Castlerigg" – 9:27 "A Million Stars" – 3:20 "Light Reflected" – 5:11 "Hinba" – 4:58 "Songs of Ascent" – 7:58 "Songs of Ascent" – 9:06 "Songs of Ascent" – 4:53 "Friendship's Door" – 7:14 Joanne Hogg – vocals, keyboards Dave Bainbridge – guitars, keyboards, e-bow and Indian guitars, bouzouki, vocals Phil Barker – bass guitar Frank Van Essen – drums, violins, vocals Troy Donockley – Uilleann pipes, low whistles, tin whistle, acoustic guitar, e-bow guitar, Portuguese mandola, harmonium Billy Jackson – Celtic harp, clarsach 2000, UK, Alliance Records ALD 1901772, release date 8 May 2000, CD 2000, US, Forefront Records FFD-5285, release date 8 May 2000, CD 2005, UK, Open Sky Records OPENVP8CD, release date 27 June 2005, CD
Iona was a progressive Celtic rock band from the United Kingdom, formed in the late 1980s by lead vocalist Joanne Hogg and multi-instrumentalists David Fitzgerald and Dave Bainbridge. Troy Donockley joined playing the uilleann pipes, low whistles, other instruments. By the time Iona released their first self-titled album in 1990, drummer Terl Bryant, bassist Nick Beggs, Fiona Davidson on Celtic harp, Peter Whitfield on strings, Troy Donockley on Uilleann pipes and percussionist Frank van Essen had joined the band; the first album Iona concentrated on the history of the island of Iona, from which the band got its name. Iona returned in 1992 with The Book of Kells, a concept album with several tracks based on pages from the eponymous book. Terl Bryant took over on drums and percussion for this album after the departure of Frank van Essen. Fitzgerald left the band that year to pursue a degree in music. Beyond These Shores, the band's third album, was released in 1993 and included guest musician Robert Fripp.
The album was loosely based on the legendary voyage of St. Brendan to the Americas before Christopher Columbus, but the band did not intend for it to be viewed as a "concept album". Journey into the Morn followed in 1995, a more accessible and rock-oriented album loosely based on the hymn "Be Thou My Vision", performed in Gaelic at the beginning of the album and again near the end. Máire Brennan, lead singer of Celtic/new-age band Clannad, was brought in to help Hogg with the Gaelic pronunciation, she sang backup vocals. Two live albums followed in the late 1990s: the double-disc Heaven's Bright Sun and Woven Cord, performed with the All Souls Orchestra. Terl Bryant departed the band between these two albums, Frank van Essen returned to fill the vacant spot, playing drums as well as violin, which could be heard on the band's 2000 album, Open Sky. After being released from their U. S. contract with ForeFront Records and their UK contract with Alliance Records, Iona formed Open Sky Records to release material independently.
The first new release on this label was the 2002 box set The River Flows, which featured their then-out-of-print first three albums, as well as a fourth disc of unreleased tracks and rarities called Dunes. The first three albums have since been re-released individually, with new cover art; the group has been in semi-hiatus for the better part of the current decade. However, 2006 saw the April release of a 2-disc live DVD Iona: Live in London, featuring a 5.1 Dolby Digital Surround mix by LA's John Kellogg, a November release of a new studio CD entitled The Circling Hour. In June 2009 Troy Donockley announced. A message on his website stated: "I have had a wonderful time with my friends in Iona and am very proud of the albums we made together. But, as in all life, things change. After extended periods of no activity we have found ourselves with a different musical and philosophical direction. We have parted as great friends should, with a sad-happiness and I wish the band all the best wishes for the future".
Donockley is a member of punk/folk band The Bad Shepherds. He has played in Barbara Dickson's band for a number of years and is the band's Musical Director, he is on a world tour with Finnish symphonic metal band Nightwish, with whom he has made many guest appearances both live and on their albums over recent years, before joining them as a full-time member in October 2013. He has been replaced in Iona by woodwind player Martin Nolan. In June 2010, Iona went to the United States for their first tour there in nine years. On 19 June 2010, they played a well received concert at NEARfest, a progressive rock festival in Bethlehem and during this show they introduced new songs for a forthcoming album, Another Realm, released in 2011, their final album to date. After several concerts throughout the U. S. and one in Canada, they ended the tour at Cornerstone Festival, a Christian music festival in Illinois, on 30 June. On Dec. 11, 2016, the band announced on its Facebook page that it was suspending recording and touring as a group, citing other commitments.
"We do not know what will happen in future years, whether we will get together again as Iona," the band said. "The door will remain open, but for the foreseeable future, the next and exciting chapters of our journey will involve other avenues." Joanne Hogg – lead vocals, acoustic guitar Dave Bainbridge – lead guitar Martin Nolan – pipes, flutes Phil Barker – bass Frank van Essen – drums, violin Iona The Book of Kells Beyond These Shores Journey into the Morn Open Sky The Circling Hour Another Realm Heaven's Bright Sun Woven Cord Live in London Edge of the World: Live in Europe The River Flows: Anthology Various Artists - Songs for Luca Various Artists - Songs for Luca 2 Iona, DVD early live concert Live in London, DVD Official website Band biography